More related to cosmology

In order to start a discussion on any new idea, or even a proposal, a baseline must be established. It is a bit like going to a psychiatrist and asking for a diagnosis on a human subject. The psychiatrist must conduct a series of tests to determine the subjects baseline condition to see how the neurons are firing. In this chapter we will attempt to baseline our knowledge of the day and see what inspires the biological life to explore, to plan to go, and to aspire to move to a different planet.

Let us think of a giant spaceship named paradise. In this spaceship, there is a group of beings including man that has disobeyed the commander. The commander must evict this group from the paradise per the rules of the spaceship. So the commander looks for a suitable planet. Let us call this planet the Earth. The spaceship hovers over the Earth. The commander lays down the law to this group and says: get down. He then foretells them more bad news that some of you will be the enemies of the other (i.e. you will shed each others blood). At the end of the verdict he gives them a little good news: and for you, this Earth is the destination and has in it all the provisions that you will need to survive, for a time.

Well! That time is up; the time has come for the biological life on Earth to start a journey in the cosmos on its own strength, and the first steps have already been taken.

1.1 The Urge to Explore
The urge to explore and to multiply takes a Monarch Butterfly from Canada across the United States to Mexico, some two thousand miles. Its wings barely span a few inches and the body weighs not even a quarter of an ounce and yet it fearlessly soars across the Great Lakes and into the Great Plains facing every predator and hostile elements that are unthinkable from its point of view. The pilgrimage happens every year and the Day of Judgment arrives for a generation of the monarchs with the same frequency. There is grace and beauty in this exploration. It has in it a goal; it has in it full success; and it has new life. It has in it the beautiful death of the old and after the burial, the beginning of a new sacred mission of the next generation.

Then there is a species of fish collectively known as Salmon. They lay their eggs in freshwater streams typically at high latitudes. The eggs hatch and evolve in various forms staying from one to three years in their fresh water stream. Ah, it is estimated that only 10% of all salmon eggs survive to this stage. Then they move to an area of the water, in the direction of the ocean, which is more brackish than fresh allowing the body chemistry to change, to live in salt water. In science this process is called Osmoregulation. They then proceed to the open ocean and live there for as long as four years. They endure a dangerous predatory world and under heavy ocean pressures explore a new world. Close to the end, they mature sexually and when that happens they march to a sacred pilgrimage with the only sense of the regeneration of life and return to the fresh waters they came from. Some of these fresh water streams are as far away as a thousand miles both from the Pacific and in the Atlantic Oceans. Swimming a thousand miles against the currents under water is like flying a hundred thousand miles in the air. In moving back to the birth place, they journey upstream, continuously struggling, but never losing the urge to arrive at the spawning site, even as they sense (?) other members being devoured by a host of predators. After spawning, after completing their sacred journey, they gracefully die and the next generation takes over.

Let us now move to another part of the Planet Earth, deep down, in the Mariana Trench, roughly thirty six thousand feet deep in the Pacific Ocean; in fact so deep that if Mount Everest were to be submerged totally in it, all of roughly twenty-nine thousand feet, we will still have seven thousand feet of water left above it. At the bottom of the trench the pressure is roughly 15000 psi; and that is over one thousand times that of the normal atmospheric pressure. The Miracle of Life still exists without light and without the warmth of the Sun. The organism and life sustains itself from the warmth derived out of the core of the Earth. There are single-celled organisms that are thought to resemble some of the world's earliest life forms. They may be single-celled called foraminifera but there are an estimated 4,000 species living. They inhabit a wide range of marine environments, mostly on the ocean bottom. The discovery at this depth of these foraminifera living in dirt surprised even the scientists from Japans Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (who led the exploration).

The twentieth century was astonishing in all regards, shaking the foundations of practically every aspect of human life and thought, physics not least of all. Beginning with the publication of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, through the wild revolution of quantum mechanics, and up until the physics of the modern day (including the astonishing revelation, in 1998, that the Universe is not only expanding, but doing so at an ever-quickening pace), much of what physicists have seen in our Universe suggests that much of our Universe is unseen—that we live in a dark cosmos.

Everyone knows that there are things no one can see—the air you're breathing, for example, or, to be more exotic, a black hole. But what everyone does not know is that what we can see—a book, a cat, or our planet—makes up only 5 percent of the Universe. The rest—fully 95 percent—is totally invisible to us; its presence discernible only by the weak effects it has on visible matter around it.

This invisible stuff comes in two varieties—dark matter and dark energy. One holds the Universe together, while the other tears it apart. What these forces really are has been a mystery for as long as anyone has suspected they were there, but the latest discoveries of experimental physics have brought us closer to that knowledge. Particle physicist Dan Hooper takes his readers, with wit, grace, and a keen knack for explaining the toughest ideas science has to offer, on a quest few would have ever expected: to discover what makes up our dark cosmos.

Scientists studying the universe find strange things in two placesâ€"out in space and in their heads. This is the story of how the most imaginative physicists of our time perceive strange features of the universe in advance of the actual discoveries.

It is almost a given that physics and cosmology present us with some of the grandest mysteries of all. What weightier questions to ponder than, "How does the universe work?" or "What is the universe made of?" There are any number of bizarre phenomena that could provide clues or even answers to these queries. The strangeness ranges from unusual forms of matter and realms of existence to wild ideas about how time and space are related to one another. Many of these proposals may well turn out to be wrong. But how many will be proven to be right?

This book speaks for the scientific theorists who are bold enough to imagine and predict the impossible. New ideas are percolating in their heads every day. One physicist may dream of subatomic particles that could resolve a variety of cosmological conundrums while another may study the likes of "funny energy," which may explain how rapidly the universe is expanding. This is the stuff of Strange Matters.

In broad terms, this book is about a variety of discoveries that theorists of the past imagined before the observers and experimenters actually saw them. Moreover, it is about the things that today’s are now imaginingâ€"but haven't yet been discovered or confirmed by the observers. Strange Matters artfully mixes the present with the past and future, reporting from the frontiers of research where history is in the process of being made.

Each chapter examines a different step along the twisted path we've walked to gain our rudimentary understanding of the universe, incorporating historical examples of successful "prediscoveries" with current stories that relate brand new ideas. We come to see the universe not only in terms of what has already been discovered, but also in terms of what has yet to be observed.

Strange Matters is a guide to the discoveries of the twenty-first century, a series of visions dreamt by the most imaginative scientists of our time merged with the achievements of the pastâ€"to point the way towards even greater accomplishments of the future.

Whether discussing theories of cosmology, the physics of making a violin, or the impact of magazine covers on potential buyers, physicist and writer Tony Rothman brings the worlds of the scientist and nonscientist closer together, with amusing and enlightening results. These essays, which bear the mark of Rothman's outspoken humor and dislike for pretense, convey essential ideas to general readers on such topics as the future of the universe, the design of particle accelerators, the intelligent use of statistics, and the making of quality musical instruments. At the same time they provide insight into how the mind of a scientist works, not only in research but also in the "real" world of three-piece suits and mass media. The outlook of physicists, according to the author, often puts them at odds with nonscientists--but Rothman never hides his points of disagreement. In his title essay on being a major magazine editor, he recalls using bell curves and elementary statistics in an attempt to convince the circulation department that fluctuations in sales are unavoidable (despite what they thought). Although Rothman claims that scientists do enjoy playing the role of Faust, the scholar in eternal pursuit of Truth, his essays attest to a scientific interest fully in tune with human concerns.

Originally published in 1991.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

This book is about the history and the current state of the art in the exciting field of cosmology — the science about the Universe as a whole, which is guaranteed to attract the attention of a wide range of readers. It mostly aims to explain the main ideas of modern cosmology: the expanding Universe, its creation in a Big Bang, its evolution, characteristics, and structure, as well as issues — dark matter and dark energy, black holes and other exotic objects etc. It also answers most frequently asked questions about cosmology.

How the Universe Works stands between a popular science book and a textbook, acting as a sort of a bridge across the great chasm separating popular science from true science. It can be also used as an introductory textbook for undergraduate students. It is also suitable for the non-experts in cosmology who wish to have an overview of the current state of the field. It is different from most popular science books because it avoids cutting corners in explanations and contains justification for various assumptions or estimations made in cosmology. It does not hide problems faced by modern cosmology as well as issues the community has no consensus about. It also does not try to pass hypotheses for established theories, which is not uncommon in scholarly articles.

Contents: The Laws of the UniverseThe Expanding UniverseEarly UniverseDark MatterDark EnergyBlack Holes and Other Exotics
Readership: Students and teachers, also suitable for the general public, together with astronomy enthusiasts.
Keywords: Cosmology;Popular Science;Physics;Gravitation;Relativity;Astrophysics;Universe;Big BangReview: Key Features: The book offers high-quality popular description of cosmology and related subjects, aimed both at general audience and professional scientists from other fieldsThe book contains detailed and comprehensive explanations of all main cosmological issues, as well as the latest available data and results with due discussionThe book contains the derivation of cosmological equations without the use of the complicated mathematical formalism of General Relativity, and thus can be used as a basic textbook
Addressing a variety of theoretical cosmological problems, and emphasizing a mathematical approach, this volume nicely complements Peebles' Physical Cosmology (Princeton Series in Physics, 1971).

Ryan and Shepley have concentrated on the structure of models of the universe. By using a modern terminology that emphasizes the operator nature of vectors and tensors, as opposed to their components in a particular coordinate system, the authors develop modern tensor analysis to the point where it can be applied to general relativistic cosmology. They then use it to describe homogeneous cosmologies in considerable detail. Both students and researchers are likely to find these techniques especially useful.

Among their subjects are: spaces with groups of motions; singularities; Taub-NUT-Misner space; Bianchitype models; Hamiltonian cosmology; and perturbations in anisotropic models. A brief section on observations is also included, as is a complete bibliography. A final section presents graded exercises that underscore the potential yet unrealized in this area of study.

Originally published in 1975.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

The Big Bang, the birth of the universe, was a singular event. All of the matter of the universe was concentrated at a single point, with temperatures so high that even the familiar protons and neutrons of atoms did not yet exist, but rather were replaced by a swirling maelstrom of energy, matter and antimatter. Exotic quarks and leptons flickered briefly into existence, before merging back into the energy sea.This book explains the fascinating world of quarks and leptons and the forces that govern their behavior. Told from an experimental physicist's perspective, it forgoes mathematical complexity, using instead particularly accessible figures and apt analogies. In addition to the story of quarks and leptons, which are regarded as well-accepted fact, the author (who is a leading researcher at one of the world's highest energy particle physics laboratories) also discusses mysteries at both the experimental and theoretical frontiers, before tying it all together with the exciting field of cosmology and indeed the birth of the universe itself.The text spans the tiny world of the quark to the depths of the universe with breathtaking clarity. The casual student of science will appreciate the careful distinction between what is known (quarks, leptons and antimatter), what is suspected (Higgs bosons, neutrino oscillations and the reason why the universe has so little antimatter) and what is merely dreamed (supersymmetry, superstrings and extra dimensions). Included is an unprecedented chapter explaining the accelerators and detectors of modern particle physics experiments. The chapter discussing the hunt for the Higgs boson — currently consuming the efforts of nearly 6000 physicists — reveals drama that only big-stakes science can give. Understanding the Universe leaves the reader with a deep appreciation of the fascinating particle realm and reverence for just how much it determines the rich beauty of our universe.Since the release of the first edition, the landscape has changed. The venerable Fermilab Tevatron has ceased operations after a quarter century of extraordinary performance, to be replaced by the CERN Large Hadron Collider, an accelerator with a design energy of seven times greater than the Tevatron and a collision rate of nearly a billion collisions per second. The next few years promise to be very exciting as scientists explore this new realm. This revised edition of Understanding the Universe will leave the reader with a deep appreciation of just why physicists are so excited.
Evolution in general means a process of change or transformation. Evolution commonly used to refer to biological, genetic or organic evolution. Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generation.
History of evolutionary theory refers to Overview, Renaissance, Before Darwin, Darwin, Origin of Species, Before synthesis, Modern synthesis, Molecular evolution, Evo-devo, Current research, History of speciation, History of paleontology, etc.
Modern synthesis theory of evolution shed light on population genetics, genetic variation, natural selection, eclipse of Darwinism and non-Darwinian theories of evolution. Malthusian completion and variation lead to Natural selection.Mutation lead to Genetic variation and Mendelian inheritance. All these together ended in Modern synthesis.
Vedic evolution refers to the philosophy and science of evolution according to Vedas. Hinduism sheds light of the Origin of life, creation and evolution based on Vedas, Brahmanas and Puranas. The Rigveda mentions the Hiranyagarbha (“golden embryo”) as the source of the Personal and Impersonal Universe, similar to the “world egg” motif found in the creation myths of many other civilizations.
Hindus find support for evolution in scriptures. Dashavatara has similarities to Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution. The Shatapatha Brahmana states that the current human generation descends from Manu, the only man who survived is comparable to the other flood legends, such as the story of the Noah’s Ark mentioned in the Bible and the Quran.
Hindu Dharma believes in the evolution and involution of forms of lives according to Karma of individuals. In every form of species exists the soul that stands as eternal witness of thoughts of mind that becomes actions.
Author of this book, exhibits his findings of serious research about “Evolution according to Vedas, in relation to that of contemporary modern synthesis theory of evolution, that the origin of man is time immemorial. The end of man is the climax of human evolution i.e., Suddha Prajne, i.e., Pure Consciousness, which is the embodiment of “Sat Chit Ananda i.e,. Eternal Truth – Eternal Knowledge – Eternal Bliss.”
The book “Vedic Evolution : Its Philosophy and Science” may become a source book for finding solutions to Global Harmony, Happiness and Peace. Human life lead naturally leads to Pure Consciousness.Vedic Evolution is the evolution of human life from: “Falsity to Truth; from Ignorance to Wisdom; from Death to Immortality.” Vedic message to humanity is: “O Man, you have to live hundred years, evolving healthily-happily and spiritually, until you become one with THAT SUPREME PURE CONSCIOUSNESS WHICH IS ALL PERVASIVE, BOTH IN THE SEEN AND UNSEEN COSMIC EGG OR BRAHMANADA.”
This is a book about time, that mysterious web in which we seem to be trapped. Many poets, philosophers, and scientists have tried to explore some of its mysteries, such as the Arrow of Time (Why must there be one?), the beginning and end (Was there a beginning? Will there be an end?), and questions concerning time travel (Is it possible?).

Ordinary clock time, as extended by Einstein, has been the starting point for most explorations. This kind of time is easily described and measured, but is not easily related to subjective human experience or to the deep questions mentioned above. The author introduces another measure of time, called entropic time, which is directly related to the processes of aging, changing, and decaying that we observe and experience.

Modern physics and astronomy have shown that entropic time is indeed irreversible, is always increasing, that it started from zero at the event we call the big bang, and that it corresponds to the aging and expansion of the universe ever since. That’s the bad news.

The author notes that many people seem to have surrendered any hope of renewal, dreaming instead of escape from a doomed earth by travel to other planets. He maintains that such speculations are folly and that we must rather cherish and conserve this beautiful planet that we occupy instead of going out to trash other planets as well.

The good news is that the Creator of the universe is also the Lord of Time, the Alpha and the Omega, and that the chaos and decay that we see will end with the resurrection of those who have died in Christ and the renewal of the universe. This is the promise from God’s Word.

Before anybody can make any valid claims about the Universe, they have to at least know what space is and how it works, since everything in the Universe is contained in one vast space. The space that contains us is the same as the space that is contained within us. Because there is only one space, it contains everything. As we uncover the secrets about space, we will all marvel at the power the Universe makes available to us. Right now we are being handed a story about the Big Bang that supposedly started this Universe many billions of years ago and the fact is, thats rubbish! Our job, as citizens of the Planet Earth, is to figure out what our relationship with the infinite Universe really is. This treatise represents an interpretation of our perception which is slightly different from what we have all learned growing up. Life is not the way it appears to be, it is the way we think it appears to be. That subtle difference means on the one hand, we sit back and watch what happens to our planet as the climate changes globally, or on the other hand, we actively participate in the direction our planet evolves in. We have more responsibility for our destiny than most folks realize. The Big Bang implies the beginning of the Universe and that is impossible for something which has always existed. The flaw is in our thinking. In a world defined by solids, everything has dimensions which start here and end there, so there has to be a beginning. But thats a man-made restriction; invented by physicists to accommodate proven theories, like Einsteins General Relativity. What we propose is that there is another way to account for observed phenomena. Since we live in an infinite Universe, it never ends. It has no beginning. It doesnt need one. There is a much easier way to explain the expansion of the Universe. To change our behavior we have to change the way we think. That is not an easy task. Once we develop a functioning lifestyle, we are not quick to alter our behavior. Im hoping the idea of changing our collective consciousness becomes a fad; something everybody wants to do once they see how satisfying it can be to help one another and how important it is for the destiny of our planet. To change the way we think it is important to know how we think. Behind the behavior we demonstrate there are two formative thought process groups. Each group represents a behavioral paradigm that is antecedent to what we actually do. One we shall link to subliminal behavior, the other to cognized behavior. The unity between them, like the pool of profoundly deep clear-blue water upon which they float, we shall come to know as our Universal Identity. We are the pride and joy of the Universe but we are not taught that. Now that we know what space is, we are ready to learn the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.
What would it be like to see the whole history of the universe, from the moment of creation to the farthest future? Deep Time shows us - through the eyes of a single particle that emerges from the fires of genesis then journeys across countless billions of years to glimpse the ultimate fate of the cosmos. Along the way, we watch the formation of stars and galaxies, narrowly avoid falling into a black hole, witness the birth of the sun and earth, trace the evolution of life and intelligence, and blast off into space again with our particle now part of the Voyager 2 spacecraft. Then we travel on, across immense vistas of space and time, toward the end of all things - and a strange new beginning." David Darling is the author of about 50 books, including narrative science titles Megacatastrophes!, We Are Not Alone, Gravity's Arc, Equations of Eternity, a New York Times Notable Book, and Deep Time. He is also the author of Teleportation: The Impossible Leap, Zen Physics, The Universal Book of Astronomy, The Complete Book of Spaceflight, and The Universal Book of Mathematics, as well as more than 30 children's books. His articles and reviews have appeared in Astronomy, Omni, Penthouse, New Scientist, the New York Times, and the Guardian among others. He has lectured widely, including at the Royal Institution in London. David Darling was born in Glossop, Derbyshire, England, lived in the United States for many years, and now lives in Dundee, Scotland. He earned his B.Sc. in physics from Sheffield University in 1974 and his Ph.D. in astronomy from Manchester University in 1977. David Darling is also a professional singer/songwriter and runs a major science website. Please visit the Worlds of David Darling - www.daviddarling.info Keywords - Universe, Astrophysics, Astronomy, Particle, Space, Cosmos, Evolution, David Darling, Sun, Earth, Travel
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