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Ubiquitous computing names the third wave in computing, where the personal computing era appears when technologyrecedesinto the backgroundof our lives. The widespread use of new mobile technology implementing wireless communicationssuch as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and smart phones enables a new type of advanced applications. In the pastyears,themainfocusofresearchinmobileserviceshasaimedattheanytime-anywhere principle (ubiquitous computing). However, there is more to it. The increasing demand for distributed problem solving led to the development of multi-agent systems. The latter are formed from a collection of independent software entities whose collective skills can be applied in complex and real-time domains. The target of such systems is to demonstrate howgoaldirected,robustandoptimalbehaviorcanarise frominteractionsbetweenindiv- ual autonomous intelligent software agents. These software entities exhibit characteristics like autonomy, responsiveness, pro-activeness and social ability. Their functionality and effectiveness has proven to be highly depended on the design and development and the - plication domain. In fact, in several cases, the design and developmentof effective services shouldtakeintoaccountthecharacteristicsofthecontextfromwhichaserviceisrequested. Contextis the set of suitable environmentalstates and settings concerninga user, which are relevant for a situation sensitive application in the process of adapting the services and - formation offered to the user. Agent technology seems to be the right technology to offer the possibility of exploringthe dynamic context of the user in order to provideadded-value services or to execute more and complex tasks.
It is quite an onerous task to edit the proceedings of a two week long institute with learned contributors from many parts of the world. All the same, the editorial team has found the process of refereeing and reviewing the contributions worthwhile and completing the volume has proven to be a satisfying task. In setting up the institute we had considered models and methods taken from a number of different disciplines. As a result the whole institute - preparing for it, attending it and editing the proceedings - proved to be an intense learning experience for us. Here I speak on behalf of the committee and the editorial team. By the time the institute took place, the papers were delivered and the delegates exchanged their views, the structure of the topics covered and their relative positioning appeared in a different light. In editing the volume I felt compelled to introduce a new structure in grouping the papers. The contents of this volume are organised in eight main sections set out below: 1 . Abstracts. 2. Review Paper. 3. Models with Multiple Criteria and Single or Multiple Decision Makers. 4. Use of Optimisation Models as Decision Support Tools. 5. Role of Information Systems in Decision Making: Database and Model Management Issues. 6. Methods of Artificial Intelligence in Decision Making: Intelligent Knowledge Based Systems. 7. Representation of Uncertainty in Mathematical Models and Knowledge Based Systems. 8. Mathematical Basis for Constructing Models and Model Validation.
Machine learning techniques provide cost-effective alternatives to traditional methods for extracting underlying relationships between information and data and for predicting future events by processing existing information to train models. Efficient Learning Machines explores the major topics of machine learning, including knowledge discovery, classifications, genetic algorithms, neural networking, kernel methods, and biologically-inspired techniques.

Mariette Awad and Rahul Khanna’s synthetic approach weaves together the theoretical exposition, design principles, and practical applications of efficient machine learning. Their experiential emphasis, expressed in their close analysis of sample algorithms throughout the book, aims to equip engineers, students of engineering, and system designers to design and create new and more efficient machine learning systems. Readers of Efficient Learning Machines will learn how to recognize and analyze the problems that machine learning technology can solve for them, how to implement and deploy standard solutions to sample problems, and how to design new systems and solutions.

Advances in computing performance, storage, memory, unstructured information retrieval, and cloud computing have coevolved with a new generation of machine learning paradigms and big data analytics, which the authors present in the conceptual context of their traditional precursors. Awad and Khanna explore current developments in the deep learning techniques of deep neural networks, hierarchical temporal memory, and cortical algorithms.

Nature suggests sophisticated learning techniques that deploy simple rules to generate highly intelligent and organized behaviors with adaptive, evolutionary, and distributed properties. The authors examine the most popular biologically-inspired algorithms, together with a sample application to distributed datacenter management. They also discuss machine learning techniques for addressing problems of multi-objective optimization in which solutions in real-world systems are constrained and evaluated based on how well they perform with respect to multiple objectives in aggregate. Two chapters on support vector machines and their extensions focus on recent improvements to the classification and regression techniques at the core of machine learning.

The Central Nervous System can be considered as an aggregate of neurons specialized in both the transmission and transformation of information. Information can be used for many purposes, but probably the most important one is to generate a representation of the "external" world that allows the organism to react properly to changes in its external environment. These functions range from such basic ones as detection of changes that may lead to tissue damage and eventual destruction of the organism and the implementation of avoidance reactions, to more elaborate representations of the external world implying recognition of shapes, sounds and textures as the basis of planned action or even reflection. Some of these functions confer a clear survival advantage to the organism (prey or mate recognition, escape reactions, etc. ). Others can be considered as an essential part of cognitive processes that contribute, to varying degrees, to the development of individuality and self-consciousness. How can we hope to understand the complexity inherent in this range of functionalities? One of the distinguishing features of the last two decades has been the availability of computational power that has impacted many areas of science. In neurophysiology, computation is used for experiment control, data analysis and for the construction of models that simulate particular systems. Analysis of the behavior of neuronal networks has transcended the limits of neuroscience and is now a discipline in itself, with potential applications both in the neural sciences and in computing sciences.
A comprehensive guide to learning technologies that unlock the value in big data

Cognitive Computing provides detailed guidance toward building a new class of systems that learn from experience and derive insights to unlock the value of big data. This book helps technologists understand cognitive computing's underlying technologies, from knowledge representation techniques and natural language processing algorithms to dynamic learning approaches based on accumulated evidence, rather than reprogramming. Detailed case examples from the financial, healthcare, and manufacturing walk readers step-by-step through the design and testing of cognitive systems, and expert perspectives from organizations such as Cleveland Clinic, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, as well as commercial vendors that are creating solutions. These organizations provide insight into the real-world implementation of cognitive computing systems. The IBM Watson cognitive computing platform is described in a detailed chapter because of its significance in helping to define this emerging market. In addition, the book includes implementations of emerging projects from Qualcomm, Hitachi, Google and Amazon.

Today's cognitive computing solutions build on established concepts from artificial intelligence, natural language processing, ontologies, and leverage advances in big data management and analytics. They foreshadow an intelligent infrastructure that enables a new generation of customer and context-aware smart applications in all industries.

Cognitive Computing is a comprehensive guide to the subject, providing both the theoretical and practical guidance technologists need.

Discover how cognitive computing evolved from promise to reality Learn the elements that make up a cognitive computing system Understand the groundbreaking hardware and software technologies behind cognitive computing Learn to evaluate your own application portfolio to find the best candidates for pilot projects Leverage cognitive computing capabilities to transform the organization

Cognitive systems are rightly being hailed as the new era of computing. Learn how these technologies enable emerging firms to compete with entrenched giants, and forward-thinking established firms to disrupt their industries. Professionals who currently work with big data and analytics will see how cognitive computing builds on their foundation, and creates new opportunities. Cognitive Computing provides complete guidance to this new level of human-machine interaction.

First, I would like to thank my principal supervisor Dr Qiang Shen for all his help, advice and friendship throughout. Many thanks also to my second supervisor Dr Peter Jarvis for his enthusiasm, help and friendship. I would also like to thank the other members of the Approximate and Qualitative Reasoning group at Edinburgh who have also helped and inspired me. This project has been funded by an EPSRC studentship, award num ber 97305803. I would like, therefore, to extend my gratitude to EPSRC for supporting this work. Many thanks to the staff at Edinburgh University for all their help and support and for promptly fixing any technical problems that I have had . My whole family have been both encouraging and supportive throughout the completion of this book, for which I am forever indebted. York, April 2003 Ian Miguel Contents List of Figures XV 1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. 1 Solving Classical CSPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. 2 Applicat ions of Classical CSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. 3 Limitations of Classical CSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1. 3. 1 Flexible CSP 6 1. 3. 2 Dynamic CSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1. 4 Dynamic Flexible CSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1. 5 Flexible Planning: a DFCSP Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1. 6 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. 7 Contributions and their Significance 11 2 The Constraint Satisfaction Problem 13 2. 1 Constraints and Constraint Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2. 2 Tree Search Solution Techniques for Classical CSP . . . . . . . . . . 16 2. 2. 1 Backtrack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2. 2. 2 Backjumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2. 2. 3 Conflict-Directed Backjumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2. 2. 4 Backmarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ever since Chomsky laid the framework for a mathematically formal theory of syntax, two classes of formal models have held wide appeal. The finite state model offered simplicity. At the opposite extreme numerous very powerful models, most notable transformational grammar, offered generality. As soon as this mathematical framework was laid, devastating arguments were given by Chomsky and others indicating that the finite state model was woefully inadequate for the syntax of natural language. In response, the completely general transformational grammar model was advanced as a suitable vehicle for capturing the description of natural language syntax. While transformational grammar seems likely to be adequate to the task, many researchers have advanced the argument that it is "too adequate. " A now classic result of Peters and Ritchie shows that the model of transformational grammar given in Chomsky's Aspects [IJ is powerful indeed. So powerful as to allow it to describe any recursively enumerable set. In other words it can describe the syntax of any language that is describable by any algorithmic process whatsoever. This situation led many researchers to reasses the claim that natural languages are included in the class of transformational grammar languages. The conclu sion that many reached is that the claim is void of content, since, in their view, it says little more than that natural language syntax is doable algo rithmically and, in the framework of modern linguistics, psychology or neuroscience, that is axiomatic.
This is an unusual book. It launches a new style of research into the nature of the mind, a style that pro?ciently uncovers, explores and exploits the synergies between complex systems thinking, sophisticated theoretical critique, synthetic modeling technologies and experimental work. Rather than adopting a grandiose programmatic approach, Marieke Rohde presents us with a pragmatic conjunction of elements, each of them strongly feeding off the others and making it impossible to shelf her work strictly under any one rubric such as psychology, robotics, arti?cial intelligence or philosophy of mind. Perhaps the least unjust choice is to call this a work of new cognitive science. It is yesterday’s news to remark on how our conceptual framework for understanding c- plex systems is changing. There is a recognized need to supplement the scienti?c categories of mechanistic, XIX century thought for new ways of thinking about non-linear forms of interaction and inter-relation between events and processes at multiple scales. Since the times of cybernetics and in parallel to the development of the computer as a scienti?c tool, we have witnessed several proposals for “revolutionary” ways of dealing with complexity: catastrophe theory, general systems theory, chaos, self-organized criticality, complex n- works, etc. Despite not always ful?lling their stated potential, these ideas have helped us increase our capability to understand complex systems and have in general left us with new concepts, new tools and new ways of formulating questions. This conceptual change, however, has not been homogeneous.

Self-organisation, self-regulation, self-repair and self-maintenance are promising conceptual approaches for dealing with complex distributed interactive software and information-handling systems. Self-organising applications dynamically change their functionality and structure without direct user intervention, responding to changes in requirements and the environment. This is the first book to offer an integrated view of self-organisation technologies applied to distributed systems, particularly focusing on multiagent systems.

The editors developed this integrated book with three aims: to explain self-organisation concepts and principles, using clear definitions and a strong theoretical background; to examine how self-organising behaviour can be modelled, analysed and systematically engineered into agent behaviour; and to assess the types of problems that can be solved using self-organising multiagent systems. The book comprises chapters covering all three dimensions, synthesising up-to-date research work and the latest technologies and applications. The book offers dedicated chapters on concepts such as self-organisation, emergence in natural systems, software agents, stigmergy, gossip, cooperation and immune systems. The book then explains how to engineer artificial self-organising software, in particular it examines methodologies and middleware infrastructures. Finally, the book presents diverse applications of self-organising software, such as constraint satisfaction, trust management, image recognition and networking.

The book will be of interest to researchers working on emergent phenomena and adaptive systems. It will also be suitable for use as a graduate textbook, with chapter summaries and exercises, and an accompanying website that includes teaching slides, exercise solutions and research project outlines.

Self-organisation, self-regulation, self-repair and self-maintenance are promising conceptual approaches for dealing with complex distributed interactive software and information-handling systems. Self-organising applications dynamically change their functionality and structure without direct user intervention, responding to changes in requirements and the environment. This is the first book to offer an integrated view of self-organisation technologies applied to distributed systems, particularly focusing on multiagent systems.

The editors developed this integrated book with three aims: to explain self-organisation concepts and principles, using clear definitions and a strong theoretical background; to examine how self-organising behaviour can be modelled, analysed and systematically engineered into agent behaviour; and to assess the types of problems that can be solved using self-organising multiagent systems. The book comprises chapters covering all three dimensions, synthesising up-to-date research work and the latest technologies and applications. The book offers dedicated chapters on concepts such as self-organisation, emergence in natural systems, software agents, stigmergy, gossip, cooperation and immune systems. The book then explains how to engineer artificial self-organising software, in particular it examines methodologies and middleware infrastructures. Finally, the book presents diverse applications of self-organising software, such as constraint satisfaction, trust management, image recognition and networking.

The book will be of interest to researchers working on emergent phenomena and adaptive systems. It will also be suitable for use as a graduate textbook, with chapter summaries and exercises, and an accompanying website that includes teaching slides, exercise solutions and research project outlines.

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