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High reliability, maintainability, and safety are expected from complex equipment and systems. To build these characteristics into an item, failure rate and failure mode analyses have to be performed early in the design phase, starting at the com ponent level, and have to be supported by a set of design guidelines for reliability and maintainability as well as by extensive design reviews. Before production, qualification tests of prototypes must ensure that quality and reliability targets have been reached. In the production phase, processes and procedures have to be selec ted and monitored to assure the required quality level. For many systems, availabi lity requirements must also be satisfied. In these cases, stochastic processes can be used to investigate and optimize availability, including logistical support. This book presents the state of the art of the methods and procedures necessary for a cost and time effective quality and reliability assurance during the design and production of equipment and systems. It takes into consideration that: 1. Quality and reliability assurance of complex equipment and systems requires that all engineers involved in a project undertake a set of specific activities from the definition to the operating phase, which are performed concurrently to achieve the best performance, quality, and reliability for given cost and time schedule targets.