More by Introbooks Team

Introbooks Team
Introbooks Team

Credit scores are not the easiest three numbers to understand. With just three figures telling you whether you can obtain a loan or not or get a mortgage or not makes credit scores one of the most important things in our lives. Especially when you depend on loans to help you fulfil your dreams of owning a house, a car or an expensive piece of household item. So what makes credit scores what they are? How does anyone find out if you are worthy for a credit or not? Are these always right? Can a business depend on these credit scores entirely when it comes to deciding whether a client should get a credit or not?

There is a lot of confusion among people about how credit scores are obtained and how they are scored. Keeping in mind that these scores can make a huge difference in your ability to buy new products, it is important that you should have complete understanding of credit scores and how they affect your buying power.

Different countries calculate credit scores differently. They even utilize credit scores for different reasons. There are a number of models that help companies follow a methodology for credit scoring. People usually have a lot of questions about how to build credit and if they will ever be able to restore their credit score to make sure that they can obtain loans or mortgages without problems.

Many countries allow people to get a free credit report in order to ensure that they have complete access to the details that are affecting their credit score. However, in some countries it is treated differently where you may have to pay for getting your credit report which can help you identify the high and low points of your credit score.

Introbooks Team

The beginning of this economic concept, economies of the scale, can be dated back to Adam Smith who was a Scottish pioneer of political economy and an important key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment Era who first mentioned this concept in his book “Wealth of Nations” in 1776 and was based on the idea of obtaining greater production return profits through the use of division of labour.

The economies of the scale rely over the fixed cost that are uniform and do not vary with any of the alterations in output processes or variable costs which may undergo changes due to change in the amount of output. Other sources of the economies of scale are Production, Managerial, Technological, Financial, and Marketing.

The economies of scale tend to have a significant effect on the production costs of the material. The economies of scale reduce the per unit fixed cost of the product and with increased production the fixed cost of the product expands over the entire output at a greater rate than before. The economies of scale are also responsible for bringing down the per unit cost value of the product. This occurs due to the expansion of production scale which as a result improves the efficiency of the production processes.

The economies of scale are cost-advantageous and the working of business takes place through exploitation of expanding scale of production. There are broadly two main types of economies of scale- Internal and External economies of scale which are further subdivided into various types.

Introbooks Team

Since the dawn of time, we have been interested in knowing the returns we can get when we invest time or money in anything. It didn’t always have a formula to calculate or measure the return, but there was the interest of knowing what a person will get out of the investment he makes. Whether it is profit or loss in terms of money or returns in kind, knowing that return can be expected makes a venture desirable. The word “returns” has a very special place in business. Every business venture begins by identifying how the venture will enable the business owner to earn returns from the investment they make.

Returns on Investment (ROI) is the result of our need to find out what we could earn through an opportunity or a prospect. It compares the costs involved with the benefits that stem through the opportunity. It helps the person find out if they will be able to earn more than the costs that are involved which eventually results in a profit. Everyone is interested in knowing if they will be able to earn more than what they invest or spend on a venture.

The purpose of Return on Investment is to help business owners and investors find out if an investment is worthy enough or not. Finding out if the returns will lead to profits or not can help the person find out whether they should invest or not. It also works as an indicator which compares various investments in an investor’s portfolio. Investments that have the highest ROI are considered to be priority. It is considered to be a useful metric for investors as well as marketing leaders.

Introbooks Team

How to manage a business, know the business, know how to plan, to control spending, price formation of the products economy, are constant concerns on the day that every manager. It doesn't matter if it is ruled only by one person or more, the principle is the same, having a financial organization is fundamental. The team that will drive the success of a company or not. It's financial control that the manager makes decisions and view the actual financial situation of your business. But when it comes to micro-enterprises, for example, the manager has enough idea about the accounting procedures relating an administration. There is planning, a concern in knowing or to have skilled people to do the controls needed for the good financial progress of the company?


The manager has to take the time to record your cash inflows and outflows. You do not necessarily have a particular program that can encumber and hurt your finances, but through simple procedures, the individual who wanted to set up a company have to invest in skills necessary to learn to manage your business and give you profitable enough to have success in your venture.


Similarly, all business is subject to ups and downs, due to the fluctuations in the country's economy, competition, regulatory changes or even by seasonality. Therefore, without being pessimistic, but cautious, you, as an entrepreneur, must continually be questioning. I suggest two magic words that can assist you in this process: "what if"?

What if ... .: my business grow too quickly?

.: My only customer terminate the contract?

.: I receive a much larger request than my production capacity?

.: There is an economic crisis?

.: My supplier does not deliver on time?

.: My competitor entering a price war? .: My employee to resign?

Introbooks Team

Financial accounting, commonly known in daily verbatim as ‘book keeping’, is one of the oldest practices integral of business management. Financial accounting is officially dated to the medieval ages when one of the first banking houses and groups gained importance towards the public and in commercial fields. The first bankers wanted an organised approach towards maintaining set references that would act as formally laid records for them, to be referred in the future or present, and were meant to keep in touch of the financial situation of the business. However, historically accounting methods go back to ancient times when prestigious records were required to be maintained.


Financial accounting is so important that nearly every management institute in the world compulsorily trains its students about it, teaching core principles and why it is important to develop a record keeping habit not just in the industry but personally as well. When seen from a personal point of view too, financial accounting can lend much support to one’s own finances. In our modern times, we see a number of apps and software on mobiles and computers specifically intended to maintain a record of our personal record. In its conceptual entirety, maintaining personal finances itself constitutes one of the practical forms of financial accounting.


In today’s world, no business can exist without a set of accounting system. A start-up with just four employees too needs an accountant for the manager to be in touch with the situation of his/her organisation. With finances and the economy becoming so dynamic as seen never before, it is thus an essential part on understanding accounting practices and why they constitute an important part of business management.


However, accounting theory is no one-page study; it requires much skills and know-how about all its concepts and definitions for anyone to be called as a qualified accountant. In this book, a brief explanation of accounting concepts is concerned, with special emphasis on its history and key concepts. Since accounting is more than just merely forming a table with figures, a detailed explanation of all the basic and key terms becomes vital. Through examples, an appropriate understanding of accounting theory becomes even clearer for the amateurs and those who would want to know more about financial accounting without going much into technical details. Finally, conclusion remarks will briefly outline the necessity of maintaining financial records and how accounting theory is yet another still-evolving concept. Since financial accounting encompasses almost everything related to business management, its importance in the corporate world as well as our personal lives will also be outlined through practical examples and theory.

Introbooks Team

Instagram is all about how the consumers react to the changing brands these days. They expect all the brands to connect visually, which are giving rise to newer challenges for the companies to implement new marketing techniques. It is an amazing way for the brands to communicate to their customers in a natural and an inconspicuous way.

Instagram has been adopted by most of the brands so that they can cover all the bases on prevalent social media but have been unable to completely utilize the platform as an effective marketing channel. More than 400 million eyes are on this social site but most of them have been unable to get their messages across, it seems as the messages are being lost in the burst of content. Instagram moves at a faster pace in comparison to the other social sites, and the brands seem to have problems in marketing using a visual medium and creating cost effective ways to procure good imagery, at this pace.

With just four years since its inception Instagram has become one of the leading social networking sites of today, famous with the millennial demographic which is the most tough and smart group to connect. Growth of mobile industry has led to a cultural shift towards visual content, and Instagram is the precise solution now.

Pictures speak on Instagram; marketing departments need to learn how to present their brands visually and artistically to effectively connect to the consumers. There need to be a clear message sent across to the consumers by skilfully combining elements of art, storytelling, content procurement and content development.

This book contains all that the brands need to know about marketing with Instagram. From developing a strategy to what you need to do to make a good post and to utilize the platform of Instagram in a way that you attract a good traffic for your brand. This ultimate book has it all covered.

Introbooks Team

Evolution has a far greater reach than us turning from primates to humans. Business has its own version of evolution and very recently we are witnessing a rate of evolution in businesses that has never gripped organizations ever before. In a single year you may see trends falling out and things being considered old as newer and better versions of the same products and services make it to the markets.

For business organizations now, there is nothing else that changes more quickly as their marketing strategies. At this time, the one marketing strategy where every company has made a beeline for is social media. The only place where people of a vast range of interests, geographic diversities, race, ethnicity and choices come together. Social media marketing may be old enough but considering the other types of media that are used for marketing, it is still in its nascent stages.

Twitter is one of those social media platforms that provide a perfect springboard for brands who want to make their presence felt. Marketing firms today are very different from the way they started out. Not just a physical difference but also the employment structure of companies have changed to house marketing teams that can focus on social media and ensure that their brand is recognized by the vast number of users on social media platforms.

This book outlines the beginning of Twitter marketing and how it has helped numerous brands succeed online and make their presence felt. We are also going to talk about the different aspects of Twitter marketing which help brands make the most of marketing through Twitter. Marketing is now a loose term that can encompass a vast variety of strategies. This is exactly why we have come to accept the many prefixes which define the types of marketing that is in discussion.

At this time, marketing teams are coerced into ideating new and innovative ways of capturing the market and Twitter seems to be full of creative content from companies and organizations who know exactly how to capture the essence of marketing for their success. In the many forms that marketing exists, Twitter is quickly becoming one of the choice places for organizations to showcase their products and services. Through this book we will also try to cover some success and failures on Twitter that augmented a brand’s reach or pulled it down.

Twitter’s advantage and the things that you may want to be careful about when using Twitter for marketing will help you define the rules for marketing on Twitter for your brand. While all your clients may not be using Twitter, chances are that a major chunk of them already are and a huge number of potential customers are waiting to be explored by brands. So use Twitter not only to engage with your current customers to foster brand loyalty, but also to get your brand the visibility it needs.

Introbooks Team

Planning is a basic procedure when beginning another business or presenting another item. Market Analysis demonstrates to pursuers best practices to execute a possibility study for more successful arranging. An orderly approach drives the pursuer through the practicality examination prepare and portrays what should be done and how to do it.

Strategies and devices utilized as a part of setting up a possibility study are stressed and can without much of a stretch be connected specifically with the book to genuine circumstances. Three specimen achievability studies are incorporated to show the utilization of apparatuses in assembling, administration, and non-benefit settings.

Market Analysis contains all the data expected to finish an achievability study and a complete blueprint of a strategy for success. It covers such imperative themes as vital administration and arranging, deciding market sector size for an item or business, examining expenses and quantifiable profits for new items and administrations, wellsprings of capital for new pursuits, and investigation of rivalry.

This book covers the following topics:

An introduction to market analysis

What is market analysis?

What does a market analysis section in the business plan include?

Components of market analysis

Measurement of market analysis

How to write market analysis

Market analysis for online businesses

Market analysis tools and their usage

Conducting marketing analysis for business plan

Market Analysis is the perfect aide for every vital organizer, market experts, and promoting scientists. Anybody considering beginning a business or dispatching another item will locate this viable course pressed with significant data. Why don’t you find it out yourself?

Introbooks Team

The advancement of business investigation as an expert control has developed the part and obligations of the business analyst (BA). Progressively, BAs are connected with an early point. They research thoughts and issues, detail choices for a path forward and create business cases setting out their decisions and suggestions. Therefore, the obligation regarding exhorting associations on successful game-plans lies with BAs, and their work goes before that of the venture director.

The early engagement of BAs likewise puts a basic obligation upon them – the need to guarantee that all business changes are in accordance with the mission, destinations, what's more, the methodology of the association. This business connection is the key establishment for understanding and assessing all thoughts, proposition, issues and matters put forward by administrators. While a couple of BAs are included in breaking down and creating a procedure, it is basic that they think about the methodology of their association so that they can lead their work with a perspective to support the execution of the procedure and the accomplishment of the business goals.

This book specifically discusses the topic of Business Analysis to help a BA have a complete understanding of this specific technique. Starting from the basics and moving towards a more complex part is what makes this book easy to comprehend. You will come across the following topics throughout this book:

Introduction to business analysis

What is a business analyst?

Business analysis helps business do well

Performing business analysis

The groundwork for business success- business analysis

8 steps leading to becoming an effective business analyst

The benefits of business analysis implementation

Analytical tools for business analysis

If you wish to become the top most and favorite analyst of your firm then you must have a good grasp of the topic "Business Analysis" in which case, this course is going to be quite helpful.

Introbooks Team
Introbooks Team

Economic compositions date from prior to Mesopotamian, Greek, and Roman, Indian subcontinent, Chinese, Persian, and Arab developments. Eminent authors from old times through the fourteenth century incorporate Aristotle, Xenophon, Chanakya (otherwise called Kautilya), Qin Shi Huang, Thomas Aquinas, and Ibn Khaldun. Joseph Schumpeter portrayed Aquinas as "coming closer than whatever another gathering to being the "organizers" of experimental economic matters" as to money linked, finest, and featured hypothesis inside of a characteristic law perspective.

Two gatherings, later on, called "mercantilists" and "physiocrats", more specifically affected the resulting improvement of the subject. Both gatherings were connected with the ascent of monetary patriotism and cutting edge private enterprise in Europe. Mercantilism was an economic precept that thrived from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century in productive leaflet writing, whether of traders or statesmen. It held that a country's riches relied on upon its amassing of gold and silver. Countries without access to mines could get gold and silver from exchange just by offering merchandise abroad and limiting imports other than of gold and silver. The tenet called for importing modest crude materials to be utilized as a part of assembling products, which could be traded, and for state regulation to force defensive levies on remotely fabricated merchandise and preclude fabricating in the colonies.

Physiocrats, a group of eighteenth-century French masterminds and authors, added to the economy as a roundabout stream of wage and yield. Physiocrats trusted that just horticultural creation produced an unmistakable surplus over cost, with the goal that farming was the premise of all riches. In this manner, they contradicted the mercantilist approach of advancing assembling and exchange to the detriment of agribusiness, including import taxes. Physiocrats supported supplanting authoritatively expensive assessment accumulations with a solitary duty on the pay of area proprietors. In response to abundant mercantilist exchange regulations, the physiocrats supported an approach of free enterprise, which called for insignificant government mediation in the economy.

Adam Smith (1723–1790) was an early economic theorist. Smith was brutally disapproving of the mercantilists yet portrayed the physiocratic scaffold "with every one of its blemishes" as "maybe the purest guess to the reality that has yet been distributed" on the matter.

This was the concise introduction to what this course contains. Read out the whole of it to learn all the details.

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