First edition and a remarkable relic: this copy of the foundation book of European settlement in Australia - the First Fleet voyage account of Phillip, the first official account of the settlement in New South Wales - belonged to the Shortland family, and specifically to Thomas George Shortland, second mate of the First Fleet vessel Alexander, who, as were other family members, was involved not only in the voyage and settlement but also with this first publication of its official record. The Shortland family provenance is particularly important because two of the family, Commander John Shortland, Agent to the Transports, and his younger son Thomas George, were both contributors to the book, meaning that it is fair to say that this is, in an important sense, an "authorial" copy. A third member of the family, the eldest son of Commander Shortland, also named John, was on board the Sirius and in fact had a long career in New South Wales, which adds to the interest of the present copy. Thomas George Shortland has made numerous and significant annotations throughout the book, particularly regarding his own mapping of the Solomon Islands as compared with the discoveries of the French voyage of d'Entrecasteaux. The copy thus provides a very rare opportunity to see a First Fleet officer studying the work of his French counterparts in detail, and returning to his own important surveying later in his career.