The careful presentation establishes first the arithmetic of relation algebras, providing ample motivation and examples, then proceeds primarily on the basis of algebraic constructions: subalgebras, homomorphisms, quotient algebras, and direct products. Each chapter ends with a historical section and a substantial number of exercises. The only formal prerequisite is a background in abstract algebra and some mathematical maturity, though the reader will also benefit from familiarity with Boolean algebra and naïve set theory. The measured pace and outstanding clarity are particularly suited to independent study, and provide an unparalleled opportunity to learn from one of the leading authorities in the field.
Collecting, curating, and illuminating over 75 years of progress since Tarski's seminal work in 1941, this textbook in two volumes offers a landmark, unified treatment of the increasingly relevant field of relation algebras. Clear and insightful prose guides the reader through material previously only available in scattered, highly-technical journal articles. Students and experts alike will appreciate the work as both a textbook and invaluable reference for the community.
-is easily accessible to young people and mathematicians unfamiliar with logic;
-gives a terse historical picture of Model Theory;
-introduces the latest developments in the area;
-provides 'hands-on' proofs of elimination of quantifiers, elimination of imaginaries and other relevant matters.
A Guide to Classical and Modern Model Theory is for trainees and professional model theorists, mathematicians working in Algebra and Geometry and young people with a basic knowledge of logic.
Collecting, curating, and illuminating over 75 years of progress since Tarski's seminal work in 1941, this textbook in two volumes offers a landmark, unified treatment of the increasingly relevant field of relation algebras. Clear and insightful prose guides the reader through material previously only available in scattered, highly-technical journal articles. Students and experts alike will appreciate the work as both a textbook and invaluable reference for the community. Note that this volume contains numerous, essential references to the previous volume, Introduction to Relation Algebras. The reader is strongly encouraged to secure at least electronic access to the first book in order to make use of the second.
In this book, the theory of valuations as well as of Henselizations is developed. The presentation is based on the knowledge aquired in a standard graduate course in algebra. The last chapter presents three applications of the general theory -as to Artin's Conjecture on the p-adic number fields- that could not be obtained by the use of absolute values only.
Defining algebra originally as a collection of techniques for determining unknowns, the authors trace the development of these techniques from geometric beginnings in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and classical Greece. They show how similar problems were tackled in Alexandrian Greece, in China, and in India, then look at how medieval Islamic scholars shifted to an algorithmic stage, which was further developed by medieval and early modern European mathematicians. With the introduction of a flexible and operative symbolism in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, algebra entered into a dynamic period characterized by the analytic geometry that could evaluate curves represented by equations in two variables, thereby solving problems in the physics of motion. This new symbolism freed mathematicians to study equations of degrees higher than two and three, ultimately leading to the present abstract era.
Taming the Unknown follows algebra’s remarkable growth through different epochs around the globe.
for Heyting algebras. Written by Georgian mathematician Leo Esakia, the text proved
popular among Russian-speaking logicians. This translation helps make the ideas
accessible to a wider audience and pays tribute to an influential mind in mathematical
The book discusses the theory of Heyting algebras and closure algebras, as
well as the corresponding intuitionistic and modal logics. The author introduces the
key notion of a hybrid that “crossbreeds” topology (Stone spaces) and order (Kripke
frames), resulting in the structures now known as Esakia spaces. The main theorems
include a duality between the categories of closure algebras and of hybrids, and a duality
between the categories of Heyting algebras and of so-called strict hybrids.
Esakia’s book was originally published in 1985. It was the first of a planned two-volume monograph
on Heyting algebras. But after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the publishing house
closed and the project died with it. Fortunately, this important work now lives on in
this accessible translation. The Appendix of the book discusses the planned contents
of the lost second volume.
While all of us regularly use basic math symbols such as those for plus, minus, and equals, few of us know that many of these symbols weren't available before the sixteenth century. What did mathematicians rely on for their work before then? And how did mathematical notations evolve into what we know today? In Enlightening Symbols, popular math writer Joseph Mazur explains the fascinating history behind the development of our mathematical notation system. He shows how symbols were used initially, how one symbol replaced another over time, and how written math was conveyed before and after symbols became widely adopted.
Traversing mathematical history and the foundations of numerals in different cultures, Mazur looks at how historians have disagreed over the origins of the numerical system for the past two centuries. He follows the transfigurations of algebra from a rhetorical style to a symbolic one, demonstrating that most algebra before the sixteenth century was written in prose or in verse employing the written names of numerals. Mazur also investigates the subconscious and psychological effects that mathematical symbols have had on mathematical thought, moods, meaning, communication, and comprehension. He considers how these symbols influence us (through similarity, association, identity, resemblance, and repeated imagery), how they lead to new ideas by subconscious associations, how they make connections between experience and the unknown, and how they contribute to the communication of basic mathematics.
From words to abbreviations to symbols, this book shows how math evolved to the familiar forms we use today.
This book gives a broad introduction to the theory of function algebras and leads to the cutting edge of research. To familiarize the reader from the very beginning on with the algebraic side of function algebras the more general concepts of the Universal Algebra is given in the first part of the book. The second part on fuction algebras covers the following topics: Galois-connection between function algebras and relation algebras, completeness criterions, clone theory.
This book is an insdispensible source on function algebras for graduate students and researchers in mathematical logic and theoretical computer science.
After explaining the motivation for using invariant sets in the experimental sciences as well as the connections with the nominal approach, admissible sets and Gandy machines (Chapter 1), the authors present in Chapter 2 the basics of invariant sets and show that the principles of constructing FSM have historical roots both in the definition of Tarski `logical notions' and in the Erlangen Program of Klein for the classification of various geometries according to invariants under suitable groups of transformations. Furthermore, the consistency of various choice principles is analyzed in FSM. Chapter 3 examines whether it is possible to obtain valid results by replacing the notion of infinite sets with the notion of invariant sets in the classical ZF results. The authors present techniques for reformulating ZF properties of algebraic structures in FSM. In Chapter 4 they generalize FM set theory by providing a new set of axioms inspired by the theory of amorphous sets, and so defining the extended Fraenkel-Mostowski (EFM) set theory. In Chapter 5 they define FSM semantics for certain process calculi (e.g., fusion calculus), and emphasize the links to the nominal techniques used in computer science. They demonstrate a complete equivalence between the new FSM semantics (defined by using binding operators instead of side conditions for presenting the transition rules) and the known semantics of these process calculi.
The book is useful for researchers and graduate students in computer science and mathematics, particularly those engaged with logic and set theory.
It reflects Pigozzi's contribution to the rise and development of areas such as abstract algebraic logic (AAL), universal algebra and computer science, and introduces new scientific results. Some of the papers also present chronologically ordered facts relating to the development of the disciplines he contributed to, especially abstract algebraic logic. The book offers valuable source material for historians of science, especially those interested in history of mathematics and logic.
Meet JJ, an unusual character with a unique vantage position from which he can measure and monitor humanity’s progress. Armed with a device that compels all around it to tell the truth, JJ offers a satirical evaluation of our attitudes to numeracy and logic, touching upon several aspects of life on Earth along the way, from the criminal justice system and people’s use of language to highway driving and modern art.
A collection of mathematically-flavored stories and jokes, interlaced with puzzles, paradoxes and problems, fuse together in an entertaining, free-flowing narrative that will engage and amuse anyone with an interest in the issues confronting society today. JJ demonstrates how a lack of elementary mathematical knowledge can taint our work and general thinking and reflects upon the importance of what is arguably our most valuable weapon against ignorance: a sound mathematical education.
What is JJ’s prognosis for our future? There’s only one way to find out...
"Numbers, logic, human behavior and aliens: this unique book blends them all into a captivating narrative of serious talk and satire, where wit and scholarly details are counterpointed by instructive puzzles and mathematical fun. A ‘must read’ for anybody who appreciates humor and culture."
Stanislav Potapenko, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Canada
"... a real delight. Constanda has managed to intertwine stories, puzzles, logic and some very rich mathematics concepts into a very readable, enjoyable novel... I believe this book should be in the personal library of every high school mathematics teacher."
Tom Becvar, St Louis University High School, USA
"...a highly readable, unique and fascinating combination of humor, mathematics and social commentary that is factual, educational and, more importantly, understandable. Given what is taking place in today’s society, J.J. Moon brings mathematics back to earth! I’ll never go through the car buying process again without thinking about SCAM 16!"
Jerry Hoopert, VP / Chief Administrative Officer, Tulsa Teachers Credit Union, USA
In model-checking games for automatic structures, two coalitions play against each other with a particular kind of hierarchical imperfect information. The investigation of such games leads to the introduction of a game quantifier on automatic structures, which connects alternating automata with the classical model-theoretic notion of a game quantifier. This study is then extended, determining the memory needed for strategies in infinitary games on the one hand, and characterizing regularity-preserving Lindström quantifiers on the other. Counting quantifiers are investigated in depth: it is shown that all countable omega-automatic structures are in fact finite-word automatic and that the infinity and uncountability set quantifiers are definable in MSO over countable linear orders and over labeled binary trees.
This book is based on the PhD thesis of Lukasz Kaiser, which was awarded with the E.W. Beth award for outstanding dissertations in the fields of logic, language, and information in 2009. The work constitutes an innovative study in the area of algorithmic model theory, demonstrating the deep interplay between logic and computability in automatic structures. It displays very high technical and presentational quality and originality, advances significantly the field of algorithmic model theory and raises interesting new questions, thus emerging as a fruitful and inspiring source for future research.
Simple and constructive proofs of some results in the theory of projective modules over polynomial rings are also given, and light is cast upon recent progress on the Hermite ring and Gröbner ring conjectures. New conjectures on unimodular completion arising from our constructive approach to the unimodular completion problem are presented.
Constructive algebra can be understood as a first preprocessing step for computer algebra that leads to the discovery of general algorithms, even if they are sometimes not efficient. From a logical point of view, the dynamical evaluation gives a constructive substitute for two highly nonconstructive tools of abstract algebra: the Law of Excluded Middle and Zorn's Lemma. For instance, these tools are required in order to construct the complete prime factorization of an ideal in a Dedekind ring, whereas the dynamical method reveals the computational content of this construction. These lecture notes follow this dynamical philosophy.
The book comprises five parts. In the first part the discussion covers the role of CBT and related notions in the writings of Cantor and Dedekind. New views are presented, especially regarding the general proof of CBT obtained by Cantor, his proof of the Comparability Theorem, the ruptures in the Cantor-Dedekind correspondence and the origin of Dedekind's proof of CBT.
The second part covers the first CBT proofs published (1896-1901). The works of the following mathematicians is considered in detail: Schröder, Bernstein, Bore, Schoenflies and Zermelo. Here a subtheme of the book is launched; it concerns the research project following Bernstein's Division Theorem (BDT).
In its third part the book covers proofs that emerged during the period when the logicist movement was developed (1902-1912). It covers the works of Russell and Whitehead, Jourdain, Harward, Poincaré, J. König, D. König (his results in graph theory), Peano, Zermelo, Korselt. Also Hausdorff's paradox is discussed linking it to BDT.
In the fourth part of the book are discussed the developments of CBT and BDT (including the inequality-BDT) in the hands of the mathematicians of the Polish School of Logic, including Sierpiński, Banach, Tarski, Lindenbaum, Kuratowski, Sikorski, Knaster, the British Whittaker, and Reichbach.
Finally, in the fifth part, the main discussion concentrates on the attempts to port CBT to intuitionist mathematics (with results by Brouwer, Myhill, van Dalen and Troelstra) and to Category Theory (by Trnková and Koubek).The second purpose of the book is to develop a methodology for the comparison of proofs. The core idea of this methodology is that a proof can be described by two descriptors, called gestalt and metaphor. It is by comparison of their descriptors that the comparison of proofs is obtained. The process by which proof descriptors are extracted from a proof is named 'proof-processing', and it is conjectured that mathematicians perform proof-processing habitually, in the study of proofs.