## Similar Ebooks

This second edition of his book Anticipatory Systems, has been carefully revised and edited, and includes an Introduction by Judith Rosen. It has also been expanded with a set of Prolegomena by Dr. Mihai Nadin, who offers an historical survey of this fast growing field since the original work was published. There is also some exciting new work, in the form of an additional chapter on the Ontology of Anticipation, by Dr. John Kineman. An addendum-- with autobiographical reminiscences by Robert Rosen, himself, and a short story by Judith Rosen about her father-- adds a personal touch.

This work, now available again, serves as the guiding foundations for the growing field of Anticipatory Systems and, indeed, any area of science that deals with living organisms in some way, including the study of Life and Mind. It will also be of interest to graduate students and researchers in the field of Systems Science.

Uncertainty and Information: Foundations of Generalized InformationTheory contains comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of resultsthat have emerged from a research program begun by the author inthe early 1990s under the name "generalized information theory"(GIT). This ongoing research program aims to develop a formalmathematical treatment of the interrelated concepts of uncertaintyand information in all their varieties. In GIT, as in classicalinformation theory, uncertainty (predictive, retrodictive,diagnostic, prescriptive, and the like) is viewed as amanifestation of information deficiency, while information isviewed as anything capable of reducing the uncertainty. A broadconceptual framework for GIT is obtained by expanding theformalized language of classical set theory to include moreexpressive formalized languages based on fuzzy sets of varioustypes, and by expanding classical theory of additive measures toinclude more expressive non-additive measures of varioustypes.

This landmark book examines each of several theories for dealingwith particular types of uncertainty at the following fourlevels:

* Mathematical formalization of the conceived type ofuncertainty

* Calculus for manipulating this particular type ofuncertainty

* Justifiable ways of measuring the amount of uncertainty in anysituation formalizable in the theory

* Methodological aspects of the theory

With extensive use of examples and illustrations to clarify complexmaterial and demonstrate practical applications, generoushistorical and bibliographical notes, end-of-chapter exercises totest readers' newfound knowledge, glossaries, and an Instructor'sManual, this is an excellent graduate-level textbook, as well as anoutstanding reference for researchers and practitioners who dealwith the various problems involving uncertainty and information. AnInstructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all theproblems in the book is available from the Wiley editorialdepartment.

Thinking in Systems, is a concise and crucial book offering insight for problem solving on scales ranging from the personal to the global. Edited by the Sustainability Institute’s Diana Wright, this essential primer brings systems thinking out of the realm of computers and equations and into the tangible world, showing readers how to develop the systems-thinking skills that thought leaders across the globe consider critical for 21st-century life.

Some of the biggest problems facing the world—war, hunger, poverty, and environmental degradation—are essentially system failures. They cannot be solved by fixing one piece in isolation from the others, because even seemingly minor details have enormous power to undermine the best efforts of too-narrow thinking.

While readers will learn the conceptual tools and methods of systems thinking, the heart of the book is grander than methodology. Donella Meadows was known as much for nurturing positive outcomes as she was for delving into the science behind global dilemmas. She reminds readers to pay attention to what is important, not just what is quantifiable, to stay humble, and to stay a learner.

In a world growing ever more complicated, crowded, and interdependent, Thinking in Systems helps readers avoid confusion and helplessness, the first step toward finding proactive and effective solutions.

For centuries, scientific thought was focused on bringing order to the natural world. But even as relativity and quantum mechanics undermined that rigid certainty in the first half of the twentieth century, the scientific community clung to the idea that any system, no matter how complex, could be reduced to a simple pattern. In the 1960s, a small group of radical thinkers began to take that notion apart, placing new importance on the tiny experimental irregularities that scientists had long learned to ignore. Miniscule differences in data, they said, would eventually produce massive ones—and complex systems like the weather, economics, and human behavior suddenly became clearer and more beautiful than they had ever been before.In this seminal work of scientific writing, James Gleick lays out a cutting edge field of science with enough grace and precision that any reader will be able to grasp the science behind the beautiful complexity of the world around us. With more than a million copies sold, Chaos is “a groundbreaking book about what seems to be the future of physics” by a writer who has been a finalist for both the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award, the author of Time Travel: A History and Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman (Publishers Weekly).

The book assumes a working knowledge of elementary set theory, logic and familiarity with some systems concepts such as automation models. Senior and graduate students, researchers in management information systems, systems engineers and systems scientists will find this book useful.

Logically Fallacious is one of the most comprehensive collections of logical fallacies with all original examples and easy to understand descriptions, perfect for educators, debaters, or anyone who wants to improve his or her reasoning skills.

"Expose an irrational belief, keep a person rational for a day. Expose irrational thinking, keep a person rational for a lifetime." - Bo Bennett

Extremal Fuzzy Dynamic Systems will be of interest to theoreticians interested in modeling fuzzy processes, to researchers who use fuzzy statistics, as well as practitioners from different disciplines whose research interests include abnormal, extreme and monotone processes in nature and society. Graduate students could also find this book useful.

Here in the second volume, these tools are expanded to employ set-valued mappings, adjacency matrices, random graphs, and interacting entailment networks. The theory of set-valued mappings culminates in the imminence mapping, which equips the further investigation of functional entailment in complex relational networks. Imminence in (M,R)-networks that model living systems addresses the topics of biogenesis and natural selection. Interacting (M,R)-networks with mutually entailing processes serve as models in the study of symbiosis and pathophysiology. The formalism also provides a natural framework for a relational theory of virology and oncology.

This book will serve researchers and graduate students in mathematics and biology.

The antidote to fuzzy thinking, with furry animals!

Have you read (or stumbled into) one too many irrational online debates? Ali Almossawi certainly had, so he wrote An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments! This handy guide is here to bring the internet age a much-needed dose of old-school logic (really old-school, a la Aristotle).

Here are cogent explanations of the straw man fallacy, the slippery slope argument, the ad hominem attack, and other common attempts at reasoning that actually fall short—plus a beautifully drawn menagerie of animals who (adorably) commit every logical faux pas. Rabbit thinks a strange light in the sky must be a UFO because no one can prove otherwise (the appeal to ignorance). And Lion doesn’t believe that gas emissions harm the planet because, if that were true, he wouldn’t like the result (the argument from consequences).

Once you learn to recognize these abuses of reason, they start to crop up everywhere from congressional debate to YouTube comments—which makes this geek-chic book a must for anyone in the habit of holding opinions.

George Klir is the Distinguished Professor of Systems Science and Director of the Center for Intelligent Systems, Fellow of the IEEE and IFSA, editor of nine volumes, editorial board member of 18 journals, and author or co-author of 16 books

Foreword by the inventor of fuzzy logic-- Professor Lotfi Zadeh

This volume covers primary components of ignorance and their impact on practice and decision making. It provides an overview of the current state of uncertainty modeling and analysis, and reviews emerging theories while emphasizing practical applications in science and engineering.

The book introduces fundamental concepts of classical, fuzzy, and rough sets, probability, Bayesian methods, interval analysis, fuzzy arithmetic, interval probabilities, evidence theory, open-world models, sequences, and possibility theory. The authors present these methods to meet the needs of practitioners in many fields, emphasizing the practical use, limitations, advantages, and disadvantages of the methods.

For centuries, scientific thought was focused on bringing order to the natural world. But even as relativity and quantum mechanics undermined that rigid certainty in the first half of the twentieth century, the scientific community clung to the idea that any system, no matter how complex, could be reduced to a simple pattern. In the 1960s, a small group of radical thinkers began to take that notion apart, placing new importance on the tiny experimental irregularities that scientists had long learned to ignore. Miniscule differences in data, they said, would eventually produce massive ones—and complex systems like the weather, economics, and human behavior suddenly became clearer and more beautiful than they had ever been before.In this seminal work of scientific writing, James Gleick lays out a cutting edge field of science with enough grace and precision that any reader will be able to grasp the science behind the beautiful complexity of the world around us. With more than a million copies sold, Chaos is “a groundbreaking book about what seems to be the future of physics” by a writer who has been a finalist for both the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award, the author of Time Travel: A History and Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman (Publishers Weekly).

This book helps to improve your calculation skill and provide magical techniques that makes easier your mathematical problems and solve in just few moments. The book of Short Tricks of Math covers large number of example with short technique solutions for the purpose of quick practice for basics of Math.

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Contents include: Sets and Relations — Cantor's concept of a set, etc.

Natural Number Sequence — Zorn's Lemma, etc.

Extension of Natural Numbers to Real Numbers

Logic — the Statement and Predicate Calculus, etc.

Informal Axiomatic Mathematics

Boolean AlgebraInformal Axiomatic Set TheorySeveral Algebraic Theories — Rings, Integral Domains, Fields, etc.

First-Order Theories — Metamathematics, etc.

Symbolic logic does not figure significantly until the final chapter. The main theme of the book is mathematics as a system seen through the elaboration of real numbers; set theory and logic are seen s efficient tools in constructing axioms necessary to the system.

Mathematics students at the undergraduate level, and those who seek a rigorous but not unnecessarily technical introduction to mathematical concepts, will welcome the return to print of this most lucid work.

"Professor Stoll . . . has given us one of the best introductory texts we have seen." — Cosmos.

"In the reviewer's opinion, this is an excellent book, and in addition to its use as a textbook (it contains a wealth of exercises and examples) can be recommended to all who wish an introduction to mathematical logic less technical than standard treatises (to which it can also serve as preliminary reading)." — Mathematical Reviews.

A NEW YORK TIMES NOTABLE BOOK

A VOICE LITERARY SUPPLEMENT TOP 25 FAVORITE BOOKS OF THE YEAR

AN ESQUIRE MAGAZINE BEST BOOK OF THE YEAR

Explaining why the whole is sometimes smarter than the sum of its parts, Johnson presents surprising examples of feedback, self-organization, and adaptive learning. How does a lively neighborhood evolve out of a disconnected group of shopkeepers, bartenders, and real estate developers? How does a media event take on a life of its own? How will new software programs create an intelligent World Wide Web?

In the coming years, the power of self-organization -- coupled with the connective technology of the Internet -- will usher in a revolution every bit as significant as the introduction of electricity. Provocative and engaging, Emergence puts you on the front lines of this exciting upheaval in science and thought.

Logic For Dummies tracks an introductory logic course at the college level. Concrete, real-world examples help you understand each concept you encounter, while fully worked out proofs and fun logic problems encourage you students to apply what you’ve learned.

Combining stories of great writers and philosophers with quotations and riddles, this completely original text for first courses in mathematical logic examines problems related to proofs, propositional logic and first-order logic, undecidability, and other topics. 2013 edition.

From epidemics of disease to outbreaks of market madness, from people searching for information to firms surviving crisis and change, from the structure of personal relationships to the technological and social choices of entire societies, Watts weaves together a network of discoveries across an array of disciplines to tell the story of an explosive new field of knowledge, the people who are building it, and his own peculiar path in forging this new science.

Because these new developments in logical thought tended to perfect and sharpen the deductive method, an indispensable tool in many fields for deriving conclusions from accepted assumptions, the author decided to widen the scope of the work. In subsequent editions he revised the book to make it also a text on which to base an elementary college course in logic and the methodology of deductive sciences. It is this revised edition that is reprinted here.

Part One deals with elements of logic and the deductive method, including the use of variables, sentential calculus, theory of identity, theory of classes, theory of relations and the deductive method. The Second Part covers applications of logic and methodology in constructing mathematical theories, including laws of order for numbers, laws of addition and subtraction, methodological considerations on the constructed theory, foundations of arithmetic of real numbers, and more. The author has provided numerous exercises to help students assimilate the material, which not only provides a stimulating and thought-provoking introduction to the fundamentals of logical thought, but is the perfect adjunct to courses in logic and the foundation of mathematics.

"This book is a very specialized but broadly useful introduction to set theory. It is aimed at 'the beginning student of advanced mathematics' … who wants to understand the set-theoretic underpinnings of the mathematics he already knows or will learn soon. It is also useful to the professional mathematician who knew these underpinnings at one time but has now forgotten exactly how they go. … A good reference for how set theory is used in other parts of mathematics." — Allen Stenger, The Mathematical Association of America, September 2011.

The world, as Nick Bilton—with tongue-in-cheek—shows, has been going to hell for a long, long time, and what we are experiencing is the twenty-first-century version of the fear that always takes hold as new technology replaces the old. In fact, as Bilton shows, the digital era we are part of is, in all its creative and disruptive forms, the foundation for exciting and engaging experiences not only for business but society as well.

Both visionary and practical, I Live in the Future & Here’s How It Works captures the zeitgeist of an emerging age, providing the understanding of how a radically changed media world is influencing human behavior:

• With a walk on the wild side—through the porn industry—we see how this business model is leading the way, adapting product to consumer needs and preferences and beating piracy.

• By understanding how the Internet is creating a new type of consumer, the “consumnivore,” living in a world where immediacy trumps quality and quantity, we see who is dictating the type of content being created.

• Through exploring the way our brains are adapting, we gain a new understanding of the positive effect of new media narratives on thinking and action. One fascinating study, for example, shows that surgeons who play video games are more skillful than their nonplaying counterparts.

• Why social networks, the openness of the Internet, and handy new gadgets are not just vehicles for telling the world what you had for breakfast but are becoming the foundation for “anchoring communities” that tame information overload and help determine what news and information to trust and consume and what to ignore.

• Why the map of tomorrow is centered on “Me,” and why that simple fact means a totally new approach to the way media companies shape content.

• Why people pay for experiences, not content; and why great storytelling and extended relationships will prevail and enable businesses to engage with customers in new ways that go beyond merely selling information, instead creating unique and meaningful experiences.

I Live in the Future & Here’s How It Works walks its own talk by creating a unique reader experience: Semacodes embedded in both print and eBook versions will take readers directly to Bilton’s website (www.NickBilton.com), where they can access videos of the author further developing his point of view and also delve into the research that was key to shaping the central ideas of the book. The website will also offer links to related content and the ability to comment on a chapter, allowing the reader to join the conversation.

From the Hardcover edition.

The selection of topics conveys not only their role in this historical development of mathematics but also their value as bases for understanding the changing nature of mathematics. Among the topics covered in this wide-ranging text are: mathematics before Euclid, Euclid's Elements, non-Euclidean geometry, algebraic structure, formal axiomatics, the real numbers system, sets, logic and philosophy and more. The emphasis on axiomatic procedures provides important background for studying and applying more advanced topics, while the inclusion of the historical roots of both algebra and geometry provides essential information for prospective teachers of school mathematics.

The readable style and sets of challenging exercises from the popular earlier editions have been continued and extended in the present edition, making this a very welcome and useful version of a classic treatment of the foundations of mathematics. "A truly satisfying book." — Dr. Bruce E. Meserve, Professor Emeritus, University of Vermont.

The two-part selection of puzzles and paradoxes begins with examinations of the nature of infinity and some curious systems related to Gödel's theorem. The first three chapters of Part II contain generalized Gödel theorems. Symbolic logic is deferred until the last three chapters, which give explanations and examples of first-order arithmetic, Peano arithmetic, and a complete proof of Gödel's celebrated result involving statements that cannot be proved or disproved. The book also includes a lively look at decision theory, better known as recursion theory, which plays a vital role in computer science.

Can we scientifically predict our future? Scientists and pseudo scientists have been pursuing this mystery for hundreds and perhaps thousands of years. But now, astonishing new research is revealing patterns in human behavior previously thought to be purely random. Precise, orderly, predictable patterns...

Albert Laszlo Barabasi, already the world's preeminent researcher on the science of networks, describes his work on this profound mystery in Bursts, a stunningly original investigation into human nature. His approach relies on the digital reality of our world, from mobile phones to the Internet and email, because it has turned society into a huge research laboratory. All those electronic trails of time stamped texts, voicemails, and internet searches add up to a previously unavailable massive data set of statistics that track our movements, our decisions, our lives. Analysis of these trails is offering deep insights into the rhythm of how we do everything. His finding? We work and fight and play in short flourishes of activity followed by next to nothing. The pattern isn't random, it's "bursty." Randomness does not rule our lives in the way scientists have assumed up until now.

Illustrating this revolutionary science, Barabasi artfully weaves together the story of a 16th century burst of human activity-a bloody medieval crusade launched in his homeland, Transylvania-with the modern tale of a contemporary artist hunted by the FBI through our post 9/11 surveillance society. These narratives illustrate how predicting human behavior has long been the obsession, sometimes the duty, of those in power. Barabási's astonishingly wide range of examples from seemingly unrelated areas include how dollar bills move around the U.S., the pattern everyone follows in writing email, the spread of epidemics, and even the flight patterns of albatross. In all these phenomena a virtually identical, mathematically described bursty pattern emerges.

Bursts reveals what this amazing new research is showing us about where individual spontaneity ends and predictability in human behavior begins. The way you think about your own potential to do something truly extraordinary will never be the same.

However, few mathematicians of the time were equipped to understand the young scholar's complex proof. Ernest Nagel and James Newman provide a readable and accessible explanation to both scholars and non-specialists of the main ideas and broad implications of Gödel's discovery. It offers every educated person with a taste for logic and philosophy the chance to understand a previously difficult and inaccessible subject.

Marking the 50th anniversary of the original publication of Gödel's Proof, New York University Press is proud to publish this special anniversary edition of one of its bestselling and most frequently translated books. With a new introduction by Douglas R. Hofstadter, this book will appeal students, scholars, and professionals in the fields of mathematics, computer science, logic and philosophy, and science.

The fuel systems on board modern aircraft are multi-functional,fully integrated complex networks. They are designed to provide aproper and reliable management of fuel resources throughout allphases of operation, notwithstanding changes in altitude or speed,as well as to monitor system functionality and advise the flightcrew of any operational anomalies that may develop.

Collates together a wealth of information on fuel system designthat is currently disseminated throughout the literature.Authored by leading industry experts from Airbus and ParkerAerospace.Includes chapters on basic system functions, features andfunctions unique to military aircraft, fuel handling, fuel quantitygauging and management, fuel systems safety and fuel systems designand development.Accompanied by a companion website housing a MATLAB/SIMULINKmodel of a modern aircraft fuel system that allows the user to setup flight conditions, investigate the effects of equipment failuresand virtually fly preset missions.Aircraft Fuel Systems provides a timely and invaluableresource for engineers, project and programme managers in theequipment supply and application communities, as well as forgraduate and postgraduate students of mechanical and aerospaceengineering. It constitutes an invaluable addition to theestablished Wiley Aerospace Series.

Beginning with a survey of set theory and its role in mathematics, the text proceeds to definitions and examples of categories and explains the use of arrows in place of set-membership. The introduction to topos structure covers topos logic, algebra of subobjects, and intuitionism and its logic, advancing to the concept of functors, set concepts and validity, and elementary truth. Explorations of categorial set theory, local truth, and adjointness and quantifiers conclude with a study of logical geometry.