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The new millennium is widely considered to be the age of globalisation, democratisation, and human rights. We live in a knowledge society and in a time of risk and uncertainty. It is the interplay of these key trends of the era that call for a fresh approach to quality of life studies to inform policy makers and development practitioners. This book addresses the key challenges life research that relate to the characteristics of the new millennium such as increased risks, rapid worldwide democratisation of societies, loss of bio- and cultural diversity, rapid erosion of natural resources and climate change, and global connectivity that accelerates the transmission of disease as well as knowledge.

Quality of life (QOL) research has made great strides since the social indicator movement started as a scientific enterprise in the 1960s. Researchers from many different scientific disciplines are now engaged in describing and evaluating the human condition in many different parts of the world. Although QOL researchers are better equipped both theoretically and practically than in the past, the new era poses new challenges for them. One such challenge relates to the very definition of the subject under study. The notion of the good life that has intrigued classical Greek is fluid and popular conceptions of the good life have shifted over time. The speed with which societies worldwide are changing in the new millennium is breathtaking. It is possible that the vision of the good life has shifted dramatically over the forty years since the social indicator movement began.

Democracy is currently the political system of choice in the new millennium or is at least considered the best possible system of governance invented to date. The emergent democracies in the Second and Third World have joined the ranks of the older democracies of the First World. One of the important roles of QOL researchers is to engage citizens in assessing their life circumstances relative to their own conception of the good life.

Quality of life studies play an important role in guiding social policy. In democracies citizens are able to hold their governments accountable for pursuing the policies and making the interventions that will make the greatest improvements for the greatest number. There are moral and political issues related to the proper role of governments in providing the good life and public goods. This volume addresses the issue of how governments should intervene to shape the good life for their citizens. This is a pertinent question for quality-of-life scholars in all corners of the earth in the new millennium.

The second edition will be an update and further elaboration of the literature related to subjective well-being, happiness, and life satisfaction. It will have a new substantial section that focuses on reviewing much of the literature of subjective well-being within specific life domains (social life, material life, leisure life, work life, community life, spiritual life, family life, health life, sex life, travel life, etc.) In the 1st edition the research in these various life domains was discussed only briefly. The second edition will maintain the same organizational structure of the first edition; that is, Part 1 will focus on introduction (definitions and distinctions; examples of measures of subjective well-being, happiness, and life satisfaction; and motives underlying subjective well-being). Part 2 will focus on psychological strategies that are allow people to optimize subjective well-being by engaging in psychological processes related to the relationship between and among life domains (e.g., social life, family life, love life, spiritual life, community life, financial life, etc.) This part will contain four chapters related to these various “inter-domain” processes: bottom-up spillover, top-down spillover, horizontal spillover, and compensation. Part 3 of the book will focus on “intra-domain” psychological strategies designed to optimize subjective well-being. These include re-evaluation based on personal history, re-evaluation based on self-concept, re-evaluation based on social comparison, goal selection, goal implementation and attainment, and re-appraisal. Part 4 of the book will focus on balance processes—how people attempt to create balance in their lives using psychological processes within specific life domains (intra-domain strategies) and processes that relate one domain to another (inter-domain strategies).
This volume brings together two parallel fields of interest. One is the understanding among psychologists and other social scientists of the limits to psychometric measurement, and the challenges in generating information about quality of life and wellbeing that enable comparison across time and place, at both individual and population levels. The second is the interest among anthropologists and others in the lived experience of chronic illness and disability, including the unpredictable fluctuations in perceived health and capability. Chronic conditions and physical impairments are assumed to impact negatively on people’s quality of life, affecting them psychologically, socially and economically. While some of these conditions have declined in prevalence, as a result of prenatal diagnosis, early successful interventions, and changes in medical technology and surgery, many of these conditions are on the increase as a consequence of improved life-saving medication and technology, and greater longevity. ‘Quality of life’ is often used as an indicator for successful and high quality health services, and good access to medical attention and surgery – for hip replacements or laser surgery to improve vision, for instance. But it is also used as an argument against interventions, when such interventions are seen to prolong life for its own sake. Yet we also know that people vary their idea of quality as a result of the context of fluctuations in their own health status, the presence or absence of pain or discomfort, and as a result of variations in social and economic contextual factors. In exploring these questions, this volume contributes to emerging debates related to individual health outcomes, but also to the social and other individual determinants that influence everyday life. Understanding these broader contextual factors will contribute to our knowledge of the kinds of services, support systems, and infrastructure that provide people with good ‘quality of life’ and a sense of wellbeing, regardless of their physical health, capability and functioning. The volume includes scholars from all continents who have been encouraged to think critically, and to engage with the descriptive, methodological, social, policy and clinical implications of their work.
In 1981, Leonard Pearlin and his colleagues published an article that would ra- cally shift the sociological study of mental health from an emphasis on psychiatric disorder to a focus on social structure and its consequences for stress and psyc- logical distress. Pearlin et al. (1981) proposed a deceptively simple conceptual model that has now influenced sociological inquiry for almost three decades. With his characteristic penchant for reconsidering and elaborating his own ideas, Pearlin has revisited the stress process model periodically over the years (Pearlin 1989, 1999; Pearlin et al. 2005; Pearlin and Skaff 1996). One of the consequences of this continued theoretical elaboration of the stress process has been the development of a sociological model of stress that embraces the complexity of social life. Another consequence is that the stress process has continued to stimulate a host of empirical investigations in the sociology of mental health. Indeed, it is no exaggeration to suggest that the stress process paradigm has been primarily responsible for the growth and sustenance of sociological research on stress and mental health. Pearlin et al. (1981) described the core elements of the stress process in a brief paragraph: The process of social stress can be seen as combining three major conceptual domains: the sources of stress, the mediators of stress, and the manifestations of stress. Each of these extended domains subsumes a variety of subparts that have been intensively studied in recent years.
This first-of-its kind volume spans the breadth of disability research and practice specifically focusing on the global South. Established and emerging scholars alongside advocates adopt a critical and interdisciplinary stance to probe, challenge and shift common held social understandings of disability in established discourses, epistemologies and practices, including those in prominent areas such as global health, disability studies and international development. Motivated by decolonizing approaches, contributors carefully weave the lived and embodied experiences of disabled people, families and communities through contextual, cultural, spatial, racial, economic, identity and geopolitical complexities and heterogeneities. Dispatches from Ghana, Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Venezuela among many others spotlight the complex uncertainties of modern geopolitics of coloniality; emergent forms of governance including neoliberal globalization, war and conflicts; the interstices of gender, race, ethnicity, space and religion; structural barriers to redistribution and realization of rights; and processes of disability representation. This handbook examines in rigorous depth, established practices and discourses in disability including those on development, rights, policies and practices, opening a space for critical debate on hegemonic and often unquestioned terrains.

Highlights of the coverage include:

Critical issues in conceptualizing disability across cultures, time and space The challenges of disability models, metrics and statistics Disability, poverty and livelihoods in urban and rural contexts Disability interstices with migration, race, ethnicity, gender and sexuality Disability, religion and customary societies and practice

·

The UNCRPD, disability rights orientations and instrumentalitie

· Redistributive systems including budgeting, cash transfer systems and programming.

· Global South–North partnerships: intercultural methodologies in disability research.

This much awaited handbook provides students, academics, practitioners and policymakers with an authoritative framework for critical thinking and debate about disability, while pushing theoretical and practical frontiers in unprecedented ways.

Asian Americans encounter a range of health issues often unknown to the American public, policy makers, researchers and even clinicians. National research often combines Asian Americans into a single category, not taking into account the differences and complexity among Asian ethnic subgroups. The definition of Asian American derives from the U.S. Census Bureau’s definition of Asian, which includes peoples from all the vast territories of the Far East, Southeast Asia and the South Asian Subcontinent. While Census classifications determine demographic measurements that affect equal opportunity programs, the broad rubric “Asian-American” can never describe accurately the more than 50 distinct Asian American subgroups, who together comprise multifaceted diversity across cultural ethnicities, socio-economic status, languages, religions and generations. This volume rectifies that situation by exploring the unique needs and health concerns of particular subgroups within the Asian American community. It consolidates a wide range of knowledge on various health issues impacting Asian Americans while also providing a discussion into the cultural, social, and structural forces impacting morbidity, mortality and quality of life. The volume is designed to advance the understanding of Asian American health by explaining key challenges and identifying emerging trends faced in specific ethnic groups and diseases/illnesses, innovative community-based interventions and the future needed areas of research.
This stimulating open access volume details the innovative work of the Pan Institution Network for Global Health in creating collaborative research-based answers to large-scale health issues. Equitable partnerships among member universities representing North America, Africa, Asia, and Europe reverse standard cross-national dynamics to develop locally relevant responses to health challenges as well as their underlying disparities. Case studies focusing on multiple morbidities and effects of urbanization on health illustrate open dialogue in addressing HIV, maternal/child health, diabetes, and other major concerns. These instructive examples model collaborations between global North and South as meaningful steps toward the emerging global future of public health.

Included in the coverage:

Building sustainable networks: introducing the Pan Institution Network for Global Health
Fostering dialogues in global health education: a graduate and undergraduate approach
Provider workload and multiple morbidities in the Caribbean and South Africa Project Redemption: conducting research with informal workers in New York City Partnership and collaboration in global health: valuing reciprocity

Global Health Collaboration will interest faculty working within the field of global health; scholars within public health, health policy, and cognate disciplines; as well as administrators looking to develop international university partnerships around global health and graduate students in the areas of global health, health administration, and public health and related social sciences (e.g., sociology, anthropology, demography).

Recent disasters, such as the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, bomb explosions in London, Hurricane Katrina, the Pakistan Earthquake, floods in Central America, and landslides in Indonesia, among many others, have resulted in an extensive loss of life, social disruption, significant economic impacts to local and national economies, and have made headline news in countries throughout the world. Thus the Handbook of Disaster Research is a timely and much needed contribution to the field of disasters. The editors of this Handbook have brought together a comprehensive and interdisciplinary volume with a diverse and international group of contributors.

The Handbook is based on the principle that disasters are social constructions and focuses on social science disaster research. Attention is given to conceptual issues dealing with the concept "disaster" and to methodological issues relating to research on disasters, including Geographic Information Systems as a useful research tool and its implications for future research; how disaster research is increasingly being used in the emergency management curriculum; and how research is useful in dealing with emergency operations. The Handbook also includes a number of essays focusing on various types of vulnerabilities. In addition, there are discussions on community processes that are evoked by disasters, including warnings, search and rescue, coordination, and organizational adaptation, as well as, dealing with death and injury, and recovery, and the role of the media in disasters; special attention is given to emergency systems in several nation states. The Handbook also includes contributions focusing on the relationship between disaster and development, the popular culture of disasters, new dimensions of disaster research, as well as projections of disasters into the future.

Disasters allow the opportunity for social scientists to study human behavior in which adaptation, resilience and innovation are often more clearly revealed than in "normal" and stable times. The Handbook of Disaster Research provides an interdisciplinary and international approach to disasters with theoretical, methodological, and practical applications.

In the United States, work is the key to economic success, as well as the major source of health care coverage and retirement security. While Europeans look to the State for these benefits, Americans for the most part do not. This system of employment-based benefits means that those disadvantaged in the labor market are also disadvantaged in terms of health care coverage and retirement security.

The authors of this work examine the overrepresentation of Mexican Americans in low wage or service sector jobs, which rarely come with health insurance or retirement coverage. At all ages, Mexican Americans have lower rates of health insurance and retirement coverage than do other minority groups, such as African Americans or other Hispanic groups. Although employment in jobs that do not provide benefits is one major source of this disparity, other factors—including immigration history, citizenship status, and language proficiency—further block opportunities for upward mobility within the Mexican American population.

In their analysis, the authors work to deemphasize the popular, cultural explanation for the economic disparities and focus on more practical, policy-based solutions. In each chapter, the authors identify and critique the factors that affect the economic security and health care access of individuals throughout the life course, suggesting policies for reform.

This work will be of interest to anyone working in the fields of cultural studies, public health and the sociology of work. With the focus on real world causes for the problems as well as potential solutions, policy-makers will also find this informative book an essential resource.

It has been suggested that HIV and AIDS have particular traits which initiate a high level of stigma. A major consequence of stigmatisation is “discrimination” and it occurs when an individual “is treated unfairly and unjustly” due to the perception that the individual is deviant from others. HIV and AIDS stigma is perceived as “an individual’s deviance from socially accepted standards of normality”. Hence, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are socially constructed as the “other” who are “disgracefully different from and threatening to the general public”. This social construction of people living with HIV/AIDS has significant impact on their health, well-being and care seeking and it is a great public health concern. Thus far, many articles have been written to portray stigma and discrimination which occur with PLWHA in many parts of the world. But there has not been any recent book which attempts to put together results from empirical research relating to stigma, discrimination and living with HIV/AIDS. This book proposal is written with the intention to fill this gap. The focus of this book is on issues relevant to stigma and discrimination which have occurred to individuals and groups in different parts of the globe as well as how these individuals and groups attempt to deal with HIV/AIDS. The book comprises chapters written by researchers who carry out their projects in different parts of the world. Each chapter contains empirical information which is based on real life situations. This can be used as an evidence for health care providers to implement socially and culturally appropriate services to assist individuals and groups who are living with HIV/AIDS in many societies.
Violence is one of the most important challenges, not only for public health systems, but also for public mental health. Violence can have immediate as well as long-term and even transgenerational effects on the mental health of its victims. This book provides a comprehensive and wide-ranging assessment of the mental health legacy left by violence. It addresses the issues as they affect states, communities and families, in other words at macro-, meso- and microlevels, beginning by describing the impact of violence on neurobiology and mental health, as well as the spectrum of syndromes and disorders associated with different forms of violence.

The work moves on to tackle violence at the international—and intranational—level before zeroing in on the nature of violence in communities such as villages or city districts. It also examines the results of violence in the family. Each type of violence has distinct effects on mental health and in each chapter specific groups are explored in depth to demonstrate the heterogeneity of violence as well as the diversity of its outcomes in the realm of public mental health. Finally, the book addresses the notion of ‘undoing violence’ by detailing case studies of effective interventions and prevention occurring in countries, communities and families. These cases give us pause to reflect on the nature of resilience and dignity in the context of violence and mental health.

All the chapters have been written by leading authors in

the field and provide a state-of-the-art perspective. The authors, from different fields of expertise, facilitate interdisciplinary and international insights into the impact of violence on mental health.
The briefs presents a model for happiness based on current knowledge in evolutionary biology and neurobiology. Briefly, the primary purpose of nervous systems is to direct an animal toward behaviour relevant for survival and procreation. In primitive animals actions are based on reflexes, while in humans the modules directing behaviour engage positive and negative affect (good and bad feelings), and they are swayed by cognitive processes. The reason why evolution opted for this strategy was the improved flexibility in response – i.e., we learn from previous experiences. The human capacity for happiness is an accidental consequence.

An array of brain modules has evolved to care for various pursuits, but recent studies suggest that they converge on shared neural circuits designed to generate positive and negative mood. Happiness can be construed as the net output of the relevant modules. The briefs suggests a strategy for how to avoid having negative feelings (such as anxiety, depression and chronic pain) dominate the mind, and how to exercise positive feelings. In short, the book offers both a deeper understanding of what happiness is about, and a framework for improving well-being.

An array of brain modules has evolved to care for various pursuits, but recent studies suggest that they converge on shared neural circuits designed to generate positive and negative mood. Happiness can be construed as the net output of the relevant modules. The book suggests a strategy for how to avoid having negative feelings (such as anxiety, depression and chronic pain) dominate the mind, and how to exercise positive feelings. In short, the book offers both a deeper understanding of what happiness is about, and a framework for improving well-being.

"An accessible and highly readable introduction to the Sociology of Health and Illness through the inclusion of key theorists, concepts, and theories, with reference to contemporary health concerns and recent relevant research." - Kylie Baldwin, De Montfort University

"Guides us through the many reasons for the centrality of health, showing clearly that health and illness are the products not just of our biology but of the society into which we are born...an authoritative analysis of the social nature of health." - Ray Fitzpatrick, University of Oxford

This bestselling text introduces students to the core principles of the sociology of health, demonstrating the relationship between social structures and the production and distribution of health and disease in modern society. Written with a truly sociological and critical perspective, the book tackles themes such as class, gender and ethnicity, and engages with a range of theories and theorists, including Foucault, Fleck, Parsons, Weber, and Kuhn.

The third edition has been thoroughly updated to include the latest cutting-edge thinking in the area, with new empirical examples, updated references, and new sections on 'Thought Styles after Fleck’, and ‘Transformations of the Medical Profession.' It also uses helpful learning features including chapter overviews, case studies, summaries and further reading suggestions, to provide stimulating and thought-provoking exercises for students in health, nursing and sociology schools.
The construct ‘‘quality of life (QoL)’’, since the 1980s, when it was introduced, is being used mainly in the context of health problems. Areas of one’s life that contribute to QoL are good physical and mental health, efficient cognitive functioning, social support, being able to meet the requirements of professional life, positive emotions, etc (Power, 2003). Work on subjective well-being (SWB), on the other hand, was developed in the context of healthy everyday life; it also has a history of more than 30 years. During this 30-year period factors that have an impact on SWB, such as SES, gender, health, age, and religiosity have been identified (Diener, 2000). A third independent line of research pertains to what has been called Positive Psychology (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000), that is, an emphasis on human strengths, such as optimism, hope, wisdom, positive emotions, resilience, etc., which contribute to positive functioning in life.

Recently, SWB has been associated to human strengths and to the movement of positive psychology but this did not happen for QoL, possibly because of its emphasis on people with health problems. However, QoL can be conceived of as a generic term that pertains to all people, healthy or not. In this sense, it is closely related to SWB defined as happiness (Diener, 2000). Also, QoL encompasses positive emotions that go beyond happiness and has the advantage that it can be applied to many different domains of life such as interpersonal relations, health-related situations, and professional and educational strivings. Moreover, the mechanism(s) that underpin QoL and SWB can be studied in relation to people’s goals and strengths of character, that is, from a positive psychological perspective. Such a perspective can reveal the specificities of “quality” in the various domains of life and, specifically, the positive emotions and strengths that contribute to a happier, healthier, and more successful life, even in face of adversity.

Therefore, despite the differences among the three theoretical traditions, namely QoL, SWB, and positive psychology, it is possible to find the common ground they share and each of them can benefit from notions developed in the others. The aim of the present book is to bring together these three traditions, show the interactions of variables emphasized by them, and give an integrative perspective from the positive psychology point of view. It also aims to extend the range of life situations in which one can look for quality and which go beyond the traditional emphasis of QoL on health problems. Thus, the content of the proposed book covers different age populations (from children to older adults), healthy and people facing health problems as well as people facing problems in their interpersonal lives or in their pursuits. It also discusses factors that contribute to marital satisfaction, well being in the school context, and things that people value and cherish. The chapters refer to notions such as happiness, interest, resilience, wisdom, hope, altruism, optimism, and spirituality/religiosity that represent unique human strengths. Finally, it emphasizes the role of goals and motivation that connect SWB with self-regulation and managing of one’s life priorities.

To conclude, the chapters included in the proposed edited book aim at bringing to the fore new theoretical developments and research on QoL, SWB, and positive psychology that bridges previously distinct theoretical traditions. The proposed book covers a broad range of topics, addresses different theoretical interests and paves the way for a more integrative approach. Finally, it brings together an international set of authors, from USA, Europe, Australia, and Asia.

Applied Statistics for the Social and Health Sciences provides graduate students in the social and health sciences with the basic skills that they need to estimate, interpret, present, and publish statistical models using contemporary standards. The book targets the social and health science branches such as human development, public health, sociology, psychology, education, and social work in which students bring a wide range of mathematical skills and have a wide range of methodological affinities. For these students, a successful course in statistics will not only offer statistical content but will also help them develop an appreciation for how statistical techniques might answer some of the research questions of interest to them.

This book is for use in a two-semester graduate course sequence covering basic univariate and bivariate statistics and regression models for nominal and ordinal outcomes, in addition to covering ordinary least squares regression.

Key features of the book include:

interweaving the teaching of statistical concepts with examples developed for the course from publicly-available social science data or drawn from the literature

thorough integration of teaching statistical theory with teaching data processing and analysis

teaching of both SAS and Stata "side-by-side" and use of chapter exercises in which students practice programming and interpretation on the same data set and course exercises in which students can choose their own research questions and data set.

This book is for a two-semester course. For a one-semester course, see http://www.routledge.com/9780415991544/

They work at some of America’s most hazardous jobs, have few protections, and receive some of the lowest wages. Latino Farmworkers in the Eastern United States describes this understudied and underserved population. Taking a social justice stance, this volume examines the health and living conditions of workers in agriculture, while advocating for equality. Contributors cover all major areas of illness and injury (including occupational, environmental, infections, and pesticides), while also focusing on systemic social conditions, from lax industry regulations to lack of basic services—problems that are exacerbated by workers’ status as recent immigrants. Mental health burdens from the effects of discrimination to substance use, as well as the cumulative impact of workers’ separation from families are discussed for a comprehensive, meticulously documented resource.

Keeping its findings grounded in agricultural, farm-labor, cultural, and geographic contexts, the book:

Highlights the unique characteristics of the farmworker population in the eastern United States.

Discusses occupational health problems among farmworkers, both general (e.g., musculoskeletal disorders) and job-specific (e.g., green tobacco sickness).

Includes in-depth chapters on pesticide exposure, infectious diseases, and mental health.

Reports on health issues specific to women and children.

Reviews the current state of advocacy programs.

Offers possible solutions for injuries related to specific types of jobs.

Proposes a social justice agenda to improve occupational and environmental policy for farmworkers.

Written to serve both the seasoned professional and the newcomer, Latino Farmworkers in the Eastern United States is a bedrock source of information for those providing health and social services in the community, for researchers investigating health and safety disparities, and for advocates and policymakers working to correct them.

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