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Reflecting recent changes in the way cognition and the brain are studied, this thoroughly updated third edition of the best-selling textbook provides a comprehensive and student-friendly guide to cognitive neuroscience. Jamie Ward provides an easy-to-follow introduction to neural structure and function, as well as all the key methods and procedures of cognitive neuroscience, with a view to helping students understand how they can be used to shed light on the neural basis of cognition.

The book presents an up-to-date overview of the latest theories and findings in all the key topics in cognitive neuroscience, including vision, memory, speech and language, hearing, numeracy, executive function, social and emotional behaviour and developmental neuroscience, as well as a new chapter on attention. Throughout, case studies, newspaper reports and everyday examples are used to help students understand the more challenging ideas that underpin the subject.

In addition each chapter includes:

Summaries of key terms and points

Example essay questions

Recommended further reading

Feature boxes exploring interesting and popular questions and their implications for the subject.

Written in an engaging style by a leading researcher in the field, and presented in full-color including numerous illustrative materials, this book will be invaluable as a core text for undergraduate modules in cognitive neuroscience. It can also be used as a key text on courses in cognition, cognitive neuropsychology, biopsychology or brain and behavior. Those embarking on research will find it an invaluable starting point and reference.

The Student’s Guide to Cognitive Neuroscience, 3rd Edition

is supported by a companion website, featuring helpful resources for both students and instructors.
Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used for decades to study perception, cognition, emotion, neurological and psychiatric disorders, and lifespan development. ERPs consist of multiple components and reflect a specific neurocognitive process. In the past, there was no single source that could be consulted to learn about all the major ERP components; learning about a single ERP component required reading dozens or even hundreds of separate journal articles and book chapters. The Oxford Handbook of Event-Related Potential Components fills this longstanding void with a detailed and comprehensive review of the major ERP components. Comprising 22 chapters by the field's founders and leading researchers, this volume offers extensive coverage of all relevant topics: - the fundamental nature of ERP components, including essential information about how ERP components are defined and isolated - individual components, such as the N170, P300, and ERN - groups of related components within specific research domains, such as language, emotion, and memory - ERP components in special populations, including children, the elderly, nonhuman primates, and patients with neurological disorders, affective disorders, and schizophrenia While undeniably broad in scope, these chapters are accessible to novices while remaining informative and engaging to experts. The Oxford Handbook of Event-Related Potential Components is a unique and valuable resource for students and researchers throughout the brain sciences.
Section I: Reaction time and mental speed 1. Ageing and response times: a comparison of sequential sampling models, Roger Ratcliff, Anjali Thapar, Philip L. Smith & Gail McKoon2. Inconsistency in response time as an indicator of cognitive ageing, David F. Hultsch, Michael A. Hunter, Stuart W. S. MacDonald & Esther Strauss3. Ageing and the ability to ignore irrelevant information in visual search and enumeration tasks, Elizabeth A. Maylor & Derrick G. Watson4. Individual differences and cognitive models of the mind: using the differentiation hypothesis to distinguish general and specific cognitive processes, Mike Anderson & Jeff Nelson5. Reaction time parameters, intelligence aging and death: the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study, Ian J. Deary & Geoff Der6. The wrong tree: time perception and time experience in the elderly, John WeardenSection II: Cognitive control and frontal lobe function 7. The chronometrics of task-set control, Stephen Monsell8. An evaluation of the frontal lobe theory of cognitive ageing, Louise H. Phillips & Julie D. Henry9. The gateway hypothesis of rostral prefrontal cortex (area 10) function, Paul W. Burgess, Jon S. Simons, Iroise Dumontheil & Sam J. Gilbert10. Prefrontal cortex and Spearmans g, John DuncanSection III: Memory and age 11. On reducing age-related declines in memory and executive control, Fergus I. M. Craik12. Working memory and ageing, Alan Baddeley, Hilary Baddeley, Dino Chincotta, Simona Luzzi & Christobel Meikle13. The own-age effect in face recognition, Timothy J. Perfect & Helen C. MoonSection IV: Real-world cognition 14. Cognitive ethology: giving real life to attention research, Alan Kingstone, Daniel Smilek, Elina Birmingham, Dave Cameron & Walter Bischof15. Are automated actions beyond conscious access?, Peter McLeod, Peter Sommerville & Nick Reed16. Operator functional state: the prediction of breakdown in human performance, Robert J. Hockey
Consciousness seems to be an enigmatic phenomenon: it is difficult to imagine how our perceptions of the world and our inner thoughts, sensations and feelings could be related to the immensely complicated biological organ we call the brain. This volume presents the thoughts of some of the leading philosophers and cognitive scientists who have recently participated in the discussion of the status of consciousness in science. The focus of inquiry is the question: "Is it possible to incorporate consciousness into science?" Philosophers have suggested different alternatives -- some think that consciousness should be altogether eliminated from science because it is not a real phenomenon, others that consciousness is a real, higher-level physical or neurobiological phenomenon, and still others that consciousness is fundamentally mysterious and beyond the reach of science. At the same time, however, several models or theories of the role of conscious processing in the brain have been developed in the more empirical cognitive sciences. It has been suggested that non-conscious processes must be sharply separated from conscious ones, and that the necessity of this distinction is manifested in the curious behavior of certain brain-damaged patients.

This book demonstrates the dialogue between philosophical and empirical points of view. The writers present alternative solutions to the brain-consciousness problem and they discuss how the unification of biological and psychological sciences could thus become feasible. Covering a large ground, this book shows how the philosophical and empirical problems are closely interconnected. From this interdisciplinary exploration emerges the conviction that consciousness can and should be a natural part of our scientific world view.
Is it possible to learn something without being aware of it?
How does emotion influence the way we think?
How can we improve our memory?

Fundamentals of Cognition, third edition, provides a basic, reader-friendly introduction to the key cognitive processes we use to interact successfully with the world around us. Our abilities in attention, perception, learning, memory, language, problem solving, thinking, and reasoning are all vitally important in enabling us to cope with everyday life. Understanding these processes through the study of cognitive psychology is essential for understanding human behaviour.

This edition has been thoroughly updated and revised with an emphasis on making it even more accessible to introductory-level students. Bringing on board Professor Marc Brysbaert, a world-leading researcher in the psychology of language, as co-author, this new edition includes:

developed and extended research activities and "In the Real World" case studies to make it easy for students to engage with the material; new real-world topics such as discussions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the reading problems of individuals with dyslexia, why magic tricks work, and why we cannot remember the Apple logo accurately; a supporting companion website containing multiple choice questions, flashcards, sample essay answers, instructor resources, and more.

The book provides a perfect balance between traditional approaches to cognition and cutting-edge cognitive neuroscience and cognitive neuropsychology. Covering all the key topics within cognition, this comprehensive overview is essential reading for all students of cognitive psychology and related areas such as clinical psychology.

"Cognitive psychology," "cognitive neuroscience," and "philosophy of mind" are names for three very different scientific fields, but they label aspects of the same scientific goal: to understand the nature of mental phenomena. Today, the three disciplines strongly overlap under the roof of the cognitive sciences. The book's purpose is to present views from the different disciplines on one of the central theories in cognitive science: the theory of mental models. Cognitive psychologists report their research on the representation and processing of mental models in human memory. Cognitive neuroscientists demonstrate how the brain processes visual and spatial mental models and which neural processes underlie visual and spatial thinking. Philosophers report their ideas about the role of mental models in relation to perception, emotion, representation, and intentionality. The single articles have different and mutually complementing goals: to introduce new empirical methods and approaches, to report new experimental results, and to locate competing approaches for their interpretation in the cross-disciplinary debate. The book is strongly interdisciplinary in character. It is especially addressed to researchers in any field related to mental models theory as both a reference book and an overview of present research on the topic in other disciplines. However, it is also an ideal reader for a specialized graduate course.Examines the theory of mental models from the perspectives of cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience and philosophy of the mindIntroduces new empirical methods, experimental results, and interdisciplinary yet complementary approachesServes as a reference book and an overview of current research
When we try to remember whether we left a window open or closed, do we actually see the window in our mind? If we do, does this mental image play a role in how we think? For almost a century, scientists have debated whether mental images play a functional role in cognition. In The Case for Mental Imagery, Stephen Kosslyn, William Thompson, and Giorgio Ganis present a complete and unified argument that mental images do depict information, and that these depictions do play a functional role in human cognition. They outline a specific theory of how depictive representations are used in information processing, and show how these representations arise from neural processes. To support this theory, they seamlessly weave together conceptual analyses and the many varied empirical findings from cognitive psychology and neuroscience. In doing so, they present the conceptual grounds for positing this type of internal representation and summarize and refute arguments to the contrary. Their argument also serves as a historical review of the imagery debate from its earliest inception to its most recent phases, and provides ample evidence that significant progress has been made in our understanding of mental imagery. In illustrating how scientists think about one of the most difficult problems in psychology and neuroscience, this book goes beyond the debate to explore the nature of cognition and to draw out implications for the study of consciousness. Student and professional researchers in vision science, cognitive psychology, philosophy, and neuroscience will find The Case for Mental Imagery to be an invaluable resource for understanding not only the imagery debate, but also and more broadly, the nature of thought, and how theory and research shape the evolution of scientific debates.
Representation of the visual and spatial properties of our environment is a pivotal requirement of everyday cognition. We can mentally represent the visual form of objects. We can extract information from several of the senses as to the location of objects in relation to ourselves and to other objects nearby. For some of those objects we can reach out and manipulate them. We can also imagine ourselves manipulating objects in advance of doing so, or even when it would be impossible to do so physically. The problem posed to science is how these cognitive operations are accomplished, and proffered accounts lie in two essentially parallel research endeavours, working memory and imagery. Working memory is thought to pervade everyday cognition, to provide on-line processing and temporary storage, and to update, moment to moment, our representation of the current state of our environment and our interactions with that environment.
There is now a strong case for the claims of working memory in the area of phonological and articulatory functions, all of which appear to contribute to everyday activities such as counting, arithmetic, vocabulary acquisition, and some aspects of reading and language comprehension. The claims for visual and spatial working memory functions are less convincing. Most notable has been the assumption that visual and spatial working memory are intimately involved in the generation, retention and manipulations of visual images. There has until recently been little hard evidence to justify that assumption, and the research on visual and spatial working memory has focused on a relatively restricted range of imagery tasks and phenomena.
In a more or less independent development, the literature on visual imagery has now amassed a voluminous corpus of data and theory about a wide range of imagery phenomena. Despite this, few books on imagery refer to the concept of working memory in any detail, or specify the nature of the working memory system that might be involved in mental imagery.
This essay follows a line of reconciliation and positive critiquing in exploring the possible overlap between mental imagery and working memory. Theoretical development in the book draws on data from both cognitive psychology and cognitive neuropsychology. The aim is to stimulate debate, to address directly a number of assumptions that hitherto have been implicit, and to assess the contribution of the concept of working memory to our understanding of these intriguing core aspects of human cognition.
This volume presents a state-of-the-science review of the most promising current European research -- and its historic roots of research -- on complex problem solving (CPS) in Europe. It is an attempt to close the knowledge gap among American scholars regarding the European approach to understanding CPS. Although most of the American researchers are well aware of the fact that CPS has been a very active research area in Europe for quite some time, they do not know any specifics about even the most important research. Part of the reason for this lack of knowledge is undoubtedly the fact that European researchers -- for the most part -- have been rather reluctant to publish their work in English-language journals.

The book concentrates on European research because the basic approach European scholars have taken to studying CPS is very different from one taken by North American researchers. Traditionally, American scholars have been studying CPS in "natural" domains -- physics, reading, writing, and chess playing -- concentrating primarily on exploring novice-expert differences and the acquisition of a complex skill. European scholars, in contrast, have been primarily concerned with problem solving behavior in artificially generated, mostly computerized, complex systems. While the American approach has the advantage of high external validity, the European approach has the advantage of system variables that can be systematically manipulated to reveal the effects of system parameters on CPS behavior. The two approaches are thus best viewed as complementing each other.

This volume contains contributions from four European countries -- Sweden, Switzerland, Great Britain, and Germany. As such, it accurately represents the bulk of empirical research on CPS which has been conducted in Europe. An international cooperation started two years ago with the goal of bringing the European research on complex problem solving to the awareness of American scholars. A direct result of that effort, the contributions to this book are both informative and comprehensive.
This volume tells the story of research on the cognitive processes of writing—from the perspectives of the early pioneers, the contemporary contributors, and visions of the future for the field.

Writing processes yield important insights into human cognition, and is increasingly becoming a mainstream topic of investigation in cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Technological advances have made it possible to study cognitive writing processes as writing unfolds in real time. This book provides an introduction to these technologies.

The first part of the volume provides the historical context for the significance of writing research for contemporary cognitive psychology and honors the pioneers in cognitive and social-cognitive research in this field. The book then explores the rapidly expanding work on the social foundations of cognitive processes in writing and considers not only gender differences but also gender similarities in writing. The third part presents a lifespan view of writing in early and middle childhood, adolescence, higher education, and the world of work. There follows an examination of the relationships of language processes –at the word, sentence, and text levels—to the cognitive processes in writing. Part V covers representative research on the cognitive processes of writing—translation and reviewing and revision—and the working memory mechanisms that support those processes. A review of the current technologies used to study these cognitive processes on-line as they happen in real time is provided. Part VII provides an introduction to the emerging new field of the cognitive neuroscience of writing made possible by the rapidly evolving brain imaging technologies, which are interpretable in reference to paradigms in cognitive psychology of writing. The final section of the book offers visions of the future of writing research from the perspective of contemporary leaders in writing research.

Cases of language loss and recovery bring up an intriguing paradox. If two languages are stored in the brain, how can it be that a person can lose one of them, but not the other, and then gain one back without relearning it? The traditional models of how a language is represented in the brain suggest that languages can become inaccessible, even though they are not entirely lost. As the author demonstrates through fascinating cases, stress--whether due to foreign language immersion, sleep deprivation, or brain damage--can lead to the apparent loss of one language, but not the other. Arturo Hernandez presents the results of 25 years of research into the factors that might help us to understand how two (or more) languages are stored in one brain. It is clear that the brain is not egalitarian--some languages are privileged and others are not, but why? Hernandez will extend recent work that has begun to take a biological or natural systems approach. He proposes that, in bilinguals, two languages live inside a brain almost like two species live in an ecosystem. For the most part they peacefully co-exist and often share resources. But they also compete for resources, particularly when under stress. Although there are still many questions to answer and many puzzles to solve, Hernandez argues that the nonlinear dynamical models, which have been used to uncover the underlying mechanisms seen in natural systems and more recently in language and cognition, can be used to shed considerable light on the neural bases of bilingualism.
Though many factors can influence the likelihood that we remember a past experience, one critical determinant is whether the experience caused us to have an emotional response. Emotional experiences are more likely to be remembered than nonemotional ones, and over the past couple of decades there has been an increased interest in understanding how emotion conveys this memory benefit.

This book begins with a broad overview of emotion, memory, and the neural underpinnings of each, providing the reader with an appreciation of the complex interplay between emotion and memory. It then examines how emotion influences young adults’ abilities to store information temporarily, or over the long term. It explains emotion’s influence on the memory processes that young adults use consciously and on the processes that guide young adults’ preferences and actions without their awareness. This book then moves on to describe how each of these influences of emotion are affected by the aging process, and by age-related disease, providing the reader with a lifespan perspective of emotional memory.

Within each of the domains covered, the book integrates research from cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and neuropsychological perspectives, examining both the behavioral and thought processes that lead to emotion’s effects on memory and also the underlying brain processes that guide those influences of emotion.

This book will be of interest to researchers and graduate students in memory, emotion, and aging, working in the fields of cognitive psychology, cognitive or affective neuroscience, and developmental or lifespan psychology.

The Roots of Cognitive Neuroscience takes a close look at what we can learn about our minds from how brain damage impairs our cognitive and emotional systems. This approach has a long and rich tradition dating back to the 19th century. With the rise of new technologies, such as functional neuroimaging and non-invasive brain stimulation, interest in mind-brain connections among scientists and the lay public has grown exponentially. Behavioral neurology and neuropsychology offer critical insights into the neuronal implementation of large-scale cognitive and affective systems. The book starts out by making a strong case for the role of single case studies as a way to generate new hypotheses and advance the field. This chapter is followed by a review of work done before the First World War demonstrating that the theoretical issues that investigators faced then remain fundamentally relevant to contemporary cognitive neuroscientists. The rest of the book covers central topics in cognitive neuroscience including the nature of memory, language, perception, attention, motor control, body representations, the self, emotions, and pharmacology. There are chapters on modeling and neuronal plasticity as well as on visual art and creativity. Each of these chapters take pains to clarify how this research strategy informs our understanding of these large scale systems by scrutinizing the systematic nature of their breakdown. Taken together, the chapters show that the roots of cognitive neuroscience, behavioral neurology and neuropsychology, continue to ground our understanding of the biology of mind and are as important today as they were 150 years ago.
In a culmination of humanity's millennia-long quest for self knowledge, the sciences of the mind are now in a position to offer concrete, empirically validated answers to the most fundamental questions about human nature. What does it mean to be a mind? How is the mind related to the brain? How are minds shaped by their embodiment and environment? What are the principles behind cognitive functions such as perception, memory, language, thought, and consciousness? By analyzing the tasks facing any sentient being that is subject to stimulation and a pressure to act, Shimon Edelman identifies computation as the common denominator in the emerging answers to all these questions. Any system composed of elements that exchange signals with each other and occasionally with the rest of the world can be said to be engaged in computation. A brain composed of neurons is one example of a system that computes, and the computations that the neurons collectively carry out constitute the brain's mind. Edelman presents a computational account of the entire spectrum of cognitive phenomena that constitutes the mind. He begins with sentience, and uses examples from visual perception to demonstrate that it must, at its very core, be a type of computation. Throughout his account, Edelman acknowledges the human mind's biological origins. Along the way, he also demystifies traits such as creativity, language, and individual and collective consciousness, and hints at how naturally evolved minds can transcend some of their limitations by moving to computational substrates other than brains. The account that Edelman gives in this book is accessible, yet unified and rigorous, and the big picture he presents is supported by evidence ranging from neurobiology to computer science. The book should be read by anyone seeking a comprehensive and current introduction to cognitive psychology.
How our intuitive understanding of numbers is deeply rooted in our biology, traceable through both evolution and development.

Humans' understanding of numbers is intuitive. Infants are able to estimate and calculate even before they learn the words for numbers. How have we come to possess this talent for numbers? In A Brain for Numbers, Andreas Nieder explains how our brains process numbers. He reports that numerical competency is deeply rooted in our biological ancestry; it can be traced through both the evolution of our species and the development of our individual minds. It is not, as it has been traditionally explained, based on our ability to use language. We owe our symbolic mathematical skills to the nonsymbolic numerical abilities that we inherited from our ancestors. The principles of mathematics, Nieder tells us, are reflections of the innate dispositions wired into the brain.

Nieder explores how the workings of the brain give rise to numerical competence, tracing flair for numbers to dedicated “number neurons” in the brain. Drawing on a range of methods including brain imaging techniques, behavioral experiments, and twin studies, he outlines a new, integrated understanding of the talent for numbers. Along the way, he compares the numerical capabilities of humans and animals, and discusses the benefits animals reap from such a capability. He shows how the neurobiological roots of the brain's nonverbal quantification capacity are the evolutionary foundation of more elaborate numerical skills. He discusses how number signs and symbols are represented in the brain; calculation capability and the “neuromythology” of mathematical genius; the “start-up tools” for counting and developmental of dyscalculia (a number disorder analogous to the reading disorder dyslexia); and how the brain processes the abstract concept of zero.

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