While there are many other works on introductory topology, this volume employs a methodology somewhat different from other texts. Metric space and point-set topology material is treated in the first two chapters; algebraic topological material in the remaining two. The authors lead readers through a number of nontrivial applications of metric space topology to analysis, clearly establishing the relevance of topology to analysis. Second, the treatment of topics from elementary algebraic topology concentrates on results with concrete geometric meaning and presents relatively little algebraic formalism; at the same time, this treatment provides proof of some highly nontrivial results. By presenting homotopy theory without considering homology theory, important applications become immediately evident without the necessity of a large formal program.
Prerequisites are familiarity with real numbers and some basic set theory. Carefully chosen exercises are integrated into the text (the authors have provided solutions to selected exercises for the Dover edition), while a list of notations and bibliographical references appear at the end of the book.
Most of the material focuses on point-set topology with the exception of the last chapter. Topics include sets and functions, infinite sets and transfinite numbers, topological spaces and basic concepts, product spaces, connectivity, and compactness. Additional subjects include separation axioms, complete spaces, and homotopy and the fundamental group. Numerous hints and figures illuminate the text.
From ancient Greek geometry to today's cutting-edge research, Euler's Gem celebrates the discovery of Euler's beloved polyhedron formula and its far-reaching impact on topology, the study of shapes. In 1750, Euler observed that any polyhedron composed of V vertices, E edges, and F faces satisfies the equation V-E+F=2. David Richeson tells how the Greeks missed the formula entirely; how Descartes almost discovered it but fell short; how nineteenth-century mathematicians widened the formula's scope in ways that Euler never envisioned by adapting it for use with doughnut shapes, smooth surfaces, and higher dimensional shapes; and how twentieth-century mathematicians discovered that every shape has its own Euler's formula. Using wonderful examples and numerous illustrations, Richeson presents the formula's many elegant and unexpected applications, such as showing why there is always some windless spot on earth, how to measure the acreage of a tree farm by counting trees, and how many crayons are needed to color any map.
Filled with a who's who of brilliant mathematicians who questioned, refined, and contributed to a remarkable theorem's development, Euler's Gem will fascinate every mathematics enthusiast.
A few selected topics allow students to acquire a feeling for the types of results and the methods of proof in mathematics, including mathematical induction. Subsequent problems deal with networks and maps, provide practice in recognizing topological equivalence of figures, examine a proof of the Jordan curve theorem for the special case of a polygon, and introduce set theory. The concluding chapters examine transformations, connectedness, compactness, and completeness. The text is well illustrated with figures and diagrams.
The book's first five chapters give an exposition of the theory of infinity-categories that emphasizes their role as a generalization of ordinary categories. Many of the fundamental ideas from classical category theory are generalized to the infinity-categorical setting, such as limits and colimits, adjoint functors, ind-objects and pro-objects, locally accessible and presentable categories, Grothendieck fibrations, presheaves, and Yoneda's lemma. A sixth chapter presents an infinity-categorical version of the theory of Grothendieck topoi, introducing the notion of an infinity-topos, an infinity-category that resembles the infinity-category of topological spaces in the sense that it satisfies certain axioms that codify some of the basic principles of algebraic topology. A seventh and final chapter presents applications that illustrate connections between the theory of higher topoi and ideas from classical topology.
Ranging from the familiar to the obscure, the examples are preceded by a succinct exposition of general topology and basic terminology and theory. Each example is treated as a whole, with a highly geometric exposition that helps readers comprehend the material. Over 25 Venn diagrams and reference charts summarize the properties of the examples and allow students to scan quickly for examples with prescribed properties. In addition, discussions of general methods of constructing and changing examples acquaint readers with the art of constructing counterexamples. The authors have included an extensive collection of problems and exercises, all correlated with various examples, and a bibliography of 140 sources, tracing each uncommon example to its origin.
This revised and expanded second edition will be especially useful as a course supplement and reference work for students of general topology. Moreover, it gives the instructor the flexibility to design his own course while providing students with a wealth of historically and mathematically significant examples. 1978 edition.
"In the world of mathematics, the 1980's might well be described as the "decade of the fractal". Starting with Benoit Mandelbrot's remarkable text The Fractal Geometry of Nature, there has been a deluge of books, articles and television programmes about the beautiful mathematical objects, drawn by computers using recursive or iterative algorithms, which Mandelbrot christened fractals. Gerald Edgar's book is a significant addition to this deluge. Based on a course given to talented high- school students at Ohio University in 1988, it is, in fact, an advanced undergraduate textbook about the mathematics of fractal geometry, treating such topics as metric spaces, measure theory, dimension theory, and even some algebraic topology...the book also contains many good illustrations of fractals (including 16 color plates)."
"The book can be recommended to students who seriously want to know about the mathematical foundation of fractals, and to lecturers who want to illustrate a standard course in metric topology by interesting examples."
Christoph Bandt, Mathematical Reviews
"...not only intended to fit mathematics students who wish to learn fractal geometry from its beginning but also students in computer science who are interested in the subject. Especially, for the last students the author gives the required topics from metric topology and measure theory on an elementary level. The book is written in a very clear style and contains a lot of exercises which should be worked out."
About the second edition: Changes throughout the text, taking into account developments in the subject matter since 1990; Major changes in chapter 6. Since 1990 it has become clear that there are two notions of dimension that play complementary roles, so the emphasis on Hausdorff dimension will be replaced by the two: Hausdorff dimension and packing dimension. 6.1 will remain, but a new section on packing dimension will follow it, then the old sections 6.2--6.4 will be re-written to show both types of dimension; Substantial change in chapter 7: new examples along with recent developments; Sections rewritten to be made clearer and more focused.
No previous knowledge of topology is necessary for this text, which offers introductory material regarding open and closed sets and continuous maps in the first chapter. Succeeding chapters discuss the notions of differentiable manifolds and maps and explore one of the central topics of differential topology, the theory of critical points of functions on a differentiable manifold. Additional topics include an investigation of level manifolds corresponding to a given function and the concept of spherical modifications. The text concludes with applications of previously discussed material to the classification problem of surfaces and guidance, along with suggestions for further reading and study.
The contributors are Marco Abate, Marco Arizzi, Alexander Blokh, Thierry Bousch, Xavier Buff, Serge Cantat, Tao Chen, Robert Devaney, Alexandre Dezotti, Tien-Cuong Dinh, Romain Dujardin, Hugo García-Compeán, William Goldman, Rotislav Grigorchuk, John Hubbard, Yunping Jiang, Linda Keen, Jan Kiwi, Genadi Levin, Daniel Meyer, John Milnor, Carlos Moreira, Vincente Muñoz, Viet-Anh Nguyên, Lex Oversteegen, Ricardo Pérez-Marco, Ross Ptacek, Jasmin Raissy, Pascale Roesch, Roberto Santos-Silva, Dierk Schleicher, Nessim Sibony, Daniel Smania, Tan Lei, William Thurston, Vladlen Timorin, Sebastian van Strien, and Alberto Verjovsky.
While containing all the key results of basic topology, Essential Topology never allows itself to get mired in details. Instead, the focus throughout is on providing interesting examples that clarify the ideas and motivate the student, reflecting the fact that these are often the key examples behind current research.
With chapters on:continuity and topological spaces deconstructionist topology the Euler number homotopy groups including the fundamental group simplicial and singular homology, and fibre bundles
Essential Topology contains enough material for two semester-long courses, and offers a one-stop-shop for undergraduate-level topology, leaving students motivated for postgraduate study in the field, and well-prepared for it.
An exciting new direction for combinatorics, this book will interest graduate students and researchers working in mathematical subdisciplines requiring the mastery and practice of high-dimensional Ramsey theory.
The book contains close to150 figures produced with lattice. Many of the examples emphasize principles of good graphical design; almost all use real data sets that are publicly available in various R packages. All code and figures in the book are also available online, along with supplementary material covering more advanced topics.
Designed as a text for a one-year first course in topology, this authoritative volume offers an excellent general treatment of the main ideas of topology. It includes a large number and variety of topics from classical topology as well as newer areas of research activity.
There are four set-theoretic chapters, followed by four primarily algebraic chapters. Chapter I covers the fundamentals of topological and metrical spaces, mappings, compactness, product spaces, the Tychonoff theorem, function spaces, uniform continuity and uniform spaces. The next two chapters are devoted to topics in point-set topology: various separation axioms, continua in Hausdorff spaces, real-valued functions, and more Chapter IV is on homotopy theory. Chapter V covers basic material on geometric and abstract simplicial complexes and their subdivisions. Chapter VI is devoted to simplicial homology theory, Chapter VII covers various topics in algebraic topology, including relative homology, exact sequences, the Mayer-Vietoris sequence, and more. Finally, Chapter VIII discusses Cech homology.
There are a large number of illuminating examples, counter-examples and problems, both those which test the understanding and those which deepen it. The authors have also made a special effort to make this an "open-ended" book, i.e while many topics are covered, there is much beyond the confines of this book. In many instances they have attempted to show the direction in which further material may be found.
Topology is so fundamental, its influence is apparent in almost every other branch of mathematics, as well as such fields as symbolic logic, mechanics, geography, network theory, and even psychology. This well-written text offers a clear and careful exposition of this increasingly important discipline.
In the tradition of Fermat’s Enigma and Prime Obsession, George Szpiro brings to life the giants of mathematics who struggled to prove a theorem for a century and the mysterious man from St. Petersburg, Grigory Perelman, who fi nally accomplished the impossible. In 1904 Henri Poincaré developed the Poincaré Conjecture, an attempt to understand higher-dimensional space and possibly the shape of the universe. The problem was he couldn’t prove it. A century later it was named a Millennium Prize problem, one of the seven hardest problems we can imagine. Now this holy grail of mathematics has been found.
Accessibly interweaving history and math, Szpiro captures the passion, frustration, and excitement of the hunt, and provides a fascinating portrait of a contemporary noble-genius.
The book is divided between introductory and advanced lectures. The introductory lectures address Kähler manifolds, variations of Hodge structure, mixed Hodge structures, the Hodge theory of maps, period domains and period mappings, algebraic cycles (up to and including the Bloch-Beilinson conjecture) and Chow groups, sheaf cohomology, and a new treatment of Grothendieck’s algebraic de Rham theorem. The advanced lectures address a Hodge-theoretic perspective on Shimura varieties, the spread philosophy in the study of algebraic cycles, absolute Hodge classes (including a new, self-contained proof of Deligne’s theorem on absolute Hodge cycles), and variation of mixed Hodge structures.
The contributors include Patrick Brosnan, James Carlson, Eduardo Cattani, François Charles, Mark Andrea de Cataldo, Fouad El Zein, Mark L. Green, Phillip A. Griffiths, Matt Kerr, Lê Dũng Tráng, Luca Migliorini, Jacob P. Murre, Christian Schnell, and Loring W. Tu.
This book will serve as a useful reference to graduate students and researchers in continuum theory and dynamical systems. Researchers working in applied areas who are discovering inverse limits in their work will also benefit from this book.
Peter W. Michor
The book presents a systematic treatment of the theory of Saks Spaces, i.e. vector space with a norm and related, subsidiary locally convex topology. Applications are given to space of bounded, continuous functions, to measure theory, vector measures, spaces of bounded measurable functions, spaces of bounded analytic functions, and to W*-algebras.
In this volume, the authors provide a thorough introduction to characteristic classes, with detailed studies of Stiefel-Whitney classes, Chern classes, Pontrjagin classes, and the Euler class. Three appendices cover the basics of cohomology theory and the differential forms approach to characteristic classes, and provide an account of Bernoulli numbers.
Based on lecture notes of John Milnor, which first appeared at Princeton University in 1957 and have been widely studied by graduate students of topology ever since, this published version has been completely revised and corrected.
This book comprises 11 chapters, with an introductory chapter that focuses on line integrals and independence of path, categories and functors, tensor products, and singular homology. Succeeding chapters discuss Hom and X; projectives, injectives, and flats; specific rings; extensions of groups; homology; Ext; Tor; son of specific rings; the return of cohomology of groups; and spectral sequences, such as bicomplexes, Kunneth Theorems, and Grothendieck Spectral Sequences.
This book will be of interest to practitioners in the field of pure and applied mathematics.
This monograph follows the Greek tradition in seeking beautiful shapes such as regular convex polyhedra. The primary aim is to convey to the reader how algebraic topology is effectively used to explore the rich world of crystal structures. Graph theory, homology theory, and the theory of covering maps are employed to introduce the notion of the topological crystal which retains, in the abstract, all the information on the connectivity of atoms in the crystal. For that reason the title Topological Crystallography has been chosen.
Topological crystals can be described as “living in the logical world, not in space,” leading to the question of how to place or realize them “canonically” in space. Proposed here is the notion of standard realizations of topological crystals in space, including as typical examples the crystal structures of diamond and lonsdaleite. A mathematical view ofthe standard realizations is also provided by relating them to asymptotic behaviors of random walks and harmonic maps. Furthermore, it can be seen that a discrete analogue of algebraic geometry is linked to the standard realizations.
Applications of the discussions in this volume include not only a systematic enumeration of crystal structures, an area of considerable scientific interest for many years, but also the architectural design of lightweight rigid structures. The reader therefore can see the agreement of theory and practice.
This book, unlike other introductory texts in differential geometry, develops the architecture necessary to introduce symplectic and contact geometry alongside its Riemannian cousin. The main goal of this book is to bring the undergraduate student who already has a solid foundation in the standard mathematics curriculum into contact with the beauty of higher mathematics. In particular, the presentation here emphasizes the consequences of a definition and the careful use of examples and constructions in order to explore those consequences.
A first-rate fictional guide to the concept of multiple dimensions of space, the book will also appeal to those who are interested in computer graphics. This field, which literally makes higher dimensions seeable, has aroused a new interest in visualization. We can now manipulate objects in four dimensions and observe their three-dimensional slices tumbling on the computer screen. But how do we interpret these images? In his introduction, Thomas Banchoff points out that there is no better way to begin exploring the problem of understanding higher-dimensional slicing phenomena than reading this classic novel of the Victorian era.
Key features and topics:
* Comprehensive selection of problems, including Greek geometry and optics, Newtonian mechanics, isoperimetric problems, and recently solved problems such as Malfatti’s problem
* Unified approach to the subject, with emphasis on geometric, algebraic, analytic, and combinatorial reasoning
* Presentation and application of classical inequalities, including Cauchy--Schwarz and Minkowski’s Inequality; basic results in calculus, such as the Intermediate Value Theorem; and emphasis on simple but useful geometric concepts, including transformations, convexity, and symmetry
* Clear solutions to the problems, often accompanied by figures
* Hundreds of exercises of varying difficulty, from straightforward to Olympiad-caliber
Written by a team of established mathematicians and professors, this work draws on the authors’ experience in the classroom and as Olympiad coaches. By exposing readers to a wealth of creative problem-solving approaches, the text communicates not only geometry but also algebra, calculus, and topology. Ideal for use at the junior and senior undergraduate level, as well as in enrichment programs and Olympiad training for advanced high school students, this book’s breadth and depth will appeal to a wide audience, from secondary school teachers and pupils to graduate students, professional mathematicians, and puzzle enthusiasts.
The author discusses topics where the interaction of physical and mathematical theories has led to new points of view and new results in mathematics. The area where this is most evident is that of geometric topology of low dimensional manifolds. These include the theories of Donaldson, Chern-Simons, Floer-Fukaya, Seiberg-Witten, and Topological (Quantum) Field Theory.
The author also discusses the interaction of CFT, Supersymmetry, String Theory and Gravity with diverse areas of mathematics. Several of these ideas have led to new insights into old mathematical structures and some have led to surprising new results The term "Physical Mathematics'' has been coined to describe collectively these new and fast growing areas of research, and regards the work of Donaldson and Witten as belonging to this new area of physical mathematics. Study of this work forms an important part of this book.
Starting with an introduction to the various curvatures associated to a hypersurface embedded in Euclidean space, the text advances to a brief review of the differential and integral calculus on manifolds. A discussion of the fundamental notions of linear connections and their curvatures follows, along with considerations of Levi-Civita's theorem, bi-invariant metrics on a Lie group, Cartan calculations, Gauss's lemma, and variational formulas. Additional topics include the Hopf-Rinow, Myer's, and Frobenius theorems; special and general relativity; connections on principal and associated bundles; the star operator; superconnections; semi-Riemannian submersions; and Petrov types. Prerequisites include linear algebra and advanced calculus, preferably in the language of differential forms.
The author encourages an intuitive approach to problem solving and offers concrete examples, diagrams, and geometric or physical interpretations of results. Detailed solutions to the problems appear within the text, making this volume ideal for independent study. Topics include metric spaces, Euclidean spaces and their basic topological properties, sequences and series of real numbers, continuous functions, differentiation, Riemann-Stieltjes integration, and uniform convergence and applications.