More related to media studies

Seminar paper from the year 2003 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: High Distinction, James Cook University (James Cook University), course: Communication, Information & Society, language: English, abstract: Alfred Hitchcock used non-verbal communication extensively in his filmmaking to convey meaning and to create suspension for the audience. His critical and disparaging opinion of dialogue in film shows clearly that he did not consider language to be a privileged cinematic medium for communication - quite the opposite and he remarks that language “should simply be a sound among other sounds, just something that comes out of the mouths of people whose eyes tell the story in visual terms” (Hitchcock in Truffaut 272). The possibilities of the camera for conveying meaning was paramount to Hitchcock’s storytelling. As a film-maker, he is widely acknowledged for his use of point-of-view shots, tracking shots, and other techniques that reinforce the power of looking or the role of the gaze in cinema. A well-known example of his use of camera movement is Rear Window (1954), a film that evokes a viewing experience for the spectator in the form of “a mental process, done by the use of the visual” (Spoto 224). As director, Hitchcock makes intensive use of his prerogative to manipulate points of view thereby controlling the viewer’s gaze with narrative frames. The directing of the gaze is both an exercise of power and an imposition on those whom it captures. Theatrical and cinematic effects dominate in his work with the use of proxemics, stance and gestures of actors. Other visual clues are clothes and accessories worn by actresses. In Rear Window, most of the female’s protagonist’s dresses are mirrored in the dresses worn by other women. By coding dresses in such a way and juxtaposing them in different frames, they signify different states of mind and intentions; they act as emotional referents that connect the women through their visual appearance.
Literature Review from the year 2003 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: A, San Francisco State University (Ethnic Studies), course: AAS 693 Asian Americans and the Mass Media, language: English, abstract: At first sight, Lost Horizon may be understood as a utopia, a paradise opposed to the wartorn world of 1937. At that time, there had already been quite a number of incidents which would lead up to the Second World War, especially concerning the Japanese attempts to colonize Asia. One of these attempts would be the 1931 invasion of Manchuria by the Japanese army, and the establishment of the puppet state Manchukuo, another would be the 1937 Marco Polo Bridge Incident, which brought about the beginning of the second Sino-Japanese War. However, I do not consider Lost Horizon as the portrayal of a paradise: in my opinion, the movie perpetuates stereotypes about Asians. This was certainly true in the 1930s, but this effect may still show today for many people still hold the same stereotypes today. They include the idea that Asians are followers, that they belong to an inferior culture, that they have accents, and so on. The idea that Asians are followers is most evident in the leading role of white people like the High Lama, Father Perrault, and Robert Conway, a little less evident if one looks at the fact that Sondra, a white woman, is the school teacher of the Asian children, and, therefore, a leader, too. However, most leaders are men. We soon find out that Chang, who first appears to be a leader, is, in reality, only a puppet of the High Lama. Except Chang, who is, in a way, a perfect imitation of a white man and a product of Father Perrault, Asians hardly speak or act at all as individuals. This idea of whites leading and Asians following is also apparent in the music played in the background of many scenes: tranquil and monotonous music is used to assert Asian passiveness, whereas loud music is used to emphasize white activeness. All seems to indicate, moreover, that there is a definite need for a white leader in Shangri-La. It seems unimaginable for Father Perrault to make an Asian, even his creation Chang who is the imitation of a white man, a leader. He rather takes immeasurable efforts to lead Conway, a real white, to Shangri-La.
Seminar paper from the year 1999 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 2+ (B+), Ohio University (School of Telecommunication), course: Cable Communications, 22 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: It was only a very small report on the front page of last Thursday’s issue of USA Today, but it indicated a tremendous change not only for America’s telecommunications market, but also for its society as a whole. In a small box between headlines about the crisis in Kosovo the interested reader could find out that AT&T had announced to purchase cable giant MediaOne and that software producer Microsoft was about to invest $5 billion in AT&T shares. This huge move won’t let the video distribution market unchanged and many experts believe that this merger has triggered a lot of new developments in all kinds of fields. This paper deals with the competition between traditional wired cable (as we know it since the beginnings of television) on the one hand – and newer services like direct broadcast satellites (DBS) and video and data distribution via telephone lines. While the first part will mainly cover the latest developments in the telephony business (focusing on the breathtaking AT&T deal), the second part will compare the benefits of cable and DBS in detail. It lies in the nature of the subject that the playing field can change in a couple of weeks (if not even in a couple of hours). Therefor it is very important to rely on up-to-date information and literature. Especially literature from before the 1996 Telecommunications Act, which allowed cross-ownership between cable and telephony and the like, can’t be considered too useful and was used only to get a historic idea of the subject matter. In doing research in this field one also has to be especially careful not to rely on sources that are heavily influenced by either the cable or the DBS lobby. Both groups naturally try to present the facts in a light that makes them look better and emphasizes the advantages of their particular system over the ones of the competition.
Seminar paper from the year 1999 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1- (A-), Ohio University (School of Telecommunication), course: Cable Communications, 31 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: MTV – an “all encompassing mediator of popular culture” (Goodwin, 1992) or as the Washington Post once put it “perhaps the most influential single cultural product of the [eighties]” (McGrath 1996, p. 8). A trademark that has become a synonym for modern television, fast moving pictures and even a certain lifestyle. ‘MTV generation’, ‘MTV-like’, ‘I want my MTV’ etc. But MTV is more than entertainment for teenagers and music with colorful pictures around it – It is not only the world’s fastest growing network but also a powerful gatekeeper. It influenced traditional cable television and revolutionized the advertising industry. Whoever makes it onto the playlist of the network can expect his CD sales to skyrocket and his concerts to be sold out. With thousands of bands releasing hundreds of records each year, of course some kind of selection process has to take place. But who makes these decisions? What role does the record industry play? What are the criteria for a successful (and suitable) video that airs on MTV? Is MTV making its own rules or are there also pressures on the network from the outside? This paper tries to find some answers to these and other questions about the exciting and influential cable network. Its role as an powerful gatekeeper for the multi-million music industry will be examined as well as its strong influence on the content of songs and video clips. Many has been written about MTV, so finding appropriate literature wasn’t really a problem, although not all of it was always up-to-date. Unfortunately I wasn’t able to get in contact with some MTV executives. In the last chapter, however, an interview with radio veteran Dave Robbins from CBS Columbus can be found, who has some interesting views on the cable network. One should nonetheless bear in mind that he is more or less sitting on the other side of the table and works for the competition.
Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2008 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1,1, London Metropolitan University (London Metropolitan University), language: English, abstract: “The X Factor” is a reality pop program which first aired in the UK in September 2004 and which is still on screens today. The history of the sector is multi-faceted with the very first reality pop series, New Zealand’s “Popstars”, dating back to 1999. “The X Factor” emerged after “Pop Idol”, a similar show to “Popstars”, was put on indefinite hiatus after its second run. Ever since its first series, “The X Factor” has gone from strength to strength, with audience and voting figures increasing with each series. The single most important person behind “The X Factor” is music mogul Simon Cowell who created the show back in 2004. His television company SyCo TV produces the program together with Fremantle Media’s talkbackTHAMES. “The X Factor” is aimed at reality TV’s target demographic and manages to attract an audience of approximately 8-9m during its weekly live broadcasts. As the reality genre has proven particularly amenable to TV and media convergence, “The X Factor” does not just rely on the television set to communicate its message to its audiences. It also relies on other “platforms”, like the internet, live events and telephone voting, hence altering popular music consumption. With the audience determining the winner of “The X Factor” several albums released by contestants have reached the UK Albums Chart; six of them making it to number one. “The X Factor” is often heavily criticized for standardizing pop music. Winners of “The X Factor” are often referred to as over-hyped and over-manufactured artists with reality pop programs being accused of not producing important or lasting musicians. However the commercial success of “The X Factor” is indisputable, which as a result, continues to encourage the production of further X Factor series as well as similar shows to go on.
Essay from the year 2009 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1,7, University of Siegen, course: Serial TV, language: English, abstract: Desperate Housewives is an American comedy-drama serial created by Marc Cherry. After its premiere on October the 3rd, 2004 on “abc” the serial had altogether 111 episodes in six seasons. Desperate Housewives won several awards since its broadcast, like the Emmy, the Golden Globe and the Screen Actors Guild Award. In April 2007 the serial was awarded as most popular show with an audience of over 119 million viewers. The fictional setting of Wisteria Lane in Fairview is the home of a group of women protagonists: Gabrielle Solis (Eva Longoria), Lynette Scavo (Felicity Huffman), Susan Mayer (Teri Hatcher), Bree Van de Kamp (Marcia Cross), Edie Britt (Nicolette Sheridan) and Katherine Mayfair (Dana Delany) are the main female characters that are more or less friends. All of them have their own specialties and problems in their lives. The plot of each episode follows these struggles they have to deal with in their family lives in domestic surroundings. But with every episode it becomes clearer that even in beautiful and seemingly perfect suburban neighborhoods lots of secrets, crimes and mysteries are buried. The answers to these mysteries are mostly given by another friend of them – Mary Alice Young (Brenda Strong) – who died in the pilot episode of Desperate Housewives because she committed suicide. Mary Alice Young nevertheless appears in the series – but as the narrator of each episode. Her voice leads the viewer through the happenings and through the plot of Desperate Housewives and structures the series with her pro- and epilogues. The following composition is going to deal with the narration of Mary Alice Young and is based on the presentation to the according topic of Desperate Housewives in the seminar “Serial TV”. This term paper will first concentrate on the tradition of voice-over narration and afterwards on general facts of the voice-over narration in Desperate Housewives. In a final step the narration of Mary Alice Young will be discussed.
Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1,7, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, course: Cultural Studies, language: English, abstract: The story of "Breakfast at Tiffany's" is well known: Holly, a young glamour girl, tries to find her way in New York City, relying on the favor of male benefactors who give her “powder-room change”, while at the same time she keeps chasing her dream of marrying a rich millionaire. Paul Varjak, a young writer, falls in love with her and tries to convince her to settle down with him. The movie has become a crucial cultural reference. But before the film, there was a source text: a novella by the same title, written by Truman Capote and published in 1958. The film adaption was made only three years later, by director Blake Edwards, scriptwriter George Axelrod and the producers Martin Jurow and Richard Shepherd. Those who have read Capote’s novella and have seen the film usually complain about huge difference between the two – and they undoubtedly have a point. However, adaptation studies have far too long concentrated on the issue of fidelity alone, implying that a story could just be projected on the screen without having to undergo change. But film and literature are two very different mediums and thus, in the process of an adaptation, transformation must occur. There is no need for proving that book and film are different – this has been discussed many times before and can be read in a great number of critical reviews. But there is much more to adaptation studies than a simple fidelity analysis. What I intend to do is to find out why book and film differ crucially in many points in order to prove that in spite of sharing (at least in big part) the same characters, the same setting, important parts of the story, key motifs and even often the same dialogues, the novella Breakfast at Tiffany’s and the film based on it actually tell very different stories with very different, even contradictory underlying messages and thus with a very different reception and impact.
Bachelor Thesis from the year 2011 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1,0, University of Heidelberg, language: English, abstract: Woman [...] stands in patriarchal culture as a signifier for the male other, bound by a symbolic order in which man can live out his fantasies and obsessions through linguistic command by imposing them on the silent image of woman still tied to her place as bearer, not maker, of meaning (Mulvey, “Visual Pleasure” 15). Ever since Laura Mulvey published her essay “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” in 1975, feminist film theorists have challenged her assertion that films are directed at an exclusively male spectatorship. Despite the fact that Mulvey herself has revised some of her ideas in “Afterthoughts on ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’ inspired by King Vidor’s Duel in the Sun (1946)” (1981), theorists are still struggling to understand if and how visual pleasure manifests itself for female viewers. In classical Hollywood cinema, this visual pleasure is the result of successful audience manipulation. Cinema is often regarded as a ‘narrative machine’ because “the narrative is delivered so effortlessly and efficiently to the audience that it appears to have no source” (Belton, American Cinema 22). As a rule, the film’s artifice is hidden so well that it remains unnoticed by the audience, conveying the impression that the narrative is “spontaneously creating itself in the presence of the spectators [...] for their immediate consumption and pleasure” (ibid.). Thus, cinema’s visual manipulation techniques enable viewers to experience visual pleasure as they enter the world on screen and become involved in the lives of their screen surrogates. Among the many talented directors in the history of film making, Alfred Hitchcock is known for being one of cinema’s most productive auteurs and a pioneer in the field of visual manipulation. Through his way of directing the camera – and with the camera also the gaze of the spectator – his audience not only appreciates the narrative itself but also, and especially, Hitchcock’s technique of storytelling. By means of simultaneously zooming in and tracking out, combined with point-of-view shots and extreme close-ups, the audience assumes the protagonist’s perspective along with a sense of vertigo, guilt and pleasure. Thus, as a director, Hitchcock is like a criminal who makes the audience his accomplice in a crime that is about to unfold in front of their eyes. [...]
Seminar paper from the year 1998 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1 (A), Ohio University (School of Telecommunication), course: Broadcast & Cable Programming, 16 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: If there was one show in the last year almost everybody talked about, it was certainly Fox Network’s new series “Ally McBeal”. The show tells the story of a young woman working for a Boston law firm, trying to be successful in the courtroom as well as in her love life, succeeding in the former rather than the latter. On her first day in the new job for example she finds out that her ex-boyfriend Billy (Gil Bellows) works there as well as his new wife, the smart and beautiful Georgia (Courtney Thorne-Smith of “Melrose Place”). Since Ally (Calista Flockhart) still has feelings for Billy, treating him and Georgia as colleagues of course isn’t quite so easy and the three find themselves in a lot of awkward situations. Trying to figure out what genre “Ally McBeal” belongs to, is not so easy. On the first look it might appear to be a courtroom drama due to its hour-long format and trials taking place in every episode. But there is also a comedy side to “Ally McBeal”. Her struggle with life is shown in a humorous (often even slapstick) way and other characteristics of a comedy, like “childish behavior of the protagonist” or “lack of experience with the other sex” (Kaminsky 1985, p. 137-139) can be found as well. Although the show won two Golden Globes in the comedy categories in 1997, “Ally McBeal” should rather be labeled as a “dramedy” due to its mixture of humor and serious issues. The genre of “dramedy” is a combination of drama and comedy and had its (short) heyday during the 1980s when it was praised as a fresh recipe to address an upscale audience. “Ally McBeal” does a very good job in reviving this genre, making its audience laugh as well as reflect or even cry.
Seminar paper from the year 1997 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: gut, University of Graz (Fachbereich Literaturwissenschaften), course: Soap Operas, 9 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: A soap opera is a serialized drama which runs for 52 weeks of the year with continuous storylines dealing with domestic themes, personal or family relationships and a limited running characters. Soap operas or serials are open-ended ... Soap operas are one of the few genres where weddings, for instance, are not a happy ending but the beginning of a marriage that may be troubled or even doomed to failure. A dramatic program usually presented daily, with continuing characters and multiple plots. The action, which deals with contemporary problems and their solutions, continues from episode to episode called soap opera because many of the original sponsors were soap manufacturers. Also called daytime drama, soap, and soaper. Television soap operas are long-running serials concerned with everyday life. The serial is not to be confused with the series, in which the main characters and format remain the same from program to program but each episode is a self-contained plot. In a serial at least one storyline is carried over from one episode to the next. A series is advertised as having a specific number of episodes, but serials are potentially endless. These definitions can be seen as a sort of introduction to the whole field of soap operas. In the following chapters I will deal with this topic in detail.
Seminar paper from the year 2012 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1,7, University of Bremen (Institut für historische Publizistik, Kommunikations- und Medienwissenschaft), course: Transcultural Communication, language: English, abstract: Everyone who is familiar with the current television landscape can probably name at least one or two TV programs of which they know there are other versions of the same programs broadcasted in other regions of the world. To name only a few, there are quiz and game shows, such as Who Wants to Be a Millionare? or Wheel of Fortune, reality shows, such as Big Brother or The Bachelor, but also drama programs, such as Coronation Street or The Restless Years. Different versions of the same program often show striking similarities in their basic structure, they might have similar narratives and characters, or even convey the same values; yet they have a local coloring from the region where they are produced through local participants or actors, plotlines based on local problems or local cultural references. This is caused by the fact that the different versions of one program stem from the same format that originated in one cultural environment, was taken over into other regions and adapted to the local backgrounds. This process of deterritoralizing TV formats by using a foreign format and producing a local version of it is called transnational TV format adaptation. The reason why there is an increase in transnational format adaptations and why consumers are aware of that is because of the continuing globalization of media communication, meaning the advanced exchange of products, practices and ideas through progressive technology (Hepp 2006: 9f.). While being a result of globalization, however, format adaptations are produced in local contexts “integrating ‘local’ content in various ways” (Machin/Leeuwen 2007: 1f.). By combining parts of different cultures they are neither completely global nor local products but rather examples a transnational media landscape (cf. Jensen 2007: 5, 13). Although “the prac-tice is not new and can be traced back to the radio”, research focused more on transnational program sales or co-productions, and format adaptation has only come to the center of atten-tion in research in the past 15 years (see Moran 1998, Moran/Malbon 2006, Jensen 2007).This is why this topic has aroused my interest and will be the topic of this paper.
Seminar paper from the year 1994 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: B+, University of Amsterdam, language: English, abstract: In the following l want to discuss the effects the interactive television technology might have on the ′Information society′ and which tasks have to be fulfilled to become a member of it. l want to focus on the question, what are the advantages to be a ′member′ of such a society and what advantages these technologies offer? My task is not to find a definite answer to these questions. They must be seen as speculative ones. All the new communication technologies like interactive television, are just at the beginning of its ′booming′ development and there is no empirical research done on it yet. However, want to take the interactive television technology as an example to discuss, what opportunities this new technology offers. Therefore, my work is primarily a theoretical approach to an issue that will become even more important if the new System will knock on the door of private households in Europe. l also want to discuss some ideas of Bertolt Brecht, who already in the 1920′s made suggestions for interactive broadcasting, which were primarily concerned about the radio system. But nevertheless his ideas are still applicable on any other communication system. His ideas of interactivity are more relevant than ever.1 The industry took on this argument for their own purposes. They Claim, that interactive television is absolutely necessary, because the Computer generation is raised with interactivity. Video games are one the best examples for interactivity. As well as the latest information l collected from newspapers, l will also use magazines and other media.
Seminar paper from the year 2012 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, Jahangirnagar University, language: English, abstract: “Uncanny” as a recurrent gothic ingredient has been pervading the literary narratives for quite a long time since the period of The Castle of Otranto and Mysteries of Udolpho. The idea of the “return of the repressed” dominates the concept the “uncanny” which Sigmund Freud elaborated in his 1919 essay “The “Uncanny””. However, this unfamiliarity of the real is something which grounded the domain of suspense in the prose narratives and helped in rendering the text a creepy sentimentality. But it should be kept in mind that this feeling is nothing alien to our emotional praxis. Rather, it derives or finds its root from the mundaneness of our life. Maybe, such concern influenced Freud to theorize dream and propound the idea of “dream thought” and “dream content”. The concept of “uncanny” is related in many ways to the concept of “return”, be it a memory, an unhappy recollection or a traumatic revisitation. Such “return” definitely accounts for a psychological interpretation with probable reference to “hauntology” and unconscious. One thing has to be clarified at this point of our discussion about “uncanny, that is, this phenomenon should be distinguished from “magic realism” which rather problematizes the reality and our familiarity with the reality. But in the context of “uncanny”, the reality should be recognized as an expression of the unconscious. The translation of textual “uncanny” is something which deals with the visual physicality of the objects. The “uncanny” what we perceive through words is quite different from what is spelt out by means of visuals and sound. The elaboration of popular culture and the invention of cinema technologies have facilitated and innovated a new mode of presentation of the “uncanny”, that is film. Film as a new sign system can different modes of presentation to render the familiar unfamiliar ranging from shots, set-design, settings to sound cuts. As “uncanny” became the key supplement to gothic literature, so gothic films (generic term for horror movies) inculcate the depiction of the so-called unfamiliar (the unheimlich). Film plays, as Lesely Stern argues, with “indeterminacies: here/there, appearance/disappearance, life/death, past/future [...]” thus knocking our “imagination, our unconscious, to produce a sensory affect of dissonance at the very moment of identity.” The fluctuation between such indeterminacies is what renders the “uncanny” possible and helps question our own senses. [...]
Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1,0, Stockholm University (JMK), course: Media and Death, language: English, abstract: 1 Introduction ......................................................................... 2 2 Involvement and detachment ........................................................... 4 3 Escapism ............................................................................. 5 4 Symbolic death........................................................................ 6 5 Real death.............................................................................8 Bibliography ---- How authentic can an animation movie be? “Documenting the undocumentable” (Nichols, 1991, p. 57) is a philosophical as well as a technical challenge and the lack of a ‘scientific’ basis to memory might make it difficult to categorize WWB as a documentary in the first place altogether (DelGaudio, 1997, p. 190; Pinzon, 2009, p. 10). On the other hand, since their beginning, scholars have already examined it under various viewpoints, mainly dealing with questions of authenticity (e.g. DelGaudio, 1997) and memory (e.g. Landesmann & Bendor, 2011). 3 documentaries have been used to illustrate abstract concepts (DelGaudio, 1997). To mould those concepts into something comprehendible the creators of this movie (Folman, 2008) could not imagine any other way than using the skills of an animation artist to make the audience understand (Sofian, 2005, p. 9)4 Combining intangible memories and dreams with classical journalistic methods like talking heads (Saunders, 2012, p. 13), Ari Folman exploits the boundless opportunities of animation and documentary. As his film is purely created from scratch, he has in addition feature film elements at his hand like sound/music and colour/light to underline the meaning (Folman, 2008). The outstanding use of colours, sound and perspective becomes clear when watching the movie. But the message Ari Folman wants to get across isn’t always that self-evident when seeing WWB for the first time. (...)
Master's Thesis from the year 2011 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 75, University of Cape Town (Centre for Film and Media Studies), language: English, abstract: Documentary film, in the words of Linda Williams, always has the receding goal of finding “some form of truth”. Yet documentary film as an art also blurs the notions of fact and fiction and runs the risk to construct reality rather than merely show it. This dissertation paper is a Reflective Essay supporting the documentary film 'Cape of German Hopes' and aims, with special references from the director's and editor's perspective, to back up the documentary by explaining more in depth about the motivation, goals and achievements of the film. The documentary is a journey that explores life experiences of German families and people of German heritage who settled in Cape Town. It uncovers how they seek to find a balance between their cultural heritage and the culture they are living in. In selected scenes, the paper illustrates how the protagonists on the one hand open up to the South African culture, but on the other still manage to keep their typical 'Germanness'. As migration increases around the world, the studies of its cultural consequences concern more and more people. Exploring cultural aspects of other social groups implies dealing with anthropological terms like identity, transnationalism and acculturation. But it is difficult to define, what shows itself only in full play. Consequently, the documentary film wants to serve not only the German community in Cape Town, but also function as a blueprint for other immigration groups living all over the world.
Seminar paper from the year 1998 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1- (A-), Ohio University (School of Telecommunication), course: Broadcast & Cable Programming, 37 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: A couple of months ago I had the chance to talk to the pop critic and founder of the Rolling Stone Magazine Greil Marcus doing an interview for a German radio station. When I asked him, what he thought of the recent HipHop videos, he answered, “ In the United States MTV doesn’t show many music videos anymore. They show date shows, game shows or celebrities playing volleyball on the beach shows. Videos are shown only in the middle of the night, when I can’t watch them”. I had noticed a similar trend on MTV Europe but wasn’t aware that MTV’s move towards non-music programming was even more severe in the United States. Greil Marcus is certainly not the only one complaining about the lack of music in “Music Television”. Even Bart Simpson during the beginning of one episode of “The Simpsons” writes a grumpy “In don’t want my MTV anymore” on the blackboard in his classroom (Stein 1997, p. 103). But what has led to the focus of MTV on non-music programming? Or is the trend even reversing and MTV is going back its roots? What about the new spin-off channels MTV started to offer in the past? This paper takes a look at the changes in MTV’s programming within the last couple of years, at the new programs of this season and at the historical development of this interesting network.
Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: A, Appalachian State University (Communication Studies), course: Theory of Persuasion, language: English, abstract: The United States has been described as a melting pot, i.e., a place where the previous identities of each immigrant group are melted down to create an integrated, uniform society. Since the 1960s, many Americans have rejected the melting pot metaphor in favor of the image of the mosaic, a picture created by assembling many small stones or tiles. In a mosaic, each piece retains its own distinctive identity while contributing to a larger design. Advocates of the mosaic metaphor assert that it better represents the diverse multicultural society of the United States. Today, many Americans value their immigrant heritage as an important part of their identity. More recent immigrant groups from Asia have established communities alongside those populated by the descendants of European immigrants. Although the United States has been shaped by successive waves of immigrants, Americans have often viewed immigration as a problem. Established Americans often look down on new immigrants. The cultural habits of immigrants are frequently targets of criticism, especially when the new arrivals come from a different country than those in the established community. Despite such tensions, economic needs have always forced Americans to seek immigrants as laborers and settlers, and economic opportunities have beckoned foreigners. The vast majority of immigrants to the United States have come in search of jobs and the chance to create a better life for themselves and their families. In all of American history, less than 10 percent of immigrants have come for political or religious reasons. Economic immigrants from Europe, Asia, and Latin America have come to the United States voluntarily. Others were involuntarily transported to North America to do forced labor or to be sold as slaves. Regardless of the reasons they come to the United States, new immigrants typically work in menial, labor-intensive, low-paying, and dangerous jobs—occupations that most other Americans shun. They are often treated with disdain until they assimilate, that is, adopt the mainstream American culture established by earlier immigrants. Of the 224 million people reporting their ancestry in the 1990 census, only 13 million, or 6 percent, identified themselves as Americans only. The rest chose one or more broad racial or linguistic groupings (such as African American or Hispanic) or national heritages (German, English, Irish, and Italian were most common) to define their origins.
Seminar paper from the year 2014 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1,0, University of Applied Sciences Hamburg, language: English, abstract: The media sector is changing and TV is right at the centre of this development. Everybody is or wants to be “connected” with their friend, so TV has to be too. The world is moving fast and people want to watch TV when and where they have time for it. The flood of information swamps the audience. For TV to become more targeted it has to be personalized. Finally, TV should not just be an “incidental medium” as is common to- day. TV should be an experience, so it has to be more interactive (Neef, Schroll & Hirsch, 2011). But what will happen in 20 years? There has to be an innovation that combines all these needs. Time to take a look at a science fictional future: Star Trek – and their one idea that combines all these aspects – the holodeck. “A holodeck is a room that creates objects, people and images on the fly and has no restriction on time and space” (Rhodes, 2008, p. 1) Going first a couple of steps back, the following paragraphs will then explain the hypothesis: “holodeck, the ultimate idea of future television in 20 years” by looking at the four main innovations in the television industry, the reasons for their use and their connection to the ultimate idea of future television – the holodeck. Finally, taking into consideration how advanced the technology is and what lies ahead to create the holodeck? The voyage starts by looking at the current developments and what lies ahead to boldly go where no one has gone before. This research paper is based on a review of literature.
Seminar paper from the year 1999 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1 (A), Ohio University (School of Telecommunication), course: Multicultural Broadcasting, 38 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: MTV – an “all encompassing mediator of popular culture” (Goodwin, 1992) or as the Washington Post once put it “perhaps the most influential single cultural product of the [eighties]” (McGrath 1996, p. 8). A trademark that has become a synonym for modern television, fast moving pictures and even a certain lifestyle. ‘MTV generation’, ‘MTV-like’, ‘I want my MTV’ etc. But MTV is more than entertainment for teenagers and music with colorful pictures around it – It is not only the world’s fastest growing network but also a powerful gatekeeper. Whoever makes it onto the playlist of the network can expect their CD sales to skyrocket and his concerts to be sold out. But the question is, is MTV giving everybody the same chance? This research paper deals with the question of how black people are represented in the music programming of MTV. Although MTV today features more game, quiz and celebrity shows and less music videos than it did in the 1980s, it can still be considered ‘Music Television’ and has 50 different titles in rotation each week. To find out more about the representation of African-Americans on MTV, the following hypotheses will be tested: H1: The percentage of black artists on MTV’s playlist has increased significantly over the last decade with a particular strong increase in the middle of the 1990s. H2: The percentage of other minorities (like Asians, Hispanics, etc.) in contrast has not increased over the last 10 years. H3: The percentage of black artists on MTV’s playlist is higher in February (Black History Month) than in another random month. In the first chapters, however, MTV’s history will be briefly examined as well as its role as a strong gatekeeper in the music industry. Additionally, the big controversy that took place in the early years of MTV, when several black artists protested the network’s “impenetrable racial barrier” (Idowu 1999, p. 41) will be talked about.
Seminar paper from the year 2016 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1.0, University of Mannheim (MKW), language: English, abstract: The documentary genre has recently gone through challenging times as the 21st century and its culture are characterised as both postmodern and “post-documentary”. This means that an attitude towards knowledge has evolved that rejects modernity’s belief in universal truth and its privileging of techno-scientific modes of discovery – such as documentary film. As a result viewers treat grand narratives about political ideology in media with suspicion. Consequently, questions arise around how political documentaries are able to voice social critique and bring about change in this new context without getting accused of outright manipulation? In order to answer these questions, this work analyses Joshua Oppenheimer’s The Act of Killing (2012) and The Look of Silence (2014) about the 1965 killings in Indonesia. Oppenheimer employs an innovative approach as never before have mass murderers been recorded in the making of a film about their crimes (TAoK), nor has there ever been a film where a victim confronts the perpetrators while the perpetrators are still in power (TLoS). This work looks at the potential for feelings of closeness with the perpetrators and victims resulting from the complementary film documents. The findings show that Oppenheimer avoids ideological claims by inviting viewers to immerse themselves in the lives of the protagonists. Viewers shall draw individual conclusions that are stimulated by a heightened perceptual experience of the filmic world.
Seminar paper from the year 2014 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1.0, University of Hannover (Englisches Seminar (English Department)), course: Digital Movies, Chaos Cinema, Post-Cinematic Affect: Thinking 21st-Century Motion Pictures, language: English, abstract: This thesis brings into relation Thomas Elsaesser's category of the "mind-game film" and Gilles Deleuze's observations of a new depiction and awareness of time in film. The mind-game film is then read as symptomatic of a social change from a society of "discipline" towards a "society of control" (Michel Foucault). In the course of this analysis, the catalyst role of technical progress and pervasive interconnectedness becomes evident. Traditional tenets of cinema and storytelling are overcome and played with. Time, which used to flow naturally, and therefore unnoticed, has evolved into a crucial, freely modulatable dimension of its own and serves as an additional structural and narrational level on top of the spatial dimensions. This development is propelled by the rise of the digital image and its manifold possibilities of interfering with the flow of time. Likewise, the principle of "focalization" is extended beyond the idea of merely directing our attention, towards the total filtration of the film reality through the (subjective) vision of a (or several) character(s) (Buckland 8). Thriving on these central elements, mind-game films aim to deceive the spectator by determining when, or if, he/she receives certain information which is crucial to the understanding of the story. Just as no focal character can possibly be sure of his/her own perception's reliability or, for that matter, his/her own mental sanity, we cannot trust our perception. What we see is the image of an image, filtered through a succession of two minds, the character's virtual one and our own [...]
Bachelor Thesis from the year 2009 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 2, St. Pölten University of Applied Sciences (Department IT & Medien Medientechnik), language: English, abstract: Campus TV, short “C-TV” is the name of 30 minutes of TV program, which students of the St. Pölten University of Applied Sciences Media Technology produce every month. All work in C-TVs productions is done by students. Every year, the most experienced students leave the C-TV team, because they have successfully finished the education at the St. Pölten University of Applied Sciences Media Technology. As a result a lot of important knowledge leaves with these students. Every year a new team of students starts to work at C-TV and all necessary things for producing 30 minutes of TV have to be learned again. Next to editing, or sound mixing which students learn during the education at the St. Pölten University of Applied Sciences Media Technology the important part of color correction often stays behind. Unlike editing, shooting, sound mixing or recording, color correcting is not a subject at the St. Pölten University of Applied Sciences Media Technology. As a result most of CTVs productions since C-TV has started its productions, two years ago, did not have any color correction. Facing these facts, this work aims to be a color correction guide for Apples Final Cut Pro. The software Final Cut Pro is used for editing in C-TVs workflow. Final Cut Pro also offers inbuilt color correction software, which is powerful enough to fulfill all needs to make C-TVs productions suitable for broadcast. The work starts off with a brief overview of color science explaining color spaces and technical background knowledge on video formats. Then the author explains how to use Final Cut Pro`s color correction tools from a beginner level on. All necessary tools, buttons, and sliders, for color correction in Final Cut Pro are explained. The author uses practical examples, illustrated with pictures how to use Final Cut Pros color correction tools. Based on examples the work shows common mistakes, during shooting and gives ideas to solve these with color correction. Using examples of different movies the work illustrates how to create different color looks.
Scientific Essay from the year 2013 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1,0, Pace University, language: English, abstract: The arts, especially films, have always functioned as mirrors of current conditions in society. Gerald Mast states that the reflection of social reality is the primary intention of commercial motion pictures (203). Film comedies, in particular, are able to deal with these conditions in an iconoclastic manner and can question or even expose “the shams of society,” because they use “the entertaining comic form” (21). After the imposition of the Production Code on American film productions in 1934, it appears the conservative values of gender, love and family become more consolidated in films. According to Jane Greene, the outcome of this suppression of, for example, explicit sexuality led to an all new genre - the “screwball comedy” (45). The iconoclastic quality of comedies during that time, hence, relied on a “unique aesthetic for destroying Hollywood assumptions while appearing to subscribe to them” (Mast 250). In particular, the screwball comedy Bringing Up Baby (Howard Hawks, 1938) breaks the classical gender roles and undermines male supremacy in the Hollywood conventions long before the second wave feminist movement of the 1960s. In particular, the female lead’s “screwball” actions can be read as a performance in sharp contrast to the Victorian role model of women. In the following analysis of specific scenes, the film’s use of the cinematic techniques of mise-en-scene, cinematography, and its opposing main characters in order to construct an equal gender image will be examined, drawing mainly on readings by scholars such as Gerald Mast, S.I. Salamensky, and Stanley Cavell.
Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1,0, University of St. Thomas, course: Communication Studies 340, 13 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Queer Eye for the Straight Guy (hereafter Queer Eye) is a television series which was first aired in July 2003 on Bravo Cable Network. Basically, the main content of each episode is that five gay men, each of them an expert in their field, make over a person, most often a straight man, for a special occasion, such as a proposal to a girlfriend or even a wedding. The series was an instant, and somewhat unexpected, success. It is especially remarkable for the way homosexual and heterosexual men are presented. My paper raises, and partially answers, questions such as: What is so different here about the way sexual orientation is presented? Through which symbols is homosexuality conveyed? and, What might be the effect of these representations on the audience? I argue that even though the symbols and stereotypes have not changed, their implications on Queer Eye make them a more positive representation of homosexuality than ever before seen on television. In order to understand why Queer Eye is revolutionary, I will first give a short overview about the presentation of homosexuality on television in the past five decades. After that I depict the symbols, and particularly visual and aural symbols, through which homosexuality is conveyed in the show by giving specific examples from single episodes. Then I describe the stereotypes which are presented on Queer Eye, followed by the influence of these representations of homosexuality on the audience.
Literature Review from the year 2003 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1, San Francisco State University (Ethnic Studies), course: AAS 693 Asian Americans and the Mass Media, language: English, abstract: During his career, the Hawaiian born Nisei actor James Shigeta was cast as everything but a Hawaiian born Japanese American. Among others, he played Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Tibetan characters. Depending on the time frame of a given film, i.e. if it was set around World War II or not, he played either a villain or a hero. One of the movies he portrayed a hero in was Samuel Fuller’s Crimson Kimono (1959). This movie could be characterized as an urban crime story and an interracial love triangle, but it is also one of the first multicultural films before the term “multiculturalism” was even coined. In Crimson Kimono, James Shigeta plays Detective Joe Kojaku, a police detective working for the L.A. homicide squad. His partner is a white American, Detective Sergeant Charlie Bancroft, played by Glenn Corbett. Joe and Charlie are both Korean War veterans. During the war, one of them saved the other’s life by donating blood, and since then, they have been friends. While working on a case – a stripper has been murdered – the detectives’ friendship is tested by a romantic triangle. First, Charlie gets involved with one of the main witnesses, a white female art student called Chris. But then, Joe, as well, falls in love with her. While Joe’s behavior changes to apathy in his friendship to Charlie, the situation turns into an identity crisis for him personally. Joe begins to interpret Charlie’s jealousy as racism and turns away from his friend. However, in the end, the friendship is restored with Charlie giving up Chris for his friend Joe, and the murder case is solved, too.
Literature Review from the year 2003 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: A, San Francisco State University (Ethnic Studies), course: AAS 693 Asian Americans and the Mass Media, language: English, abstract: Whenever a new Disney film is released, millions of people, children as well as adults, rush to the movie theatre to see it. Disney films are much liked by old and young people alike. Very frequently, they use already commonly known plots and give them a new shape. Their repertoire covers many fairy tales and legends. One of these legends to be found in the Disney film collection is the story of Mulan, the story of a Chinese girl, who, disguised as a man, takes her father’s place in the Chinese army and helps defend China against the Huns. She does this to preserve the honor of the family. This old Chinese legend has, as is true for most of the Disney productions, been changed and made suitable for the (white) American market of family entertainment. The China portrayed in the original version of the legend of Mulan, or rather the children’s book that was available to me in our course reader, is a pretty accurate description of what ancient China must have been like. However, for the audience this children’s book is probably aimed at, i.e. an audience with a Chinese background, Chinese culture is nothing extraordinary, so the culture is not highlighted in any way. In this book, Mulan has been trained in martial arts by her father from very early in her childhood. Moreover, she has a brother whose name she takes on when taking her father’s place in the war against the intruders. In other words, Mulan has been given her martial arts skills as well as a name from a man, she has not acquired or created them herself. When she leaves, she leaves her home with the permission of her parents. Due to her knowledge of martial arts and her intelligence, she is soon admired by all of the soldiers and becomes a commanding general during a war of more than ten years. There is no one there to either protect her or assist her with advices. In the end, this very strategically oriented general uses the superstition of her enemies, which are not the Huns but simply “enemies from the north,” against them and defeats them. She wins without failing first, and it is only in the end that everyone finds out that she is actually a woman, and no one feels offended about it. The possible message of this legend may be the importance of honor in ancient China, which has to be defended against the enemy, no matter who this enemy may be.
Scientific Essay from the year 2013 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1,0, Pace University, course: American Film Comedy, language: English, abstract: The time of transition and adaption after the Paramount decree and the decline of the studio system in the 1950s is what many film scholars refer to as the New Hollywood era. Geoff King describes with this term two versions of how the industry approached the difficult economic circumstances at this time (New Hollywood 3). This includes the emergence of the American art cinema, which King calls the “Hollywood Renaissance” (3). With this term, he primarily characterizes the 1968 to 1980s approach of the studios to target films “at a variety of smaller, more specific” audiences (34; 48). According to King, there had been a demographic shift and a greater cultural awareness of a new generation since the 1960s (30). As a result, this led to new forms of narrative and style, as well as more critical topics that were addressed in films within the studio system. Many of today’s well-known filmmakers began their careers in this period of a greater artistic freedom and shifts in social awareness. The comedies "The Graduate" (Mike Nichols, 1967) and "Harold and Maude" (Hal Ashby, 1971) both reflect the alienated youth generation of their era through their respective male protagonists. In particular, both characters’ identity crises derive from a not-yet-accomplished masculinity and are coped with through a taboo-breaking love affair. In the following comparison, the use of the cinematic techniques of mise-en-scene, cinematography, and music in both films will be shown to represent this crisis of manhood and its final accomplishment by the principal male protagonist. This theme will be examined, drawing mainly on readings by scholars such as William Indick and Wayne Schuth.
Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1,3, University of Mannheim, language: English, abstract: Christopher Nolan’s film from 2000, "Memento," takes a critical look at the visually dominated world we live in and challenges traditional cinema by addressing the film’s artificiality and visuality. Memento draws attention to the sheer mass and variety of visual stimuli that surround us by playing with the use of camera, photographs, mirrors and other visual media. The focus on visuality illustrates our dependence on visual media in determining who we are, how we see the world and how we think. Memento is centered on a protagonist – Leonard Shelby – who is especially reliant on the help of visual media but does not realize how much it influences his identity. Leonard is a former insurance claims investigator who suffers from anterograde amnesia, a condition that prevents him from turning short-term memories into long-term ones. Leonard’s amnesia is the result of a head injury he received while he was trying to rescue his wife from a murderer. Thus, Leonard lives in episodes that last about 15 minutes and after each such episode he forgets everything that happened before. Being deprived of the ability to remember anything that has happened since his wife’s murder, Leonard has to come up with his own strategies to deal with everyday life. In the course of the film, the audience learns that Leonard has developed a system of visual cues to replace his memory. He even goes further and declares that his method of remembering via photographs, mind maps, tattoos and notes, is more reliable than memory itself. Leonard calls his visual cues ‘facts’ and ignores the lack of context that comes along with a memory that consists only of separate Polaroid photos, ink on his skin and a few slips of paper.
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