More related to microbiology

Our gut is colonized by numerous bacteria throughout our life, and the gut epithelium is constantly exposed to foreign microbes and dietary antigens. Thus, the gut epithelium acts as a barrier against microbial invaders and is equipped with various innate defense systems. Resident commensal and foreign invading bacteria interact intimately with the gut epithelium and can impact host cellular and innate immune responses. From the perspective of many pathogenic bacteria, the gut epithelium serves as an infectious foothold and port of entry for disseminate into deeper tissues. In some instances when the intestinal defense activity and host immune system become compromised, even commensal and opportunistic pathogenic bacteria can cross the barrier and initiate local and systematic infectious diseases. Conversely, some highly pathogenic bacteria, such as those highlighted in this book, are able to colonize or invade the intestinal epithelium despite the gut barrier function is intact. Therefore, the relationship between the defensive activity of the intestinal epithelium against microbes and the pathogenesis of infective microbes becomes the basis for maintaining a healthy life.

The authors offer an overview of the current topics related to major gastric and enteric pathogens, while highlighting their highly evolved host (human)-adapted infectious processes. Clearly, an in-depth study of bacterial infectious strategies, as well as the host cellular and immune responses, presented in each chapter of this book will provide further insight into the critical roles of the host innate and adaptive immune systems and their importance in determining the severity or completely preventing infectious diseases. Furthermore, under the continuous threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, the topic of gut-bacteria molecular interactions will provide various clues and ideas for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

The enormous genetic flexibility of bacteria jeopardizes the usefulness of currently available antibiotics, and requires new approaches to antibiotic discovery and development. Antimicrobial resistance can be acquired in a short time frame, both by genetic mutation and by direct transfer of resistance genes across genus and species boundaries. Understanding mechanisms of resistance is crucial to the future of antimicrobial therapy.

Extensively revised, with contributions from international leaders in their fields, Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials, Second Edition blends scientific and practical approaches to the social, economic, and medical issues related to this growing problem. The book begins with a history of antimicrobial agents and bacterial resistance, and outlines the forces that contributed to the abuse of antibiotics and precipitated the current crisis. It goes on to describe what is known about the ecology of antibiotic resistant bacteria and reveals the inadequacies in our understanding. Emphasizing public health aspects, the editors stress that significant progress will be made only by addressing the problem only as a public, worldwide, problem.

Chapters on resistance mechanisms describe the latest findings on what makes different groups of bacteria susceptible or resistant to antibiotics. They reveal the staggering diversity of bacteria and the need for a foundational understanding that will stimulate development of antibiotics capable of avoiding resistance mechanisms. Examining the success and limitations of complementary approaches, such as combining ß-lactam antibiotics with ß-lactamase inhibitors, the book brings together information on resistance mechanisms in different groups of bacteria to help future efforts to more effectively develop and deploy antimicrobial therapies.
The first complete genome sequence of a multicellular organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, has been determined recently. Several more will follow soon, among them the genome sequences of Drosophila melanogaster and the human. With these achievements, the stage is set for the next phase of "large-scale" biology, the study of the function of genes and the interactions between their protein products. The aim of the Ernst Schering Research Foundation Workshop 29 was to discuss the contribution of research on model organisms which are particularly suited for genetic and biological research, to the understanding of gen eral principles of biology as well as the basis for human diseases. This area of research has not only unveiled the basic molecular mechanisms of development of higher organisms, but has also made major contri butions to the elucidation of complex signal transduction pathways that play crucial roles both in ontogeny and human diseases. Establishing the complete molecular anatomy of an organism is a demanding but rather well-defined task. However, compared to the technical and scientific challenges of large-scale sequencing and the bioinformatics analysis of complete genome data, the assignment of function to the genes of multicellular organisms may still seem like a fishing expedition, with no universal road to success. One approach is based on large-scale technologies. The use of mi croarrays for multiple gene expression analysis is one element in this effort, providing important information on the cell- or tissue-specific activation of genes over time.
Microbial physiology, biochemistry, and genetics allowed the formulation of concepts that turned out to be important in the study of higher organisms. In the first section, the principles of bacterial growth are given, as well as the description of the different layers that enclose the bacterial cytoplasm, and their role in obtaining nutrients from the outside media through different permeability mechanism described in detail. A chapter is devoted to allostery and is indispensable for the comprehension of many regulatory mechanisms described throughout the book. Another section analyses the mechanisms by which cells obtain the energy necessary for their growth, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic and the anaplerotic cycles. Two chapters are devoted to classes of microorganisms rarely dealt with in textbooks, namely the Archaea, mainly the methanogenic bacteria, and the methylotrophs. Eight chapters describe the principles of the regulations at the transcriptional level, with the necessary knowledge of the machineries of transcription and translation. The next fifteen chapters deal with the biosynthesis of the cell building blocks, amino acids, purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and deoxynucleotides, water-soluble vitamins and coenzymes, isoprene and tetrapyrrole derivatives and vitamin B12. The two last chapters are devoted to the study of protein-DNA interactions and to the evolution of biosynthetic pathways. The considerable advances made in the last thirty years in the field by the introduction of gene cloning and sequencing and by the exponential development of physical methods such as X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance have helped presenting metabolism under a multidisciplinary attractive angle. The level of readership presupposes some knowledge of chemistry and genetics at the undergraduate level. The target group is graduate students, researchers in academia and industry.
Human gene therapy holds great promise for the cure of many genetic diseases. In order to achieve such a cure there are two requirements. First, the affected gene must be cloned, its se quence determined and its regulation adequately characterized. Second, a suitable vector for the delivery of a good copy of the affected gene must be available. For a vector to be of use several attributes are highly desirable: these include ability to carry the intact gene (although this may be either the genomic or the cDNA form) in a stable form, ability to introduce the gene into the desired cell type, ability to express the introduced gene in an appropriately regulated manner for an extended period of time, and a lack of toxicity for the recipient. Also of concern is the frequency of cell transformation and, in some cases, the ability to introduce the gene into nondividing stem cells. Sev eral animal viruses have been tested as potential vectors, but none has proven to have all the desired properties described above. For example, retroviruses are difficult to propagate in sufficient titers, do not integrate into nondividing cells, and are of concern because of their oncogenic properties in some hosts and because they integrate at many sites in the genome and, thus, are potentially insertional mutagens. Additionally, genes introduced by retroviral vectors are frequently expressed for relatively short periods of time. A second virus used as a vector in model systems has been adenovirus (Ad).
The Handbook of Laboratory Animal Bacteriology, Second Edition provides comprehensive information on all bacterial phylae found in laboratory rodents and rabbits to assist managers, veterinary pathologists and laboratory animal veterinarians in the management of these organisms. The book starts by examining the general aspects of bacteriology and how to sample and identify bacteria in animals. It then describes the most relevant species within each phylum and discusses the impact they may have on research. Emphasizing those bacteria known to interfere with research protocols, the book offers methods for isolation and differentiation among related bacteria. It discusses where to purchase reagents for rodent bacteriology and outlines standards for safety in a bacteriological laboratory.

Highlights of the second edition:

Focuses on modern sequencing techniques based on molecular identification Reorganizes content according to modern systematics based on new identification methods Presents new chapters on mechanisms behind bacterial impact on animal models and on the systematic classification of bacteria Provides information on a range of bacteria interfering with animal models for human disease, not only for those bacteria which cause disease in laboratory animal colonies Includes new figures in color and with enhanced resolution

The book is essential reading for those interested in the management of organisms known to interfere with the colony health of rabbits and rodents used in research protocols—including facility managers, clinical veterinarians, veterinary pathologists, and researchers.

Document from the year 2014 in the subject Biology - Micro- and Molecular Biology, , language: English, abstract: A laboratory Text book of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Microbiology is intended to prepare the undergraduate, postgraduate and research students to perform basic experiments on various aspects of bioscience and biotechnology. Moreover, in the Semester system of teaching it is necessary to explore experiments which are not lengthy and easily completed within contact hours. Initially the book deals with dilutions, pH, buffers, units of measurements and calculations. This is followed by lab safety rules which is very important for any student working with chemicals for their and safety of others. This book emphasizes on principles, reagent preparations and procedures related to experiments, which will be handy for students from different scientific backgrounds. A number of methods are available in the literature for quantification of various molecules. This book does not present all the available methods but based on experience it contains commonly used methods, which students should know. The methods have been written in a manner for direct practical use in the laboratory. This work has originated as a result of numerous requests from my students for eased out and explanatory methods pertaining to biochemistry, biotechnology, microbiology and others. The section on testing of adulterants is of much use for common mass because most of the food products we eat are adulterated. The approach is rather simple with the use of very easily available chemicals and the tests can be performed even in house. It is hoped that the reliable assays presented in this manual will help the students and research scholars to get to basics of experiments and various aspects associated with it.
The field of bacterial genetics has been restricted for many years to Escherichia coli and a few other genera of aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Salmonella. The prevailing view up to recent times has been that anaerobic bacteria are interesting organisms but nothing is known about their genetics. To most microbiologists, anaerobic bacteria appeared as a sort of distant domain, reserved for occasional intrusions by taxonomists and medical microbiologists. By the mid-1970s, knowledge of the genetics and molecular biology of anaerobes began to emerge, and then developed rapidly. but also im This was the result of advances in molecular biology techniques, portantly because of improvements in basic techniques for culturing anaerobes and for understanding their biochemistry and other areas of in terest. Investigations in this field were also stimulated by a renewal of interest in their ecology, their role in pathology and in biotransformations, and in the search for alternative renewable sources of energy. The initial idea for this book came from Thomas D. Brock. When Dr. Brock requested my opinion about two years ago on the feasibility of publishing a book on the genetics of anaerobic bacteria, as a part of the Brock/Springer Series in Contemporary Bioscience, I answered positively but I was apprehen sive about assuming the role of editor. However, I was soon reassured by the enthusiastic commitment of those I approached to contribute. Eventually, thanks to the caring cooperation of the contributors, the task became relatively easy.
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