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An important challenge for our world is to understand how cultural understanding and geographical education can be linked and used to improve the global society. We readily accept that our world is constituted by numerous groups of people who are organised by committees, tribes, regions, nations or continental entities. How these groups interact, show concern for each others' well-being and progress is still an unpredictable activity. Intercultural tensions, racial conflicts and religious clashes have all led to the challenges for enacting a constructive world. Fundamental perspectives challenge moderate ones, and the resulting tensions produce elements of fear, doubt and distrust. The extremist views of terrorist groups exaggerate these tensions to the extent that some different cultural groups do not prefer to live in peace with their neighbours. Deep-seated intercultural tensions predominate over peaceful co-existence. Such challenges may easily dominate the interaction between racial groups, tribes, indigenous peoples and colonisers. However, we know that through the sound practice of intercultural understanding, cultural groups in different contexts around the world can interact and co-exist successfully and productively. In fact, they can work together to seek to improve their society. This does not mean that one group will dominate the other. Rather, it means that both groups work together to improve their collective lives. Education has played an important role in the long-term achievement of such harmony. This volume has been developed to demonstrate that geographical education can be a potent force in the development of cultural understanding in different societies.
st th The 21 century is the century of Asia in the same way the 20 century was of America. In terms of urbanization challenges Asia in the current century is faced with an enormous surge of urban population and the associated problems of rural –urban migration, overcrowding, proliferation of slums, housing shortage, growing unempl- ment and underemployment and choice between capital intensive productivity vs. labor intensive employment generation, suffocating pollution caused by both industries and motor vehicle fumes, crumbling urban facilities and education / health care systems and above all mind boggling poverty. While facing these challenges many bright urbani- tion aspects may also be noted –efficient mass transport systems of Japan, banning of leaded fuels for motor vehicles in Indian mega cities, formation and operation of metro –planning organizations, linking rural/urban development and a general consciousness of urban problems, recognization and efforts to resolve them. This book pioneers the analysis and research effort on urbanization in Asia in the st 21 century in light of new and continued challenges. It is a part of a continuum that emanates from the selected papers at the Sixth Asian Urbanization Conference (AUC) held in Chennai (Madras), India in January 2000. AUC is organized almost every third year. The Asian Urbanization Research Organization (AURA) headquartered at The University of Akron’s Department of Geography and Planning plans such conferences.
Cereals make an important component of daily diet of a major section of human population, so that their survival mainly depends on the cereal grain production, which should match the burgeoning human population. Due to painstaking efforts of plant breeders and geneticists, at the global level, cereal production in the past witnessed a steady growth. However, the cereal production in the past has been achieved through the use of high yielding varieties, which have a heavy demand of inputs in the form of chemical fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides/pesticides, leading to environmental degradation. In view of this, while increasing cereal production, one also needs to keep in mind that agronomic practices used for realizing high productivity do not adversely affect the environment. Improvement in cereal production in the past was also achieved through the use of alien genetic variation available in the wild relatives of these cereals, so that conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources is another important area, which is currently receiving the attention of plant breeders. The work leading to increased cereal production in the past received strong support from basic research on understanding the cereal genomes, which need to be manipulated to yield more from low inputs without any adverse effects as above. Through these basic studies, it also became fairly apparent that the genomes of all cereals are related and were derived from the same lineage, million of years ago.
This book was written with the aim of showing that even in the era of globalization developments appearing in cities are not subject to almost unconditional global forces. Rather, universal forces are decisive eventualities in the process of urban restructuring, often influencing its course and speed, yet developments and particularities within a city strongly influence the course of events and the extent to which negative characteristics of globalization might occur. Local forces are central in the process of change and they may influence the perceived unstoppable process of globalization, leading to considerable qualitative and quantitative differences in the urban development processes of the globalization era. It thus challenges Sassen’s hypothesis that globalization as a process forces uniformity upon individual regions or cities and imprints macro-cultural structural patterns onto local forms. It focuses on the interplay between local and global forces whose influence is strongly affected by the very different spatial and temporal local constellations and development factors which give globalization a local flavour.

Berlin, Brussels, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, Johannesburg, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Sarajevo and Vienna: Using these important cities the special relationship between global and local/regional forces is analyzed. The case studies were selected based on their political and cultural context and the fact that their social and political fabric was subject to major changes in the recent past. How global processes manifest themselves locally depends to a great extent on how development processes and endogenic potentials are initiated locally in order to cope with the new global economic and societal conditions.

The status of geography in school curricula varies across the globe. Geography, as a discrete subject, has, in some countries, established a strong position in both primary and secondary schools while in others it has a weaker position, often a component of integrated and cross-curricular arrangements. Globally, the trend is for geography's status to be challenged. A central theme of this book is the location of geography in school curricula with particular reference to centrality and marginality. A second theme relates to the subject status of geography. A third theme relates to the spirit and purpose of school geography and the traditions that underpin the subject and how these are changing. A fourth theme relates to the way geography is being seen by curriculum planners as contributing to the achievement of governmental aims for society in general. A fifth theme concerns the human and material resources infrastructure. Finally, what of the future?

The underpinning assumption is that experiences gained in one country will be of real interest to educators in another. The book, is part of the work of the Commission on Geographical Education of the International Geographical Union. Part 1, written in a global context, focuses on the distinctive traditions of school geography. Part 2 reviews the contemporary state of school geography on a broad continental basis with each chapter including national case studies, written by experts drawn from those countries. The final parts comprises chapters that extrapolate from the present and point to likely future developments in the subject, again with examples drawn from various countries.

The decision to write this book was motivated by a number of factors. First, although several useful textbooks on spatial databases have recently been published, this is an area of spatial information science that has lagged somewhat behind the rapid advances of the technology and the profusion of books on domain-specific applications. Second, much of the information pertaining to spatial database technologies is only available in scattered journal papers and conference proceedings, and prior to this book no single effort has been made to sift through this expansive literature and unite the key contributions in a single volume. The tasks of sourcing and coherently integrating relevant contributions is daunting for students, many of whom have a substantial number of competing demands placed on them. This book should make the task of knowledge building less daunting. Third, and perhaps most importantly, an apparent trend in many spatial information science programs is to focus, from first or second year undergraduate through to fourth year courses, on learning to work confidently and independently with increasingly complex software tools. Hence, many courses are technical in nature, and while they continue to produce technically adept students, knowledge of the broader aspects of spatial databases is often not as complete as it might be among graduates. Some programs have sought to address this by introducing courses that focus on spatial data management. However, these courses are largely unsupported by a relevant and contemporary textbook.
The use of land changes over time as both natural and man-made environments are influenced by the pressures associated with the processes of development. The demand for land for new residential housing has been a huge challenge for governments striving to protect greenfield sites across Europe in recent years, whilst regeneration has been a common response to the decline of manufacturing in the old industrial heartlands. The variety of forces that drive change in the use of land are extensive and complex, including spatial planning policies designed at local, regional, national and supra-national levels.

In order to understand the mechanisms of change and the impact of policies, the formulation, calibration and testing of models is required. Land-use change models help us to understand the complexities and interdependencies of the components that constitute spatial systems and can provide valuable insights into possible land-use configurations in the future. Models of land-use change incorporate a vast amount of knowledge from a wide range of disciplines. Geography contributes to the understanding of land-use change whilst demography and economics help explain underlying trends. Model building relies heavily on mathematics and (geographical) information systems, but also includes many elements from the softer sciences, such as management studies and environmental science. This book offers a cross-sectional overview of current research progress that allows the construction of successful land-use models. The contributions range from methodology and calibration to actual applications in studies of recent policy implementation and evaluation. The contributors originate from academic and applied research institutes around the world and thus offer an interesting mix of theory and practice in different case study contexts.

Several years have passed since John Stillwell and Henk Scholten published "Land Use Simulation for Europe" in 2001, and the subject has moved on since then. The current volume, "Modelling Land-use Change", is an indispensable guide for anyone interested in the state-of-the-art of land-use modelling, its background and its application. In summary, land-use change simulation modelling is a relatively new and dynamic field of study and this book provides a full overview of the topic, a wide range of applications (both geographically and thematically), a mix of theory and practice, a synthesis of recent research progress, and educational material for students and teachers.

European metropolitan areas have experienced a marked reorganization associated with the processes of globalization and the European integration of economic act- ities on various spatial scales. Much of this change is particularly evident at the edge of central cities, further away at suburban locations and on the fringes of expanding metropolitan areas. These spatial processes of urban expansion, sprawling dev- opment, and employment deconcentration present constant challenges to urban quality of life, raising concerns about excessive consumption of land and energy, traffic congestion, and so forth. These concerns prompt the formulation of public policies at various levels of government: European Union agencies, national, and sub national public authorities. The challenges posed by the spatial reorganization of economic activities within European metropolitan areas and their implications for the quality of life inspired the research project sponsored by the European Commission 5th Framework, entitled: Spatial Deconcentration of Economic Land Use and Quality of Life in European Metropolitan Areas (SELMA). The primary goal of SELMA was to design urban planning and management strategies to ensure the maintenance of the quality of life in European metropolitan areas. To this end, three broad activities were defined. The first focused on the identification and analysis of the driving forces and dynamics behind the process of economic land-use deconcentration in metropolitan areas. An analysis of the impacts of these processes on urban quality of life formed the heart of the second activity.
European cities have for decades found themselves in a phase of important changes. Concomitantly multi-level and multi-actor policy processes have unfolded in the EU. Sub-national governments are facing new challenges as their manufacturing industry withers away, still more responsibility for matching the globalisation ch- lenges such as welfare, employment and general social improvements are tra- ferred from national to sub-national levels. This raises speci?c governance problems for city regions in their attempt to meet the demand from the emerging knowled- based society. Yet, no city or city region exists in a vacuum; they are all embedded in national settings with speci?c structures and traditions as well as different p- ceptions of challenges, needs and solutions. It appears that a general, neoliberal discourse has conquered the political agenda during the last one or two decades: That economic regeneration requires increasing competitiveness achieved by - forced stress on knowledge intensive industries, which itself needs more and better education. However, the implementation of such a strategy has many forms and the realities are often quite a step from the intended outcome. During the last three years, a group of about forty people has met regularly across Europe to develop the ideas as originally presented in the Memorandum of Und- standing, setting the agenda for the analysis of preconditions, strategies and o- comes among different cities in their effort to reconcile welfare and growth.
This book argues that the concepts of ‘neoliberalism’ and ‘neoliberalisation,’ while in common use across the whole range of social sciences, have thus far been generally overlooked in planning theory and the analysis of planning practice. Offering insights from papers presented during a conference session at a meeting of the Association of American Geographers in Boston in 2008 and a number of commissioned chapters, this book fills this significant hiatus in the study of planning. What the case studies from Africa, Asia, North-America and Europe included in this volume have in common is that they all reveal the uneasy cohabitation of ‘planning’ – some kind of state intervention for the betterment of our built and natural environment – and ‘neoliberalism’ – a belief in the superiority of market mechanisms to organize land use and the inferiority of its opposite, state intervention. Planning, if anything, may be seen as being in direct contrast to neoliberalism, as something that should be rolled back or even annihilated through neoliberal practice. To combine ‘neoliberal’ and ‘planning’ in one phrase then seems awkward at best, and an outright oxymoron at worst. To admit to the very existence or epistemological possibility of ‘neoliberal planning’ may appear to be a total surrender of state planning to market superiority, or in other words, the simple acceptance that the management of buildings, transport infrastructure, parks, conservation areas etc. beyond the profit principle has reached its limits in the 21st century. Planning in this case would be reduced to a mere facilitator of ‘market forces’ in the city, be it gentle or authoritarian. Yet in spite of these contradictions and outright impossibilities, planners operate within, contribute to, resist or temper an increasingly neoliberal mode of producing spaces and places, or the revival of profit-driven changes in land use. It is this contradiction between the serving of private profit-seeking interests while actually seeking the public betterment of cities that this volume has sought to describe, explore, analyze and make sense of through a set of case studies covering a wide range of planning issues in various countries. This book lays bare just how spatial planning functions in an age of market triumphalism, how planners respond to the overruling profit principle in land allocation and what is left of non-profit driven developments.
The discipline of Sociology has a rich history of including spatial context in the analysis of social issues. Much of this history has revolved around the development and application of spatial theory aimed at understanding the geographic distribution of social problems, the organization of communities, and the relationship between society and the environment. More recently, the social sciences have seen a large number of technological innovations that now make it possible to place social behaviour in spatial context. Consequently, because of the historical disjuncture in the development of spatial theory and the recent development of relevant methodological tools, the relationship between materials describing both the methodological approaches and their theoretical importance a scattered throughout various books and articles. Geographical Sociology consolidates these materials into a single accessible source in which spatial concepts such as containment, proximity, adjacency, and others are examined in relation to such methodological tools as hierarchical linear models, point pattern analysis, and spatial regression. As these methods continue to increase in popularity among social scientists the ability to more generally understand societies relationship to geographic space will continue to increase in it importance in the field. This book represents a starting point to linking these concepts to practice and is presented in an accessible form in which students, researchers, and educators can all learn, and in turn, contribute to its development.
This book examines the paradoxes, challenges, potential and problems of urban living. It understands cities as they are, rather than as they may be marketed or branded. All cities have much in common, yet the differences are important. They form the basis of both imaginative policy development and productive experiences of urban life.

The phrase ‘city imaging’ is often used in public discourse, but rarely defined. It refers to the ways that particular cities are branded and marketed. It is based on the assumption that urban representations can be transformed to develop tourism and attract businesses and in-demand workers to one city in preference to another. However, such a strategy is imprecise. History, subjectivity, bias and prejudice are difficult to temper to the needs of either economic development or social justice.

The taste, smell, sounds and architecture of a place all combine to construct the image of a city. For researchers, policy makers, activists and citizens, the challenge is to use or transform this image. The objective of this book is to help the reader define, understand and apply this process.

After a war on terror, a credit crunch and a recession, cities still do matter. Even as the de-territorialization of the worldwide web enables the free flow of money, music and ideas across national borders, cities remain important. City Imaging: Regeneration, Renewal, Decay surveys the iconography of urbanity and explores what happens when branding is emphasized over living.

This book reviews a series of new urban ideas or themes designed to help make cities more liveable, sustainable, safe and inclusive. Featuring examples drawn from cities all over the world, the various chapters provide critical assessments of each of the various approaches and their potential to improve urban life.

New Urbanism: creating new areas based on a more humane scale with neighbourhood cohesion

Just Cities: creating more fairness in decision-making so all residents can participate and benefit.

Green Cities: helping places become greener with environmental rehabilitation and protection

Sustainable Cities: avoiding the waste of resources and harmful pollution in settlements

Transition Towns: developing local initiatives for more sustainable actions

Winter Cities: making cities in cold climates more comfortable and enjoyable

Resilient Cities: strengthening cities to better enable them to withstand natural hazards

Creative Cities: supporting cultural industries and attracting talented individuals

Knowledge Cities: creating, renewing and spreading knowledge and innovation

Safe Cities: ensuring that citizens are better protected against criminal actions

Healthy Cities: making improvements in the health of people in cities

Festive Cities: rediscovering the utility of festive events in settlements

Slow Cities: enhancing locally unique activities, such as local cuisines and community interactions

This volume offers a host of approaches designed to give a new direction and focus to planning policies, helping readers to fully understand the advantages and disadvantages of each potential idea. It seeks to solve the many current problems associated with urban developments, making it a valuable resource for university and college students in urban geography, urban planning, urban sociology and urban studies as well as to planners and the general public.

This book discusses a range of planning and management issues related to building urban resiliency. It covers such topics as urban, environmental, and transportation planning, historical preservation, emergency relief and management, geographic information systems (GIS) and other technological applications. The book includes case studies of several cities and districts in China, including Shanghai, and a number of cities in the United States of America.

Urban resiliency in the face of uncertainty is a priority for planning and governance in communities worldwide. In China, which has suffered many of the world’s most devastating floods, earthquakes, and typhoons, preparing for the threat of disaster has long been an important planning objective. Recent calamities, such as the 2008 Winter Storms, the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, and the 2012 Beijing Floods have only made planning for resiliency more urgent. As planners work to prepare for such events, interdisciplinary collaboration becomes increasingly important. Planners need the tools and insights offered by other fields, including both the natural and social sciences. At the same time, these interdisciplinary relationships help shape the identity of urban-rural planning in its new role as one of China’s primary academic disciplines. Thus, the nexus between planning and science is critically important in building resilient cities in China, and the Chinese planning experience can serve as an example to and benefit countries around the world.

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