Gas-Liquid And Liquid-Liquid Separators is divided into six parts: Part one and two covers fundamentals such as: physical properties, phase behaviour and calculations. Part three through five is dedicated to topics such as: separator construction, factors affecting separation, vessel operation, and separator operation considerations. Part six is devoted to the ASME codes governing wall thickness determination of vessel weight fabrication, inspection, alteration and repair of separators500 illustrationsEasy to understand calculations methodsGuide for protecting downstream equipmentHelps reduce the loss of expensive intermediate endsHelps increase product purity
Beginning with simple theoretical models and experimental techniques, the book develops the complete repertoire of theoretical principles and experimental techniques necessary for understanding and implementing the most sophisticated NMR experiments.
Important new techniques and applications of NMR spectroscopy have emerged since the first edition of this extremely successful book was published in 1996. This updated version includes new sections describing measurement and use of residual dipolar coupling constants for structure determination, TROSY and deuterium labeling for application to large macromolecules, and experimental techniques for characterizing conformational dynamics. In addition, the treatments of instrumentation and signal acquisition, field gradients, multidimensional spectroscopy, and structure calculation are updated and enhanced.
The book is written as a graduate-level textbook and will be of interest to biochemists, chemists, biophysicists, and structural biologists who utilize NMR spectroscopy or wish to understand the latest developments in this field.Provides an understanding of the theoretical principles important for biological NMR spectroscopyDemonstrates how to implement, optimize and troubleshoot modern multi-dimensional NMR experimentsAllows for the capability of designing effective experimental protocols for investigations of protein structures and dynamicsIncludes a comprehensive set of example NMR spectra of ubiquitin provides a reference for validation of experimental methods
*Completely revised and updated throughout
*The definative guide for process engineers and designers
*Covers a complete range of basic day-to-day operation topics
Designed for those new to FTIR, but with enough reference material to appeal to journeyman and expert spectroscopists, this book does not demand any extensive familiarity with chemistry or physics. Specializing in concise and comprehensible explanations of FTIR topics, the author introduces the field of infrared spectroscopy, including the strengths and weaknesses of FTIR as a chemical analysis technique. He then describes the instrument itself and explores topics such as how an interferometer generates a spectrum, optimization of spectral quality, and which tests are used to monitor instrument health.
The book discusses how to properly use spectral processing to increase the information of a spectrum without damaging the data and takes considerable care in instructing on sample preparation, as good sample preparation constitutes half the battle in extracting good data. The final chapters examine single analyte quantitative analysis and conclude with an overview of infrared microscopy.
Drawing on the experience and knowledge of the author as both a professor and practitioner, Fundamentals of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy offers up-to-date information given in clear, easily understood language to appeal to beginner and expert spectroscopists alike. The author maintains a website and blog with supplemental material. His training course schedule is also available online.
* The first reference work on named reactions to present colored schemes for easier understanding
* 250 frequently used named reactions are presented in a convenient two-page layout with numerous examples
* An opening list of abbreviations includes both structures and chemical names
* Contains more than 10,000 references grouped by seminal papers, reviews, modifications, and theoretical works
* Appendices list reactions in order of discovery, group by contemporary usage, and provide additional study tools
* Extensive index quickly locates information using words found in text and drawings
Divided into five chapters, the book starts by giving an introduction to the discovery of active nitrogen, the energy content, and the methods by which this may be produced. The succeeding part deals with light emissions from active nitrogen system. This discussion includes molecular spectrum of nitrogen, emission from atomic energy and condensed active nitrogen, emission from molecular species with electronic energy levels below and above 9.76 eV, and light-emitting systems of active nitrogen.
The next part focuses on theories on active nitrogen. The theories discussed are long-lived Lewis-Rayleigh afterglow and short-lived, energetic afterglows. Numerical representations are provided to test the validity of the theories. Lastly, the discussions end with chemical reactions of active nitrogen. Topics contained in this part are text on recombination of N(4S) atoms; rate constants for reactions presumably induced by direct N(4S) attack; reactions caused by excited nitrogen molecular attack; and mechanism for reactions of active nitrogen that seem to influence direct N(4S) attack.
The book is a valuable source of information for readers interested in the research on active nitrogen.
Since the publication of the highly successful first edition ofBasic Gas Chromatography, the practice of chromatography hasundergone several notable developments. Basic GasChromatography, Second Edition covers the latest in the field,giving readers the most up-to-date guide available, whilemaintaining the first edition's practical, applied approach to thesubject and its accessibility to a wide range of readers.
The text provides comprehensive coverage of basic topics in thefield, such as stationary phases, packed columns and inlets,capillary columns and inlets, detectors, and qualitative andquantitative analysis. At the same time, the coverage also featureskey additions and updated topics including:Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)Sampling methodsMultidimensional gas chromatographyFast gas chromatographyGas chromatography analysis of nonvolatile compoundsInverse gas chromatography and pyrolysis gaschromatography
Along with these new and updated topics, the references,resources, and Web sites in Basic Gas Chromatography have beenrevised to reflect the state of the field. Concise and fundamentalin its coverage, Basic Gas Chromatography, Second Editionremains the standard handbook for everyone from undergraduatesstudying analytical chemistry to working industrial chemists.
This book guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use telescopes (from small amateur models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and to observe objects in the sky. Mathematics to around Advanced Placement standard (US) or A level (UK) is assumed, although High School Diploma (US) or GCSE-level (UK) mathematics plus some basic trigonometry will suffice most of the time. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires no prior knowledge or experience.
This is a ‘how to’ book that provides the knowledge and background required to understand how and why telescopes work. Equipped with the techniques discussed in this book, the observer will be able to operate with confidence his or her telescope and to optimize its performance for a particular purpose. In principle the observer could calculate his or her own predictions of planetary positions (ephemerides), but more realistically the observer will be able to understand the published data lists properly instead of just treating them as ‘recipes.’ When the observer has obtained measurements, he/she will be able to analyze them in a scientific manner and to understand the significance and meaning of the results.
“Telescopes and Techniques, 3rd Edition” fills a niche at the start of an undergraduate astronomer’s university studies, as shown by it having been widely adopted as a set textbook. This third edition is now needed to update its material with the many new observing developments and study areas that have come into prominence since it was published. The book concentrates on the knowledge needed to understand how small(ish) optical telescopes function, their main designs and how to set them up, plus introducing the reader to the many ways in which objects in the sky change their positions and how they may be observed. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the most advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable the reader to see some of the developments possible from the basic observing techniques covered in the main parts of the book.
• Introduces the reader to the types of test methodsapplied to petroleum products, including the need forspecifications
• Provides detailed explanations for accuratelyanalyzing and characterizing modern petroleum products
• Rewritten to include new and evolving testmethods
• Updates on the evolving test methods and new testmethods as well as the various environmental regulations arepresented
Principle, experimental set ups, parameters and interpretation rules of several advanced IR-based techniques; application to biointerface characterisation through the presentation of recent examples, will be given in this book. It will describe how to characterise amino acids, protein or bacterial strain interactions with metal and oxide surfaces, by using infrared spectroscopy, in vacuum, in the air or in an aqueous medium. Results will highlight the performances and perspectives of the technique.Description of the principles, expermental setups and parameter interpretation, and the theory for several advanced IR-based techniques for interface characterisationContains examples which demonstrate the capacity, potential and limits of the IR techniquesHelps finding the most adequate mode of analysisContains examplesContains a glossary by techniques and by keywords
This book is an easy-to-use compendium of problems encountered when using various commonly used analytical techniques. Emphasis is on impurities, by-products, contaminants and other artifacts. A separate entry is provided for each artifact. For specific chemicals, this entry provides the common name, mass spectrum, gas chromatographic data, CAS name and registry number, synonyms and a narrative discussion. More than 1100 entries are included. Mass spectral data are indexed in a 6-peak index (molecular ion, base peak, second peak, third peak) and there are also formula, author and subject indexes. An extensive bibliography contains complete literature citations.
The book is designed to be used. It will not only allow experienced analysts to profit from the mistakes of others, but it will also be invaluable to other scientists who use analytical instruments in their work.
The alkaline earth hydroxides can be divided into two groups depending on the hydration of the solid. First, the sparingly soluble anhydrous beryllium, magnesium and calcium hydroxides, whose freshly precipitated solids are poorly crystalline and show decreasing solubility with aging, and whose solubility in water decreases with increasing temperature. Second, the soluble strontium and barium hydroxide octahydrates that form crystalline precipitates which do not show changes in solubility on aging, and whose solubility in water increases with increasing temperature.
The aim of the book is twofold. Firstly, to reveal to the reader the combined use of different spectroscopic data, to facilitate an insight into the structure and conformational properties of any new piperidine derivative. Secondly, to establish a consistent link between conformation and reactivity for a variety of piperidine derivatives. Such a bridge is a key step for stereocontrol when dealing with the application of piperidine derivatives as synthetic intermediates. The book is conceived so that most of the information comes from visual inspection of the very abundant graphic material. An exhaustive subject index of more than 450 entries is also included.
Searching for the best laboratory instruments and systems can bea daunting and expensive task. A poorly selected instrument candramatically affect results produced and indirectly affect researchpapers, the quality of student training, and an investigator'schances for advancement. Buying and Selling LaboratoryInstruments offers the valuable insights of an analyticalchemist and consultant with over four decades of experience inlocating instruments based upon both need and price. It helps alldecision makers find the best equipment, service, and support whileavoiding the brand-loyalty bias of sales representatives so you canfully meet your laboratory's requirements.
The first section of the book guides buyers through the hurdlesof funding, purchasing, and acquiring best-fit instruments at theleast-expensive price. It explains how to find vendors that supporttheir customers with both knowledgeable service and applicationsupport. Also offered is guidance on adapting your existinginstruments to new applications, integrating new equipment, andwhat to do with instruments that can no longer serve in researchmode.
The second section explains the sales process in detail. This isprovided both as a warning against manipulative sales reps and as aguide to making the sale a win-win process for you and your vendor.It also shows you how to select a knowledgeable technical guru tohelp determine the exact system configuration you need and where tofind the best price for it. Added bonuses are summary figures ofbuying sequence and sales tools and an appendix containingfrequently asked questions and memory aids.
Buying and Selling Laboratory Instruments is for peopledirectly involved in selecting and buying instruments foroperational laboratories, from the principle investigator to theperson actually delegated with investigating and selecting thesystem to be acquired. Sales representatives; laboratory managers;universities; pharmaceutical, biotech, and forensic research firms;corporate laboratories; graduate and postdoctoral students; andprinciple investigators will not want to be without thisindispensible guide.
Designed to be completed in one semester, this text enablesstudents to fully grasp and apply the core concepts of analyticalchemistry and aqueous chemical equilibria. Moreover, the textenables readers to master common instrumental methods to perform abroad range of quantitative analyses. Author Brian Tissue haswritten and structured the text so that readers progressively buildtheir knowledge, beginning with the most fundamental concepts andthen continually applying these concepts as they advance to moresophisticated theories and applications.
Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria isclearly written and easy to follow, with plenty of examples to helpreaders better understand both concepts and applications. Inaddition, there are several pedagogical features that enhance thelearning experience, including:Emphasis on correct IUPAC terminology"You-Try-It" spreadsheets throughout the text, challengingreaders to apply their newfound knowledge and skillsOnline tutorials to build readers' skills and assist them inworking with the text's spreadsheetsLinks to analytical methods and instrument suppliersFigures illustrating principles of analytical chemistry andchemical equilibriaEnd-of-chapter exercises
Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria iswritten for undergraduate students who have completed a basiccourse in general chemistry. In addition to chemistry students,this text provides an essential foundation in analytical chemistryneeded by students and practitioners in biochemistry, environmentalscience, chemical engineering, materials science, nutrition,agriculture, and the life sciences.
Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
CMOS Processors and Memories is divided into two parts: processors and memories. In the first part we start with high performance, low power processor design, followed by a chapter on multi-core processing. They both represent state-of-the-art concepts in current computing industry. The third chapter deals with asynchronous design that still carries lots of promise for future computing needs. At the end we present a “hardware design space exploration” methodology for implementing and analyzing the hardware for the Bayesian inference framework. This particular methodology involves: analyzing the computational cost and exploring candidate hardware components, proposing various custom architectures using both traditional CMOS and hybrid nanotechnology CMOL. The first part concludes with hybrid CMOS-Nano architectures.
The second, memory part covers state-of-the-art SRAM, DRAM, and flash memories as well as emerging device concepts. Semiconductor memory is a good example of the full custom design that applies various analog and logic circuits to utilize the memory cell’s device physics. Critical physical effects that include tunneling, hot electron injection, charge trapping (Flash memory) are discussed in detail. Emerging memories like FRAM, PRAM and ReRAM that depend on magnetization, electron spin alignment, ferroelectric effect, built-in potential well, quantum effects, and thermal melting are also described.
CMOS Processors and Memories is a must for anyone serious about circuit design for future computing technologies. The book is written by top notch international experts in industry and academia. It can be used in graduate course curriculum.
New chapters include: high-temperature oxidation of metals and alloys, nanomaterials, and dental materials, anodic protection. Also featured are chapters dealing with standards for corrosion testing, microbiological corrosion, and electrochemical noise.
The seventh edition is restructured into three parts: Basic Concepts, Nuclear Power (including new chapters on nuclear power plants and introduction to reactor theory), and Radiation and Its Uses. Part Two in particular has been updated with current developments, including a new section on Reactor Safety and Security (with a discussion of the Fukushima Diiachi accident); updated information on naval and space propulsion; and revised and updated information on radioactive waste storage, transportation, and disposal. Part Three features new content on biological effects of radiation, radiation standards, and radiation detection.Coverage of energy economics integrated into appropriate chaptersMore worked examples and end of chapter exercisesUpdated final chapter on nuclear explosions for current geopolitical developments
Jorgensen introduces key figures in the story of radiation—from Wilhelm Roentgen, the discoverer of x-rays, and pioneering radioactivity researchers Marie and Pierre Curie, to Thomas Edison and the victims of the recent Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Tracing the most important events in the evolution of radiation, Jorgensen explains exactly what radiation is, how it produces certain health consequences, and how we can protect ourselves from harm. He also considers a range of practical scenarios such as the risks of radon in our basements, radiation levels in the fish we eat, questions about cell-phone use, and radiation's link to cancer. Jorgensen empowers us to make informed choices while offering a clearer understanding of broader societal issues.
Investigating radiation's benefits and risks, Strange Glow takes a remarkable look at how, for better or worse, radiation has transformed our society.
Why This Title
This title is written in a clear and logical manner that is accessible to environmental professionals of all disciplines. It contains hundreds of practical tips on planning, sampling, and interactions with analytical laboratories. Having this text as a desk reference will greatly improve skills in planning and sampling, and elevate understanding of chemical data to a new level.
This topic is of importance to a wide range of environmental professionals from a variety of disciplines (see audience). Written by a practicing professional for practicing professionals, this handbook provides everything an environmental professional needs to know to competently collect environmental chemical data.
Volume I focuses on physics and mechanics of micro- and opto-electronic structures and systems, i.e., on the science underpinnings of engineering methods and approaches used in microelectronics and photonics. Volume II deals with various practical aspects of reliability and packaging of micro- and opto-electronic systems. Internationally recognized experts and world leaders in particular areas of this branch of applied science and engineering contributed to the book.
New in the Third Edition:
Computer-aided calculation of phase diagrams Recent developments in metallic glasses The Scheil method of calculating a CCT diagram from a TTT diagram Expanded treatment of the nucleation and growth of polygonal ferrite and bainite New case studies covering copper precipitation hardening of very low carbon bainitic steel and very fine carbide-free bainite Detailed treatment of strain-induced martensite provides a theoretical background to transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels
Unique Presentation Links Theory to Application
Adding new case studies, detailed examples, and exercises drawn from current applications, the third edition keeps the previous editions’ popular easy-to -follow style and excellent mix of basic and advanced information, making it ideal for those new to the field. The book’s unique presentation links basic understanding of theory with application in a gradually progressive yet exciting manner. Based on the author’s teaching notes, the book takes a pedagogical approach and provides examples for applications and problems that can be readily used for exercises.
PowerPoint© illustrations available with qualifying course adoptions
This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. A final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentationsEach extensive chapter contains a preview and objectivesIncludes topics not found in similar books, such as a review of general algebra and an introduction to group theoryProvides chemistry-specific instruction without the distraction of abstract concepts or theoretical issues in pure mathematics
An international effort and industry-academia collaboration, this volume features expert contributions, focusing on the contemporary state-of-the-art concerning the many facets of the production of detergents and surfactants.
Thus, the Handbook of Detergents, Part F – Production, deals with the production of anionic, cationic, nonionic, and amphoteric surfactants, key builders, bleaching and whitening agents, enzymes and other components of detergent formulations in different contexts, gauges and related concerns, and discusses various technological procedures of production processes involving the components of surfactants and detergents.
The book is immensely useful to beginning and experienced engineer alike who are moving into the battery field. Li-ion batteries are one of the most unique systems in automobiles today in that they combine multiple engineering disciplines, yet most engineering programs focus on only a single engineering field. This book provides you with a reference to the history, terminology and design criteria needed to understand the Li-ion battery and to successfully lay out a new battery concept. Whether you are an electrical engineer, a mechanical engineer or a chemist this book helps you better appreciate the inter-relationships between the various battery engineering fields that are required to understand the battery as an Energy Storage System.Offers an easy explanation of battery terminology and enables better understanding of batteries, their components and the market place. Demonstrates simple battery scaling calculations in an easy to understand description of the formulas Describes clearly the various components of a Li-ion battery and their importanceExplains the differences between various Li-ion cell types and chemistries and enables the determination which chemistry and cell type is appropriate for which applicationOutlines the differences between battery types, e.g., power vs energy batteryPresents graphically different vehicle configurations: BEV, PHEV, HEVIncludes brief history of vehicle electrification and its future
Early chapters describe the history and nature of plastics and explain the relationship of chemical structure and properties. Preparation, structure, properties processing and applications of each class of plastics materials are then considered separately. New chapters have been added on materials selection and special polymers, including biodegradable and electroconductive polymers and thermoplastic elastomers. In addition many new plastics materials have been added throughout the text and more information has been included on testing methods and data. The sections on production/consumption statistics has also been completely updated.
Reviews of previous editions:
It's a genuine milestone in reference works...and the book is a 'must' for anyone concerned with the selection, preparation, compounding or processing of these materials' - British Plastic and Rubber
'This latest edition maintains the high standard set previously... The book s a 'must' for both student and practising technologists' - Plastics Materials
'The fourth edition of John Brydson's book carries on the splendid traditions of the previous three. As a reference book for a laboratory, sales office or student's bedroom, it is unrivalled in its comprehensive of the history, chemistry and technology of plastics'. - Reinforced Plastics
'As a reference book on the subject it is unique for its depth in such a compact form, yet allied to that it is so eminently readable. It is a working chemist's book for a working chemist.' - Journal of the Oil and Colour Chemists Association
'This is one of the most comprehensive reference books in its class.' - Polymer News, March 1996
With concise descriptions presenting the chemical, physical and electrical properties of any given compound, this subject matter will serve as an introduction to the field. This compendium is vital for students and scientific researchers in all fields of scientific endeavors, including non-chemists.2013 Honorable Mention in Chemistry & Physics from the Association of American Publishers' PROSE Awards Presents a systematic coverage of all known alkaline earth inorganic compounds and their propertiesProvides a clear, consistent presentation based on groups facilitatating easy comparisons Includes the structure of all the compounds in high quality full-color graphics Summarizes all currently known properties of the transition metals compounds Lists the uses and applications of these compounds in electronics, energy, and catalysis
This book discusses the fundamental aspects of chemistry, chemical technology and machineries involved in the various pre-treatment process of textiles before subsequent dyeing, printing and finishing. With the introduction of newer fibres, specialty chemicals, improved technology and sophisticated machineries developed during the last decade, this book fills a gap in this area of technology. However, its real strength is its clear perception of ample background description, which will enable readers to understand most current journals, thus staying abreast of the latest advances in the field.
The section regarding GC Conditions, Derivatization, and Mass Spectral Interpretation of Specific Compound Types has the same number of compound types as the original edition, but the information in each section has been expanded to not only explain some of the spectra but to also explain why certain fragmentations take place. The number of Appendices has been increased from 12 to 17. The Appendix on Atomic Masses and Isotope Abundances has been expanded to provide tools to aid in determination of elemental composition from isotope peak intensity ratios. An appendix with examples on "Steps to follow in the determination of elemental compositions based on isotope peak intensities" has been added. Appendices on whether to use GC/MS or LC/MS, third-party software for use in data analysis, list of information required in reporting GC/MS data, X+1 and X+2 peak relative intensities based on the number of atoms of carbon in an ion, and list of available EI mass spectral databases have been added. Others such as the ones on derivatization, isotope peak patterns for ions with Cl and/or Br, terms used in GC and in mass spectrometry, and tips on setting up, maintaining and troubleshooting a GC/MS system have all been expanded and updated.Covers the practical instruction necessary for successful operation of GC/MS equipmentReviews the latest advances in instrumentation, ionization methods, and quantitationIncludes troubleshooting techniques and a variety of additional information useful for the GC/MS practitionerA true benchtop referenceA guide to a basic understanding of the components of a Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS)Quick References to data interpretationReady source for information on new analyses
The papers in this volume provide a valuable and extremely wide-ranging overview of current research into the various options for natural gas conversion, giving a detailed description of the gas-to-gasoline process and plant. Together, they represent a unique combination of fundamental surface chemistry catalyst characterization, reaction chemistry and engineering scale-up and commercialization.
Chapters in part one explore the properties and processing of natural rubber, including the biosynthesis of natural rubber in different rubber-producing species, chemical modification of natural rubber for improved performance, and the effect of strain-induced crystallization on the physical properties of natural rubber. Further chapters highlight hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica-filled cross-linked natural rubber and computer simulation of network formation in natural rubber. Part two focusses on applications of natural rubber, including eco-friendly bio-composites using natural rubber matrices and reinforcements, soft bio-composites from natural rubber and marine products, natural rubber for the tire industry, the application of epoxidized natural rubber in pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), and the use of natural rubber for vibration isolation and earthquake protection of structures. Finally, chapters in part three consider environmental and safety issues associated with natural rubber, including improving the sustainable development of natural rubber, the recycling of natural and synthetic isoprene rubbers and of sulfur cross-linked natural rubber, and recent research on natural rubber latex allergy.
Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber is a comprehensive resource for academics, chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, and other professionals in the rubber industry, as well as those industries, including automotive, civil, and medical engineering, using natural rubber products.An updated review with systematic and comprehensive coverage of natural rubbersCovers a broad range of topics, including the chemistry, processing, sustainability, and applications of natural rubbersCoverage of the best international research, including key experts from Asia, the United States, South America, and Europe
Topics addressed include transport with inertia, described by persistent random walks and hyperbolic reaction-transport equations and transport by anomalous diffusion, in particular subdiffusion, where the mean square displacement grows sublinearly with time. In particular reaction-diffusion systems are studied where the medium is in turn either spatially inhomogeneous, compositionally heterogeneous or spatially discrete.
Applications span a vast range of interdisciplinary fields and the systems considered can be as different as human or animal groups migrating under external influences, population ecology and evolution, complex chemical reactions, or networks of biological cells. Several chapters treat these applications in detail.