More related to microbiology

This book offers a unique perspective on the invisible organ, a body part that has been visualized only recently. It guides the readers into the world of the microbial constituents that make humans the way they are. The vitamins they produce, the smell they generate, the signals they create, and the molecular guards they elaborate are some of the benefits they bestow on humans.

After introducing the notion as to why microbes are an integral component in the development of humans, the book examines the genesis of the microbiome and describes how the resident bacteria work in partnership with the skin, digestive tract, sexual organs, mouth and lungs to execute vital physiological functions. It then discusses the diseases that are triggered by the disruption of the harmonious relationships amongst these diverse systems and provides microbial cures to ailments such as obesity and digestive complications. Finally, the book focuses on the future when the workings of the human microbes will be fully unravelled. Societal changes in health education, the establishment of the microbiome bank, the fight against hunger, space travel, designer traits and enhanced security are explained. Each chapter is accompanied by captivating illustrations and ends with a visual summary.

Dr. Appanna has been researching for over 30 years on various aspects of microbial and human cellular systems. He is a professor of biochemistry and has also served as Department Chair and Dean of the Faculty at Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.

The book is aimed at readers enrolled in medical, chiropractic, nursing, pharmacy, and health science programs. Practicing health-care professionals and continuing education learners will also find the content beneficial.

The study of poxviruses has a long and distinguished history that includes Jenner’s founding work on smallpox vaccination. In the more than 200 years since that time we have seen the remarkable eradication of smallpox. It is difficult to overstate the significance of that achievement. It not only removed a disease that must rate as one of humankind’s greatest scourges, but also demonstrated the effectiveness of the general principle of vacci- tion in our battles against disease. This book begins with a review of smallpox and its causative agent, Variola virus. The vaccine used in the successful smallpox eradication c- paign, vaccinia virus, is reviewed in the following chapter that describes its origin and its use as a vaccine, as well as the current understanding of the molecular biology and pathogenesis of this virus. Vaccinia virus is the most intensively studied poxvirus and the descriptions of the biology of this virus are relevant to all vertebrate poxviruses. The eradication of smallpox has drawn attention to the potential threat posed by other orthopoxviruses that infect humans, particularly Monkeypox virus. A description of this virus is given in the third chapter. Jenner’s ori- nal vaccine is believed to have been Cowpox virus and this virus is reviewed in the chapter by Essbauer and Meyer. Additional chapters are devoted to each of the recognized genera of the vertebrate poxviruses and a f- ther chapter describes the subfamily of poxviruses infecting invertebrates. Together these provide a comprehensive review of the poxvirus family.
I have cured the Empress of Boolampoo of a Cramp she got in her tongue by eating Pork and buttered parsnips .... The Earl of Rochester-17th Century As the modern outpouring of biological information continues at ever increasing pace, two kinds of reviews are needed to keep the torrent in manageable form. The one assumes a working knowledge of the field in question and tries to bring the reader up to date by reporting and assessing the recent developments. The other attempts to assimilate the recent developments into a coherent restatement of the whole subject. This book falls in the latter category. Trichinella spiralis infection has been in the medical and biological limelight for more than a century, and interest in it continues una bated-as evidenced by what Norman Stoll called the "perennially exuberant" research on trichinosis. The infection seems to offer some thing for almost everyone. For the physician, it offers a patient with painful and sometimes fatal disease; for the public-health official, a threat to the commonweal; for the experimental biologist, a life cycle that is unique yet easily and rapidly maintained in the laboratory; for the field ecologist, a symbiont with an affinity for an extraordinary range of wildlife species; for the pork producer, a poorer profit; for the cook, a culinary constraint; and for the diner, a dietary danger. Yet, despite this breadth of interest, and the cascade of new data, the only comprehensive books on the subject in English are those of S.E.
Understand the clinically important aspects of microbiology with this full-color review

Includes more than 20 case studies

The twenty-seventh edition of Jawetz, Melnick & Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology delivers a concise, up-to-date overview of the roles microorganisms play in human health and illness. Linking fundamental principles with the diagnosis and treatment of microbial infections, this classic text has been updated throughout to reflect the tremendous expansion of medical knowledge afforded by molecular mechanisms, advances in our understanding of microbial pathogenesis, and the discovery of novel pathogens.

Along with brief descriptions of each organism, you will find vital perspectives on pathogenesis, diagnostic laboratory tests, clinical findings, treatment, and epidemiology. The book also includes an entire chapter of case studies that focuses on differential diagnosis and management of microbial infections.

Here’s why Jawetz, Melnick & Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology is essential for USMLE review:

650+ USMLE-style review questions 300+ informative tables and illustrations 23 case studies to sharpen you differential diagnosis and management skills An easy-to-access list of medically important microorganisms Coverage that reflects the latest techniques in laboratory and diagnostic technologies Full-color images and micrographs Chapter-ending summaries Chapter concept checks

Jawetz, Melnick & Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology introduces you to basic clinical microbiology through the fields of bacteriology, virology, mycology, and parasitology, giving you a thorough yet understandable review of the discipline.

Over the last several years the field of humanized mice has matured and developed into an essential component of translational research for HIV/AIDS. Humanized mice serve both as vehicles for discovery and as highly sophisticated platforms for biomedical research. In addition, humanized mice have demonstrated outstanding potential for the investigation of critical aspects of the infection and pathogenesis of the hepatitis and herpes viruses, as well as highly relevant microbial infections such as tuberculosis and malaria.

Humanized Mice for HIV Research provides a comprehensive presentation of the history, evolution, applications, and current state of the art of this unique animal model. An expansion of twelve review articles that were published in Humanized Mice by Springer in 2008 (Eds: Nomura T, Watanabe T, Habu S), this book expertly captures the outstanding progress that has been made in the development, improvement, implementation, and validation of humanized mouse models. The first two parts of this book cover the basics of human-to-mouse xenotransplantation biology, and provide critical information about human immune cell development and function based on individual models created from different immunodeficient strains of mice. The third and fourth parts investigate HIV-1 biology, including different routes of transmission, prevention, treatment, pathogenesis, and the development of adaptive immunity in humanized mice. The fifth part shows the broad applicability of humanized mice for therapeutic development, from long-acting antiretroviral combinations to genetic manipulations with human cells and cell-based approaches. The sixth part includes liver tissue engineering and the expansion of humanized mice for many other human cell-tropic pathogens.

The present volume of Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology c- tains seven chapters that illuminate various aspects of a protein’s genesis and terminal fate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This area is of immediate medical relevance and has blossomed, to no small extent, because of the study of molecules central to the function of the immune system [immunogl- ulins, T cell receptors, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-encoded products]. Similarly, the clever strategies used by bacteria or viruses to gain a foothold in the host and ensure their continued survival have uncovered altogether new cell biological principles. It is therefore ?tting that a special volume be devoted to the interplay between pathways of protein degradation in the ER and a wide variety of pathogens. The concept of quality control emerged with the appreciation that, in the case of multimeric glycoproteins, any unpaired glycoprotein subunit had great dif?culties leaving its site of synthesis—the ER—and was destroyed instead. Free immunoglobulin heavy chains were probably the earliest documented example of this kind, and were long known to cause pathology when their accumulation went unchecked. Increased knowledge of the biosynthetic pathways of glycoproteins allowed the identi?cation of the ER as an important site where such quality control decisions were made. The T cell receptor for antigen, long considered the paradigm of this mode of degradation, led the way in these early explorations.
The contacts between man and nonhuman primates enable the transmission of mic roorganisms from one species to the other. Such contact may occur at quite differ ent levels: man and nonhuman primates may share the same ecosystem including the presence of vectors in the countries of origins of monkeys and apes; the animals are captured to be sold or used for food; field researchers have to stay near the ani mals in the wild; an uncontrolled human population gets close enough to almost touch the animals in zoological gardens around the world; pet owners establish bodily contact and finally researchers doing surgery or necropsies are exposed to an increased number of pathogens liberated from the organs and body fluids. Usually monkeys and apes are more threatened with catching the microorgan isms indigenous to man than vice versa, but nevertheless outbreaks of true zoonoses with nonhuman primates as the source of infection have occurred. Also the retrans mission of originally human pathogens via nonhuman primates to man may pose a considerable risk to human health. Unfortunately the information on the different agents transmissible between man and his relatives is too disseminated for practical use, as it involves quite differ ent scientific disciplines such as virology, bacteriology, parasitology, primatology, laboratory animal science etc. It seemed therefore necessary to compile the current knowledge concerning this topic in a single publication. Human infections of simian origin may be caused by several viruses, bacteria, fungi or endoparasites. Ectoparasites, in comparison, are of little importance.
Chemokines represent a family of over 40 small proteins that, for the most part, are secreted into the environment and function by binding to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed on numerous different cell types. When initially identified close to 30 years ago, these molecules were associated with various human inflammatory diseases and it was recognized that expression may be integral in leukocyte recruitment to inflamed tissue. Within a relatively short period of time, early participants within the field determined that these proteins displayed distinct and conserved structural features and exerted potent chemotactic effects on defined lymphocyte subsets. There are now four sub-families of chemokines identified based on defined structural criteria relating to the positional location of conserved cysteine residues within the amino-terminus of the protein. Chemokines are now recognized as important in numerous biological processes ranging from maintaining the organizational integrity of secondary lymphoid tissue to participating in various aspects of both innate and adaptive immune responses following microbial infection.

The host response to viral infection represents a well-orchestrated ballet consisting of numerous participants with diverse roles in defense but with the ultimate goal of generating virus-specific lymphocytes whose job is to control and eliminate the invading viral pathogen from infected tissues. Over the years, an emerging picture has developed that indicates that chemokines and their receptors are intimately involved in development of effective host responses to viral pathogens. Chemokine expression is now associated with all facets of defense against viral infection including linking innate and adaptive immune responses.

Quickly learn the microbiology fundamentals you need to know with Medical Microbiology, 7th Edition, by Dr. Patrick R. Murray, Dr. Ken S. Rosenthal, and Dr. Michael A. Pfaller. Newly reorganized to correspond with integrated curricula and changing study habits, this practical and manageable text is clearly written and easy to use, presenting clinically relevant information about microbes and their diseases in a succinct and engaging manner. Consult this title on your favorite e-reader with intuitive search tools and adjustable font sizes. Elsevier eBooks provide instant portable access to your entire library, no matter what device you're using or where you're located. Master the essentials of medical microbiology, including basic principles, immunology, laboratory diagnosis, bacteriology, virology, mycology, and parasitology.Progress logically through consistently formatted chapters that examine etiology, epidemiology, disease presentation, host defenses, identification, diagnosis, prevention, and control for each microbe.Grasp complex material quickly with summary tables and text boxes that emphasize essential concepts and issues.Learn the most up-to-date and relevant information in medical microbiology.Study efficiently thanks to a reorganized format that places review chapters at the beginning of each section and review questions at the end of each chapter.Focus on clinical relevance with new interactive case presentations to introduce each of the microbial pathogens that illustrate the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.Visualize the clinical presentations of infections with new and updated clinical photographs, images, and illustrations.
Autophagy is a fundamental biological process that enables cells to autodigest their own cytosol during starvation and other forms of stress. It has a growing spectrum of acknowledged roles in immunity, aging, development, neurodegeneration, and cancer biology. An immunological role of autophagy was first recognized with the discovery of autophagy’s ability to sanitize the cellular interior by killing intracellular microbes. Since then, the repertoire of autophagy’s roles in immunity has been vastly expanded to include a diverse but interconnected portfolio of regulatory and effector functions. Autophagy is an effector of Th1/Th2 polarization; it fuels MHC II presentation of cytosolic (self and microbial) antigens; it shapes central tolerance; it affects B and T cell homeostasis; it acts both as an effector and a regulator of Toll-like receptor and other innate immunity receptor signaling; and it may help ward off chronic inflammatory disease in humans. With such a multitude of innate and adaptive immunity functions, the study of autophagy in immunity is one of the most rapidly growing fields of contemporary immunological research. This book introduces the reader to the fundamentals of autophagy, guides a novice and the well-informed reader alike through different immunological aspects of autophagy as well as the countermeasures used by highly adapted pathogens to fight autophagy, and provides the expert with the latest, up-to-date information on the specifics of the leading edge of autophagy research in infection and immunity.
The most concise, easy-to-use, and frequently updated review of the medically important aspects of microbiology and immunology.

654 USMLE-style practice questions test your knowledge and understanding 50 clinical cases illustrate the importance of basic science in clinical diagnosis A complete USMLE-style practice exam consisting of 80 questions Pearls for the USMLE impart important basic science information

Essential for USMLE and medical microbiology course exam preparation, the Fourteenth Edition of Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology helps you understand the clinical relevance of microbiology like no other resource. The book presents a succinct, high-yield review of the medically important aspects of microbiology and immunology, covering both the basic and clinical aspects of bacteriology, virology, mycology, parasitology, and immunology. It also discusses important infectious diseases using a logical organ system approach.

Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Fourteenth Edition emphasizes the real-world clinical application of microbiology and immunology to infectious diseases and offers a unique mix of narrative text, color images, tables and figures, chapter-ending self-assessment questions with answers, and clinical cases. To further reinforce learning, the book includes concise summaries of medically important microorganisms; a color art program that depict clinically important findings; gram stains of bacteria; electron micrographs of viruses; and microscopic images highlighting fungi, protozoa, and worms.

This book focuses on the function of antibodies in vivo. Recent years have seen an exponential growth in knowledge about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of antibody activity. These new results dramatically changed our view of how antibodies function in vivo. The importance of this class of molecules is demonstrated by the heightened susceptibility to infections of humans and mice with an altered capacity to generate pathogen specific antibody responses. Thus, the majority of our currently available vaccines, such as vaccines against influenza, measles and hepatitis focus on the generation of long lasting antibody responses. Recent evidence from a variety of in vivo model systems and from human patient cohorts has highlighted the exclusive role of cellular Fc-receptors for certain immunoglobulin isotypes and subclasses. With the recent discovery of a human Fc-receptor for IgM all different human immunoglobulin isotypes now have a cellular receptor, providing a feedback mechanism and link between antibodies and the cellular components of the immune system. Moreover it has become clear the complement and Fc-receptor system are tightly connected and regulate each other to ensure a well balanced immune response. Among the immunoglobulin isotypes IgG plays a very important protective role against microbial infections and also as a therapeutic agent to kill tumor cells or autoantibody producing B cells in autoimmune disease. Transfer of our knowledge about the crucial function of Fc-receptors has led to the production of a second generation of therapeutic antibodies with enhanced binding to this class of receptors. Binding of antibodies to Fc-receptors leads to the recruitment of the potent pro-inflammatory effector functions of cells from the innate immune system. Hence, Fc-receptors link the innate and adaptive immune system, emphasizing the importance of both arms of the immune system and their crosstalk during anti-microbial immune responses. Besides this pro-inflammatory activity immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules are long known to also have an anti-inflammatory function. This is demonstrated by the use of high dose intravenous immunoglobulins as a therapeutic agent in many human autoimmune diseases. During the past five years several new insights into the molecular and cellular pathways of this anti-inflammatory activity were gained radically changing our view of IgG function in vivo. Several lines of evidence suggest that the sugar moiety attached to the IgG molecule is responsible for these opposing activities and may be seen as a molecular switch enabling the immune system to change IgG function from a pro- to an anti-inflammatory activity. There is convincing evidence in mice and humans that aberrant IgG glycosylation could be an important new pathway for understanding the impaired antibody activity during autoimmune disease. Besides this tremendous increase in basic knowledge about factors influencing immunoglobulin activity the book will also provide insights into how these new insights might help to generate novel therapeutic approaches to enhance IgG activity for tumor therapy on the one hand, and how to block the self-destructive activity of IgG autoantibodies during autoimmune disease on the other hand.
Clinical microbiologists are engaged in the field of diagnostic microbiology to determine whether pathogenic microorganisms are present in clinical specimens collected from patients with suspected infections. If microorganisms are found, these are identified and susceptibility profiles, when indicated, are determined. During the past two decades, technical advances in the field of diagnostic microbiology have made constant and enormous progress in various areas, including bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, parasitology, and virology. The diagnostic capabilities of modern clinical microbiology laboratories have improved rapidly and have expanded greatly due to a technological revolution in molecular aspects of microbiology and immunology. In particular, rapid techniques for nucleic acid amplification and characterization combined with automation and user-friendly software have significantly broadened the diagnostic arsenal for the clinical microbiologist. The conventional diagnostic model for clinical microbiology has been labor-intensive and frequently required days to weeks before test results were available. Moreover, due to the complexity and length of such testing, this service was usually directed at the hospitalized patient population. The physical structure of laboratories, staffing patterns, workflow, and turnaround time all have been influenced profoundly by these technical advances. Such changes will undoubtedly continue and lead the field of diagnostic microbiology inevitably to a truly modern discipline.

Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology provides a comprehensive and up-to-date description of advanced methods that have evolved for the diagnosis of infectious diseases in the routine clinical microbiology laboratory. The book is divided into two sections. The first techniques section covers the principles and characteristics of techniques ranging from rapid antigen testing, to advanced antibody detection, to in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques, and to nucleic acid microarray and mass spectrometry. Sufficient space is assigned to cover different nucleic acid amplification formats that are currently being used widely in the diagnostic microbiology field. Within each technique, examples are given regarding its application in the diagnostic field. Commercial product information, if available, is introduced with commentary in each chapter. If several test formats are available for a technique, objective comparisons are given to illustrate the contrasts of their advantages and disadvantages. The second applications section provides practical examples of application of these advanced techniques in several "hot" spots in the diagnostic field. A diverse team of authors presents authoritative and comprehensive information on sequence-based bacterial identification, blood and blood product screening, molecular diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, advances in mycobacterial diagnosis, novel and rapid emerging microorganism detection and genotyping, and future directions in the diagnostic microbiology field.

We hope our readers like this technique-based approach and your feedback is highly appreciated. We want to thank the authors who devoted their time and efforts to produce their chapters. We also thank the staff at Springer Press, especially Melissa Ramondetta, who initiated the whole project. Finally, we greatly appreciate the constant encouragement of our family members through this long effort. Without their unwavering faith and full support, we would never have had the courage to commence this project.

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