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This collection of essays examines the growth of professionalization in national police forces in England, France, Germany, Ireland, and the Netherlands. The period covered begins at the point where police forces had been established on some sort of a national scale. The essays are concerned with perceptions of both rulers and ruled, and perceptions of the role and function of the police in established industrial and urbanized societies. They also deal with the ways in which different police forces expanded and developed over time, and with the effect of this expansion and development on police organization and strategy.

During the period covered in the book, all the countries of Western Europe were confronted with similar, essentially political challenges. Industrialization and urbanization created new and alarming environments and appeared to foster new and menacing social groups, from the dangerous classes lurking within the unskilled urban working class, to the more tangible organizations created by labor. Socialism and fascism provided the European states with new ideologies and ideologues to confront or to support--and world war, involving mass mobilization on the home as well as the battle fronts, was seen to require a further extension of the role of the state. In a crisis, central government must ensure its command over its forces of coercion and its sources of information--it was then that the police became most openly the executive area of government. As the trend toward central control intensified, so did the trend toward professionalization. By examining the evolution of the police in five societies, the authors provide valuable analyses of the ways police forces differed from one another, the ways in which they approached their tasks, and how they developed their respective self-images. This collection will be of considerable use to scholars and students involved in research on modern European history and criminology.

No single area of medicine promises more acrimonious and intense debate in the coming decades than the implications of new medical technologies on the maternal-fetal relationships. This is the only book to combine comprehensive coverage of the legal and social issues raised as a result of both emerging technologies for fetal intervention and increasing knowledge of fetal development. It examines such issues as the effects of maternal behavior on the fetus's health, hazards in the workplace, teenage pregnancy, and the use of therapeutic and diagnostic techniques. The volume also summarizes the legal/political context of policies regarding the mother's responsibility for the welfare of the fetus and describes the current status of these issues in public law.

The work opens with a framework for examining rights and, in chapter 2, gives an in-depth description of knowledge about the impact of maternal actions on fetal development. Attention then turns to current trends in case law, as Chapter 3 traces the growing acceptance of causes of legal action for prenatal injury or death of the fetus. Chapter 4 extends this analysis to look at the changing legal context for defining standards of care for pregnant women. Chapter 5 examines three disparate but critical topics illustrating the pressures women face in the 1990s: workplace hazards, teenage pregnancy, and surrogate motherhood. The final chapter integrates the technological, legal, social, and political dimensions surrounding the maternal-fetal relationship into a context for creating an effective public policy.

Midway through his reign, in the critical decade of the 1680s, the lusty image of Louis XIV paled and was replaced by that of a straitlaced monarch committed to locking up blasphemers, debtors, gamblers, and prostitutes in wretched, foul-smelling prisons that dispensed ample doses of Catholic-Reformation virtue. The author demonstrates how this attack on sin expressed the punitive social policy of the French Catholic Reformation and how Louis's actions clarified the legal and moral distinctions between crime and sin.

As a hot-blooded young prince, Louis XIV paid little attention to virtue or to sin and, despite his cherished title of God's Most Christian King, violations of God's Sixth and Ninth Commandments never troubled him. Indeed, for the first two decades of his reign, he paraded a stream of royal mistresses before all of Europe and fathered sixteen illegitimate children. Yet, midway through his reign, in the critical decade of the 1680s, the lusty image of Louis XIV paled and was replaced by that of a straitlaced monarch committed to locking up blasphemers, debtors, gamblers, and prostitutes in wretched, foul-smelling prisons that dispensed ample doses of Catholic-Reformation virtue.

Using police and prison archives, administrative correspondence, memoirs, and letters, Riley describes the formation of Louis's narrow conscience and his efforts to safeguard his subjects' souls by attacking sin and infusing his kingdom with virtue, especially in Paris and at Versailles. Throughout his attack on sin, women--so-called Soldiers of Satan--were the special targets of the police. By the seventeenth century, fornication and adultery had become exclusively female crimes; men guilty of these sins were rarely punished as severely. Although unsuccessful, Louis's attack on sin clarified the legal and moral distinctions between crime and sin as well as the futility of enforcing a religiously inspired social policy on an irreverent, secular-minded France.

On August 6 and August 9, 1945, the world became aware of the destructiveness of nuclear energy when the U.S. Army Air Corps dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Even before the bombs were detonated, though, President Harry Truman had directed his thoughts toward non-military uses of the atom, recognizing that the atomic bomb had given man a new understanding of the forces of nature. This book examines the history and development of nuclear power from the perspective of the U.S. Army's nuclear power program, telling its story from the creation of the Office of Research and Development through the program's days of growth, and on to its eventual decline.

This history examines the development of the United States Army's nuclear power program from its inception, through the development and operation of six small nuclear power plants throughout the Western Hemisphere, to its evolution into a military support agency. The Manhattan Project District Engineer, General Kenneth Nichols, who generated the idea for the program, worked for the development of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. From the initial plans to develop nuclear power plants at remote bases, the book traces the path the Army took in getting its proposals approved by the Atomic Energy Commission, formally organizing the nuclear program, and building a prototype of a nuclear power plant. Separate chapters are devoted to Fort Greely, the nuclear program at the height of its success and accomplishment, and its subsequent decline and transitional period. With its list of suggestions for further reading and a comprehensive index, this volume will be a valuable resource for courses in military history, energy issues, and the development of atomic power. It will also represent an important addition to college, university, and public libraries.

Since 1970 increasing percentages of Black students have enrolled in all types of private schools in diverse, though predominantly urban, regions of the nation. Since more than 90 percent of all Black students receive instruction in public schools, it is perhaps not surprising that researchers have paid scant attention to the educational status of the minority who have attended independently funded schools. The authors of this book present the first systematic treatment of the subject, looking at all aspects of the educational experiences of the Black children in private and parochial schools, and they explore the implications of private schooling for educational policy and future research. The editors' introduction provides an overview of the educational situation of Black children, focusing on the interface between the children, their families, and academic achievement in their schools. The organization of the volume reflects the diversity of private school types attended by Black children.

Issues discussed are related to Black parent and student experiences in desegregated elite private schools, parochial schools, and predominantly Black private schools. The parental involvement in the schools is addressed as well as alternative types of organizational support systems for the Black students. Also discussed are the findings of recent research and information related to Educational Policy issues: research related to parental choice of private schooling, research on the racial coping strategies of parents of children in predominantly Black independent schools, educational policy issues and implications, for both private and public schools. The volume concludes with discussion of theoretical and research issues associated with the policy implications of their experiences for both public and private education.

This groundbreaking study fills a significant gap in educational research literature as it explores the problem of persistent and pervasive underachievement by African-American students in the public schools of the United States. Teacher quality, school resources, socio-economic status of students, cultural relevance of curriculum, and school leadership are a few of the factors that contribute to achievement or the lack of it by these students. Lomotey focuses on the impact of the African-American principal's leadership, its effect on the academic achievement of African-American students, and the day-to-day activities associated with school leadership. An early chapter reviews relevant research focusing on the connection between principal leadership and academic achievement in general. The extracted recurring qualities then form the basis for exploring whether African-American principals in more successful African-American schools possess the specific qualities suggested by the research. Lomotey finds that three additional and important characteristics are shared by his sample of principals: a deep commitment to the education of African-American children; a strong compassion for and understanding of both their students and the local community; and a sincere confidence in the ability of all African-American children to learn.

The text is enhanced by two dozen tables that present the information discussed. An early chapter details the study's methodology with an overview and discussion of sampling and measurement procedures. Useful to students of educational administration, African American Principals: School Leadership and Success will also be of value in courses focusing on urban studies, school effectiveness, and school leadership. Black Studies programs addressing African-American education in America will find this a most necessary text. African-American educators--scholars and practitioners--as well as parents, community leaders, and other lay people will profit from the up-to-the-minute insights presented here.

Denied its true place in history, the pre-Civil War black press was a forward looking, socially responsible press. Through her analysis of the content of black newspapers and magazines from the 1830s to the 1860s, Frankie Hutton not only presents a prism through which to view the social origins of black journalism in America, but also examines how this little-known ethnic press interfaced with the whole of journalism during the dark ages of the profession. This revisionist evaluation is intended for students, experts, and journalists dealing with ethnic and American studies, especially those interested in African-American cultural history.

The black press gives trenchant witness to what middle-class free men and women of color thought and did in their own words. The columns of the newspapers and magazines revealed how middle-class blacks were engaged in significant community-building and humanitarian activities. The fledgling black newspapers and magazines, of which only seventeen are now extant for study, sought idealistically to uplift and vindicate blacks as well as to help them assimiliate into mainstream America. This study analyzes the problems, beliefs, and work of black editors and then discusses their idealistic messages relating to such issues as women, youth, style, social mobility, and morality. An appendix lists the newspapers and journals under study, and the bibliography points to important primary and secondary source materials. This revisionist evaluation describes the problems, beliefs, and general outlook of leading middle-class blacks over more than three decades prior to the Civil War.

Though known primarily as a poet, Langston Hughes crafted well over 40 theatrical works. This book examines Hughes's stage pieces from his first published play, The Gold Piece (1921), through his post-radical wartime effort, For This We Fight (1943). Hughes's stage writing of this period includes such forms as the folk comedy, the protest drama, the historical play and the blues opera. McLaren concludes that the democratic argument is ultimately employed by Hughes to challenge segregation in the military and that Hughes's iconography prefigures the black aesthetic of the 1960s. Photographs complement the text.

McLaren demonstrates that Hughes's folk comedies, such as Mule Bone (1930) and Little Ham (1936), valorize folk humor and black vernacular. Written in collaboration with Zora Neale Hurston, Mule Bone resulted in a literary controversy. The study also analyzes Hughes's radical plays, including Scottsboro Limited (1931) and Don't You Want to Be Free? (1938), which blend poetry and drama. Also addressed is Hughes's association with community drama groups, especially Karamu Theatre in Cleveland and the Harlem Suitcase Theatre, which premiered Don't You Want to Be Free? and a number of Hughes's satires. In the early 1940s, Hughes entered his post-radical period but continued to protest fascism and celebrate black heroes and heroines. This transition is reflected in his critique of Richard Wright's Native Son. McLaren concludes that the democratic argument is used to challenge segregation in the military and that Hughes's iconography prefigures the black aesthetic of the 1960s. This book will be of great interest to students and scholars of radical theatre and African American drama. Photographs complement the text.

The past few years mark a growing scholarly interest in African children's literature in the United States. Several books have recently been published on the subject, and the number of papers on African children's literature presented at conferences or published in scholarly journals also seems to have increased. These publications are becoming more and more sophisticated as scholars move away from general country surveys or analyses of publishing conditions and instead analyze literary structures, themes, and illustrations, or apply Marxist, feminist, or postcolonial theories to interpret literary works. The question of an authentic voice in postcolonial African children's literature has emerged as a central concern to those who care about books for African children and young adults. Also of importance is the matter of how Africa is presented in literature for children who do not live on that continent. The essays in this book either take a postcolonial or revisionist approach to the study of colonial literature, or discuss books published after decolonization.

The introductory essay provides a general analysis of the key issues facing the publication of children's books in postcolonial Africa--issues of national identity, language, appropriate genres, and relevant themes to inculcate a nationalistic outlook in children and young adults. The chapters that follow are located within this broad framework and are written by expert contributors. While these essays reflect the scholarly interests and specialization of each author, they also span the entire field of African children's literature. The first group of chapters surveys African children's literature from a variety of angles and explores such topics as literacy and the publishing culture in Africa, the role and importance of awards, Nigerian young adult literature, and the relevance of folktales. The book then turns to a discussion of books about Africa written by Western authors for Western readers, which often project values and perspectives that betray a continuing colonial bias. The last part of the book examines more specialized themes and concerns.

During the 1920s and 1930s, Willis Richardson (1889-1977) was highly respected as a leading African-American playwright and drama anthologist. His plays were performed by numerous black high school, college, and university drama groups and by theater companies in Chicago, New York, Washington D.C., Cleveland, Baltimore, and Atlanta. With the opening of The Chip Woman's Fortune (1923), he became the first African American to have a play produced on Broadway. Several of his 46 plays were published in assorted magazines, and in his essays, he urged black Americans to seek their dramatic material in their own lives and circumstances. In addition, he edited three anthologies of plays by African-Americans. But between 1940 and his death in 1977, Richardson came to realize that his plays were period pieces and that they no longer reflected the problems and situations of African-Americans. In the years before his death, he attempted vigorously yet unsuccessfully to preserve several of his plays through publication, if not production. But the man who has been called the father of African-American drama and who was considered the hope and promise of African-American drama died in obscurity.

Richardson has even been neglected by the scholarly community. This critical biography, the first extensive consideration of his life and work, firmly reestablishes his pioneering role in American theater. The book begins with a detailed chronology, followed by a thoughtful biographical essay. The volume then examines the nature of African-American drama in the 1920s, the period during which Richardson was most productive, and it analyzes his approach to drama as a means of educating African-American audiences. It then explores the African-American community as the central theme in Richardson's plays, for Richardson typically looks at the consequences of refusals by blacks to help one another. The work additionally considers Richardson's history plays, his anthologies, his dramas intended for black children, and his essays. A concluding chapter summarizes his lasting influence; the book closes with a listing of his plays and an extensive bibliography.

Widely acclaimed for her powerful explorations of race, womanhood, spirituality, and mortality, poet Lucille Clifton has published thirteen volumes of poems since 1969 and has received numerous accolades for her work, including the 2000 National Book Award for Blessing the Boats. Her verse is featured in almost every anthology of contemporary poetry, and her readings draw large and enthusiastic audiences. Although Clifton's poetry is a pleasure to read, it is neither as simple nor as blithely celebratory as readers sometimes assume. The bursts of joy found in her polished, elegant lines are frequently set against a backdrop of regret and sorrow. Alternately consoling, stimulating, and emotionally devastating, Clifton's poems are unforgettable. In Wild Blessings, Hilary Holladay offers the first full-length study of Clifton's poetry, drawing on a broad knowledge of the American poetic tradition and African American poetry in particular. Holladay places Clifton's poems in multiple contexts -- personal, political, and literary -- as she explicates major themes and analyzes specific works: Clifton's poems about womanhood, a central concern throughout her career; her fertility poems, which are provocatively compared with Sylvia Plath's poems on the same subject; her relation to the Black Arts Movement and to other black female poets, such as Gwendolyn Brooks and Sonia Sanchez; her biblical poems; her elegies; and her poignant family history, Generations, an extended prose poem. In addition to a new preface written after Clifton's death in 2010, this updated edition includes an epilogue that discusses the poetry collections she published after 2004.
Readers encountering Lucille Clifton's poems for the first time and those long familiar with her distinctive voice will benefit from Hilary Holladay's striking insights and her illuminating interview with the influential American poet.
The ten essays in this groundbreaking compilation cover a broad range of topics, employing a variety of approaches, including theoretical interpretations and textual and comparative analysis, to investigate such issues as race, class, gender, and sexuality, as well as the novel's historical and literary contexts. What's Your Road, Man? Critical Essays on Jack Kerouac's "On the Road" illustrates the richness of the critical work currently being undertaken on this vital American narrative.

Combining essays from renowned Kerouac experts and emerging scholars, What's Your Road, Man? draws on an enormous amount of research into the literary, social, cultural, biographical, and historical contexts of Kerouac's canonical novel. Since its publication in 1957, On the Road has remained in print and has continued to be one of the most widely read twentieth-century American novels.

Several essays enhance understanding of the book by comparing it with alternative versions of the text, like the original 1951 scroll manuscript and some of Kerouac's other novels, and with works by Kerouac's contemporaries such as Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar. Further studies explore ethnicity, identity, and the novel's place in American literature as well as its relevance to twenty-first century readers.

On the Road has inspired readers for more than fifty years, and the new research included in What's Your Road, Man? introduces fresh perspectives on this classic work of American literature. Editors Hilary Holladay and Robert Holton have successfully woven little-known material with new understandings of familiar topics that will enlighten current and future generations of Kerouac enthusiasts and scholars for years to come.

A landmark American drama that inspired a classic film and a Broadway revival—featuring an introduction by David Mamet

A blistering character study and an examination of the American melting pot and the judicial system that keeps it in check, Twelve Angry Men holds at its core a deeply patriotic faith in the U.S. legal system. The play centers on Juror Eight, who is at first the sole holdout in an 11-1 guilty vote. Eight sets his sights not on proving the other jurors wrong but rather on getting them to look at the situation in a clear-eyed way not affected by their personal prejudices or biases. Reginald Rose deliberately and carefully peels away the layers of artifice from the men and allows a fuller picture to form of them—and of America, at its best and worst.
 
After the critically acclaimed teleplay aired in 1954, this landmark American drama went on to become a cinematic masterpiece in 1957 starring Henry Fonda, for which Rose wrote the adaptation. More recently, Twelve Angry Men had a successful, and award-winning, run on Broadway.

For more than seventy years, Penguin has been the leading publisher of classic literature in the English-speaking world. With more than 1,700 titles, Penguin Classics represents a global bookshelf of the best works throughout history and across genres and disciplines. Readers trust the series to provide authoritative texts enhanced by introductions and notes by distinguished scholars and contemporary authors, as well as up-to-date translations by award-winning translators.
Winner of both the National Book Award for Arts and Letters and the National Book Critics Circle Award for Criticism, Paul Fussell's The Great War and Modern Memory was one of the most original and gripping volumes ever written about the First World War. Frank Kermode, in The New York Times Book Review, hailed it as "an important contribution to our understanding of how we came to make World War I part of our minds," and Lionel Trilling called it simply "one of the most deeply moving books I have read in a long time." In its panaramic scope and poetic intensity, it illuminated a war that changed a generation and revolutionized the way we see the world. Now, in Wartime, Fussell turns to the Second World War, the conflict he himself fought in, to weave a narrative that is both more intensely personal and more wide-ranging. Whereas his former book focused primarily on literary figures, on the image of the Great War in literature, here Fussell examines the immediate impact of the war on common soldiers and civilians. He describes the psychological and emotional atmosphere of World War II. He analyzes the euphemisms people needed to deal with unacceptable reality (the early belief, for instance, that the war could be won by "precision bombing," that is, by long distance); he describes the abnormally intense frustration of desire and some of the means by which desire was satisfied; and, most important, he emphasizes the damage the war did to intellect, discrimination, honesty, individuality, complexity, ambiguity and wit. Of course, no Fussell book would be complete without some serious discussion of the literature of the time. He examines, for instance, how the great privations of wartime (when oranges would be raffled off as valued prizes) resulted in roccoco prose styles that dwelt longingly on lavish dinners, and how the "high-mindedness" of the era and the almost pathological need to "accentuate the positive" led to the downfall of the acerbic H.L. Mencken and the ascent of E.B. White. He also offers astute commentary on Edmund Wilson's argument with Archibald MacLeish, Cyril Connolly's Horizon magazine, the war poetry of Randall Jarrell and Louis Simpson, and many other aspects of the wartime literary world. Fussell conveys the essence of that wartime as no other writer before him. For the past fifty years, the Allied War has been sanitized and romanticized almost beyond recognition by "the sentimental, the loony patriotic, the ignorant, and the bloodthirsty." Americans, he says, have never understood what the Second World War was really like. In this stunning volume, he offers such an understanding.
“Brimming, addictive . . . In Everybody Behaves Badly, the party has just begun and the taste of fame is still ripe . . . The Lost Generation [is] restored to reckless youth in living black and white.” — James Wolcott, Vanity Fair
 
“An essential book . . . a page-turner. Blume combines the best aspects of critic, biographer and storyteller . . . and puts the results together with the skill of an accomplished novelist. [This is] a complicated story, told masterfully.” — Minneapolis Star Tribune
 
“Magnificently reported.” — Gay Talese

In the summer of 1925, Ernest Hemingway traveled to Pamplona for the infamous running of the bulls. He then channeled that trip’s drunken brawls, sexual rivalry, midnight betrayals, and midday hangovers into a novel that redefined modern literature. Lesley Blume tells the full story behind Hemingway’s legendary rise for the first time, revealing how he created his own image as the bull-fighting aficionado, hard-drinking literary genius, and expatriate bon vivant. In all its youth, lust, and rivalry, the Lost Generation is illuminated here as never before.
 
“Engrossing . . . Drawing on journals, letters, and autobiographies of many members of the artistic circles in which Hemingway moved in the early 1920s, Blume shows how ruthlessly Hemingway betrayed his mentors, skewered his friends in his fiction, and sought to advance his career at all costs.” — Boston Globe
 
 “Fascinating . . . compulsively readable.” — Houston Chronicle

 
“Walden. Yesterday I came here to live.” That entry from the journal of Henry David Thoreau, and the intellectual journey it began, would by themselves be enough to place Thoreau in the American pantheon. His attempt to “live deliberately” in a small woods at the edge of his hometown of Concord has been a touchstone for individualists and seekers since the publication of Walden in 1854.

But there was much more to Thoreau than his brief experiment in living at Walden Pond. A member of the vibrant intellectual circle centered on his neighbor Ralph Waldo Emerson, he was also an ardent naturalist, a manual laborer and inventor, a radical political activist, and more. Many books have taken up various aspects of Thoreau’s character and achievements, but, as Laura Dassow Walls writes, “Thoreau has never been captured between covers; he was too quixotic, mischievous, many-sided.” Two hundred years after his birth, and two generations after the last full-scale biography, Walls restores Henry David Thoreau to us in all his profound, inspiring complexity.

Walls traces the full arc of Thoreau’s life, from his early days in the intellectual hothouse of Concord, when the American experiment still felt fresh and precarious, and “America was a family affair, earned by one generation and about to pass to the next.” By the time he died in 1862, at only forty-four years of age, Thoreau had witnessed the transformation of his world from a community of farmers and artisans into a bustling, interconnected commercial nation. What did that portend for the contemplative individual and abundant, wild nature that Thoreau celebrated?

Drawing on Thoreau’s copious writings, published and unpublished, Walls presents a Thoreau vigorously alive in all his quirks and contradictions: the young man shattered by the sudden death of his brother; the ambitious Harvard College student; the ecstatic visionary who closed Walden with an account of the regenerative power of the Cosmos. We meet the man whose belief in human freedom and the value of labor made him an uncompromising abolitionist; the solitary walker who found society in nature, but also found his own nature in the society of which he was a deeply interwoven part. And, running through it all, Thoreau the passionate naturalist, who, long before the age of environmentalism, saw tragedy for future generations in the human heedlessness around him.

“The Thoreau I sought was not in any book, so I wrote this one,” says Walls. The result is a Thoreau unlike any seen since he walked the streets of Concord, a Thoreau for our time and all time.
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