Documenting the voices and experiences of the city's working children, this fascinating study reveals counterintuitive motivations for those who choose to abandon schooling in favor of participating more fully in their families' economies. The processes of developing skills and planning for their social and economic futures are covered in depth, presenting evidence that many members of this population operate well above survival level and are decidedly not marginalized or members of an underclass. Conquistadores de la Calle also makes important distinctions between these young workers—a generation of Maya and Ladino boys and girls—and the homeless children or gang youth who have been so much more widely studied.
Contextualizing a variety of data, ranging from detailed ethnographic portraits of the children's lives and the monthly income of children engaged in common street vocations (such as shining shoes or serving as porters) to educational histories and socialization activities, Thomas Offit has produced a rich trove of findings in a significant segment of urban economics that is tremendously important for anthropologists, Latin Americanists, and those interested in the lives and labors of children in the cities of the developing world.
This book was conceived within the framework of the CODESRIA tradition of taking African perspectives seriously and not allowing social research in Africa to become subservient to values from outside. African scholars remain keenly aware of the need not to isolate themselves from developments in the wider world, which could lead to stagnation. This book, through empirical observation of the lives of African children, the work they do, its place in their lives, and what the children say about it, proposes new perspectives towards a new understanding of this complex stage of human development. Work is not simply about the right to income: work provides identity and status in society, and participation in the community. People relate to one another through work. Those who do not work are often without status and are at the periphery of society. One of the major ways in which this book differs from most of the available literature is in the understanding it brings to the problem of ‘child labour’. There are economic reasons why children may need an income of their own. There is the demographic fact that the proportion of children to adults in low-income countries is nearly double that in high-income societies. This book attempts to demonstrate that work is both necessary and beneficial in terms of a child’s development to become a full, responsible, and respectable member of society.
The United States has more of its children in the workforce than any other developed country. They are found in textile, jewelry, and machine shops in New York and New Jersey, in Southeast supermarkets operating meat-cutting machines and paper-box bailers, in Washington state selling candy door-to-door, and in farming operations throughout the country.
Betsy Wood examines the evolution of ideas about child labor and the on-the-ground politics of the issue against the backdrop of broad developments related to slavery and emancipation, industrial capitalism, moral and social reform, and American politics and religion. Wood explains how the decades-long battle over child labor created enduring political and ideological divisions within capitalist society that divided the gatekeepers of modernity from the cultural warriors who opposed them. Tracing the ideological origins and the politics of the child labor battle over the course of eighty years, this book tells the story of how child labor debates bequeathed an enduring legacy of sectionalist conflict to modern American capitalist society.
This is the first comprehensive history of the Women's Joint Congressional Committee (WJCC), a large umbrella organization founded by former suffrage leaders in 1920 in order to coordinate organized women's reform. Encompassing nearly every major national women's organization of its time, the WJCC evolved into a powerful lobbying force for the legislative agendas of twelve million women, and was recognized by critics and supporters alike as "the most powerful lobby in Washington."
Through a close examination of the WJCC's most consequential and contentious campaigns, Jan Doolittle Wilson demonstrates organized women's strategies and initial success in generating congressional and grassroots support for their far-reaching, progressive reforms. By using the WJCC as a lens through which to analyze women's political culture during the 1920s, the book also sheds new light on the initially successful ways women lobbied for social legislation, the inherent limitations of that process for pursuing class-based reforms, and the enormous difficulties faced by women trying to expand public responsibility for social welfare in the years following the Nineteenth Amendment's passage.
A volume in the series Women in American History, edited by Anne Firor Scott, Susan Armitage, Susan K. Cahn, and Deborah Gray White
In Facing the Monster, author Carol Hart Metzker calls attention to the plight of t he worlds children who live a life of modern slaver y. She tells how an unexpected encounter with a n eleven-year-old girl led her into the dark world of human trafficking, forced sex trade, and child slavery. Metzkers quest to find hope, to help end slavery, and to aid survivors took her as far as childrens shelters in remote villages in India and as close as a special home just miles from her front door in Pennsylvania.
Facing the Monster narrates the stories of rescued child slaves and paints a poignant picture of the plight of hidden victims worldwide. Metzkers inspiring chronicle reveals the monstrous truths about child slavery, provides an action plan to become an agent of change, and presents solutions to end it. It shows how one persons actions can change the lives of many and that everyone can take a step to fight child slavery.
The book attempts to delve into many of the important theoretical aspects of child labour and suggests policies that could indeed be useful in dealing with the problem under diverse situations using alternative multisector general equilibrium models.
This book brings together contributions by internationally renowned researchers who are committed to a 'subject-orientated' approach as well as views and observations of activists from organizations that either work with child labour or support working children's movements. Chapters examine the traditionally widespread care and domestic work carried out by children, discuss localized explorations of working children - for example in Morocco, India and Europe - as well as consider work as a means for children to contribute economically to the family. Contributors also discuss children's movements and organizations in Africa, Asia and South America that claim work as a necessity for survival as well as a key to children's own agency and citizenship.
This book is a key text for both academics and social work practitioners that encourages re-evaluation of the notion of childhood and understands the complex phenomenon of working children.
Child labor is a complex social and political issue with a long and evolving history. The phenomenon of child labor, including prostitution, has been a focus of debate especially in the last two centuries and continues to generate fierce reactions. An unprecedented number of children around the world are working today. This volume is a must-have, up-to-date survey for student research. In the 15 examined countries, poverty, lack of education, gender inequity, the demands of the global marketplace, and easy sex tourism are key factors contributing to the child labor crisis. Each chapter depicts the child labor scene in a particular country, along with detailed conditions, the history of the problem, the present state of child labor, political policies and social aspects, and the ultimate outlook.
The scope of the topic is wide, and basic definitions of what constitutes child and labor vary from country to country. International laws and conventions promoted by labor and human rights groups are establishing new norms to counteract harsh cultural and economic realities, but these and similar local laws are hard to enforce. These issues are explored, and vignettes from the children's point of view add a human-interest angle to the narrative.
“Slave to Fashion offers hope of a fairer, more ethical world and gives the reader plenty of tools to navigate a challenging fashion system.”—Livia Firth
There are over 35 million people trapped in modern slavery today—the largest number of slaves in modern history. This is fueled by the global demand for cheap labor—which is what makes the fast fashion industry work.
Slave to Fashion is a highly accessible book which uses brilliant design, personal stories, and easy-to-grasp infographics to raise awareness among common brand consumers.
Fair trade and sustainable fashion expert Safia Minney draws on her extensive knowledge and personal experience to call attention to the human hardship that goes hand-in-hand with producing our clothes, and highlights what governments, business leaders, and consumers can do to call time on this unnecessary suffering.
The product of a successful crowdfunding campaign, Slave to Fashion celebrates those fighting for justice and the many initiatives that are taking place. It contains a practical toolkit that all consumers can use to demand change from the companies that produce our clothes.
Safia Minney is a pioneer in ethical business. She developed the fashion industry’s first fair trade supply chains and has helped to create social and organic standards to improve the lives of thousands of economically marginalized people in the developing world. Minney now brings her expertise and experience to help businesses embrace sustainability and transparency in their operations and branding. She is the author of several acclaimed books, including Naked Fashion and Slow Fashion.
In addressing issues around children’s rights and well-being, the book offers a reflection on the conflict between adult society and government welfare policies. The book also draws on existing knowledge about national and international efforts to change adult attitudes towards children. Analysis in the book demonstrates that there are both structural and operational problems in children’s rights and policies governing their well-being in sub-Saharan Africa.
This sort of work has been neglected since the last few decades and has created a gulf between government policy rhetoric and practice. Children on the Boundaries of Time and Space in sub-Saharan Africa bridges that gap and reasserts the need for effective policy, material changes in resources and cultural change valuable to enhance children’s ability to stay healthy, grow and learn to become responsible citizens.
Built upon the structure and content of the successful first edition (currently in its eighth printing), this second edition of The True Cost of Low Prices: The Violence of Globalization examines the effects of globalization on the earth's poorest and most vulnerable people within the context of scripture and church teaching. The text engages the reader with stories of the women, men, and children living in poverty who have experienced both the promise of the global economy and its troubling outcomes.
The nine thematic chapters begin with a story of a person affected by a particular dimension of the violence of globalization. That is followed by a description of the "signs of the times," including the topic's relationship to low prices, and then by "what the church teaches," utilizing the Catechism, the Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, papal encyclicals, the documents of Vatican II, and the statements of the U.S. Catholic bishops. Each chapter concludes with "signs of hope," descriptions of groups and strategies that make a difference. Each chapter also includes discussion questions and suggestions for making a difference.