The selection first elaborates on the physiological roles of secondary natural products, tissue culture and the study of secondary natural products, and turnover and degradation of secondary natural products. Discussions focus on degradative reactions of nitrogenous and phenolic compounds, concept of turnover of secondary products, and plant-vertebrate interactions. The text then elaborates on secondary plant products and cell and tissue differentiation; compartmentation in natural product biosynthesis by multienzyme complexes; and secondary metabolites and plant systematics.
The manuscript examines the stereochemical aspects of natural products biosynthesis, nonprotein amino acids, and amines. Topics include tryptamines, phenethylamines, and histamine, nonprotein amino acids as analogues and antimetabolites, chemistry and biogenesis, and nonprotein amino acids as indexes for chemotaxonomy. The book also tackles glycosylation and glycosidases; transmethylation and demethylation reactions in the metabolism of secondary plant products; and oxygenases and the metabolism of plant products.
The selection is a vital reference for researchers interested in the biochemistry of secondary compounds.
The articles in this volume are grouped into three sections. The first section deals with topics concerning the monosaccharides and their derivatives found in plants. The integration and control of vital pathways concerned with hexose phosphate metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis; the metabolism of monosaccharide derivatives; and the formation of sugar nucleotides and their various transformations to the many novel sugar derivatives normally found in plant cell walls and complex carbohydrates are discussed in this section. The second part deals with the occurrence, biosynthesis, and transport of disaccharides and oligosaccharides. The final section of the volume is concerned with the occurrence, structure, and biosynthesis of simple and complex polysaccharides and glycoconjugates associated with cell walls and membranes.
Biochemists and botanists will find the book a great reference material.
As part of the Reliable Lab Solutions series, Essential Ion Channel Methods brings together chapters from volumes 293 and 294 of Methods in Enzymology. The chapters have been selected by the editor and updated, when possible, by their original authors to include new research and references. The result is a set of chapters which make use of graphics, comparisons to other methods, and provide tricks and approaches that make it possible to adapt methods to other systems. Methods are presented in a fashion that allows their replication by individuals new to the field, yet providing valuable information for seasoned investigators.Highlights top downloaded and cited chapters, authored by pioneers in the field and enhanced with graphics and easy to follow methodsLoaded with detailed protocols developed and used by leaders in the fieldRefines, organizes and updates popular methods from one of our top selling series, Methods in Enzymology
This volume describes microscopy using sophisticated stains and dyes to advance observation of tests and experiments. Section I describes autoradiography including micro chemical methods, high-resolution autoradiography, and single- or double-label quantitative autoradiography for use in imaging of brain activity patterns or determining cerebral physiology. Section II discusses the quantification of structures through statistical and computational methods including dynamic video imaging technology. Section III explains the use of tracers, toxins, or dyes in tracing neuronal connections. One paper addresses the use of small injections of axonally transported fluorescent tracers. Section IV explains staining technology such as using the silver impregnation method for frozen sections of human nervous tissue that are gathered from tissues preserved in formalin. Section V addresses freezing techniques and those using freeze-fracture methods in neurobiology. The text also discusses cryoprotection and other freezing methods to control ice crystals found in fixed or unfixed brain tissues. Section VI presents the combined and high-resolution methods in polarization microscopy and microscopic investigations.
Cellular biologists, micro-chemists, and scientific researchers in the field of micro- and cellular biology will appreciate this book.
Providing content that crosses disciplines, Cellular Endocrinology in Health and Disease details how cellular endocrine function contributes to system physiology and mediates endocrine disorders. A methods section proves novel and useful approaches across research focus that will be attractive to medical students, residents, and specialists in the field of endocrinology, as well as to those interested in cellular regulation. Editors Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre and P. Michael Conn, experts in molecular and cellular aspects of endocrinology, deliver contributions carefully selected for relevance, impact, and clarity of expression from leading field experts.Covers systemic endocrine action at the cellular level in both health and diseaseDelivers information on the integration of cell identity and endocrinologyIncorporates recent developments in endocrinology to provide an up-to-date reference to researchers
One paper discusses the benefits of using alkaline phosphatase-Dig-dUTP-labeled oligonucleotide probes in high-resolution in situ in terms of ease of performance, safety, and fast detection rendering. Section III addresses the screening, sequencing, and cloning, the process of which includes the rapid identification of DNA clones. One paper outlines the methods and materials that are used in such identification. Section IV explains lineage analysis and Section V discusses molecular pathology, including the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's disease.
This collection can prove useful for geneticists, molecular scientists, and academicians involved in neuroscience and pharmacological sciences, as well as researchers in geriatrics.
The first paper discusses the steroid receptor found in the central nervous system for steroid hormones that affects strongly the structure and function of both developed and immature nervous systems. Another paper describes how a glycoprotein of 79.5 kDa (transferrin) carries iron in the blood stream for delivery to different tissues, after the transferrin has bound with a specific receptor on the surface of the cell. This book also explains the binding sites of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in the human brain, while one paper analyzes the neurotensin receptors during the primary culture of neurons. This volume then also analyzes the structure and function of the fast nerve growth factor receptor, particularly how a signal on the outside of a cell is transmitted to the cell's interior.
This collection is helpful for microbiologists, cellular researchers, students, and professors in the discipline of neurosciences.
With its extensive graphics, inter-method comparisons, and tricks and approaches not revealed in primary publications, Fluorescence Microscopy encourages readers to both understand these methods, and to adapt them to other systems. It also offers instruction on the best visualization to derive quantitative information about cell biological structure and function, delivering crucial guidance on best practices in related laboratory research.Presents a timely and comprehensive review of novel techniques in fluorescence imaging as applied to biological and biomedical researchOffers insight into common challenges in implementing techniques, as well as effective solutions
With cutting-edge material, this comprehensive collection is intended to guide researchers of receptor-receptor interactions for years to come.Covers sections on allosteric and effector interactions, crystallization and modeling, measuring receptor-receptor interactions and oligomerization in individual classesChapters are written by experts in the fieldCutting-edge material
The critically acclaimed laboratory standard for more than forty years, Methods in Enzymology is one of the most highly respected publications in the field of biochemistry. Since 1955, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. Now with more than 300 volumes (all of them still in print), the series contains much material still relevant today--truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of life sciences.
Convenient bench-top format**Methods presented for easy adaptation to new systems**Comprehensive protocols included for**Cell recording: from conscious and freely behaving animals, measurement of calcium currents, and multiple electrodes**Voltage clamping and voltammetry: apparatus and applications**Specific ion channels and receptors: expression in oocytes, single-cell secretion, purification of calcium channel drug receptors**Special electrodes and other equipment: movable electrodes, microelectrodes, multiple electrodes, en passant recording, microincubators for optical studies**Special preparations: multicompartment cell cultures, grease-gap methods, perforated path techniques, giant proteoliposomes for reconstitution studies, microinjection**Data analysis and reduction: digital filtering on a personal computer, filtering on a personal computer, fitting of single-channel dwell time distributions, discrimination of kinetic models, voltage noise analysis, list-oriented analysis of single-channel systems
* Polymeric, cellular, and molecular drug delivery
* Blood-brain barrier
* Central nervous system
This book consists of four sections—chemical and nonchemical lesioning; model systems utilizing lesioning; transplants, implants, and grafts; and assessment of lesions and transplants.
In these sections, this volume discusses the excitotoxins as tools for producing brain lesions; use of acromelic acid for production of rat spinal lesions; and opioid and nonopioid antinociception as revealed by lesion studies. The endothelin-1-induced lesions in the brain as a new model of focal ischemia; fetal implants in the lesioned spinal cord of the rat; and hippocampal transplants in oculo are also elaborated. This book likewise covers the assessment of neurochemical function of brain transplants and in vitro electrophysiological analysis of in oculo.
This publication is intended for neuroscientists, but is also beneficial to researchers conducting work on lesions and transplants.
Comprised of 11 chapters, this volume begins with a detailed account of the ?-adrenergic receptor-coupled adenylate cyclase and the reconstitution of the functional interactions of its various purified components. The discussion then turns to the mechanism of action of steroid and thyroid hormones and how abnormalities in their receptors lead to disease; nuclear location of estrogen receptors; and the biochemistry of the fungal sex steroid receptors as well as the use of Achlya as a model system for the study of the mechanism of action of steroid hormones in general. Subsequent chapters focus on dopamine receptors; cholecystokinin receptor; corticotropin receptors; and the search for receptors that mediate sweetness. The book concludes with an analysis of endocrine receptors on lymphocytes and the integration of endocrine and immune systems, with emphasis on large granular lymphocytes.
This monograph will be a valuable resource for students and practitioners in fields ranging from cell biology and biochemistry to physiology, endocrinology, and pharmacology.
This volume is divided into four sections— chemical synthesis and biosynthesis; measurement of neuropeptides; purification and characterization; and neuropeptide degrading and processing enzymes.
In these sections, this book specifically discusses the synthesis of peptide substrates for protein kinase C; synthesis of glycosyl neuropeptides; and ultrastructural localization of peptides. The measurement of neurokinin B by radioimmunoassay; purification and characterization of neuroendocrine peptides from rat brain; and preparation of glia maturation factor ß are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the assays for arginine/lysine carboxypeptidases and enzymes that metabolize atrial natriuretic peptide.
This publication is beneficial to neuroscientists and students researching on the synthesis, assay, purification, and processing of neuropeptides.
Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with a detailed account of the vitamin D receptor, paying particular attention to its biochemical and physical properties as well as its mechanism of action. The discussion then turns to experimental discrimination between alternative mechanistic models for the receptor-mediated stimulation of adenylate cyclase; the role of microaggregation in hormone-receptor-effector interactions; and the biology and biochemistry of the Ah receptor. Subsequent chapters explore the interactions of animal viruses with cell surface receptors; insulin receptors; determination of the size of neurotransmitter receptors by radiation inactivation-target size analysis; and protein glycosylation and receptor-ligand interactions.
This book will be a valuable resource for students and practitioners in fields ranging from cell biology and biochemistry to physiology, endocrinology, and pharmacology.
The opening papers outline the proper conditions and practical considerations in which the researcher can study the sexual and reproductive behavior of animals in the laboratory. Another paper describes how to assess aggressiveness in rodents including ethical issues involved in such study. The book then discusses the effects of intracerebral administration of neuropeptides in rats using surgical and stereotaxic methods. Another paper presents the measurement of behavioral thermoregulatory reflexes to show acuity of temperature sensation and thermoregulatory control. This volume also discusses the measurement of song-learning behavior in birds through ""sensorimotor,"" ""action-based,"" and ""sensory"" methods of learning.
This book will be helpful for students, scientists, technicians, and laboratory workers whose work involves experiments that need to be accurately measured.
A convenient bench-top format**Methods presented for easy adaptation to new systems**Comprehensive protocols included for**Autoradiography: measurement of hormone receptors, high-resolution techniques, double labeling and combined techniques**Statistical and computational methods: video imaging, three-dimensional reconstructions, means of structural quantitation, unbiased sampling methods, measurement of analysis of neuronal connections, staining, and individual axon arbors**Tracing neuronal connections: tracer, toxin, and dye methods**Staining techniques: fluoro-gold, SITS, and silver impregnation**Freezing techniques: freeze fracture and cryoprotection**Combined and high-resolution techniques: double-label tracer techniques, incident light polarization, light and electron microscopic techniques
This volume is divided into two sections—neuropeptide gene expression and neuropeptide receptors.
In these sections, this book specifically discusses the assays for peptide products of somatostatin gene expression; molecular assays for rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene; and structure, expression, and chromosomal localization of human gene. The gastrin-releasing peptide or mammalian bombesin; semiquantitative analysis of cellular somatostatin mRNA Levels; and atrial natriuretic factor receptor assays are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the receptors for opioid peptides in brain and autoradiography of somatostatin receptors in rat cerebellum.
This publication is beneficial to neuroscientists and students intending to acquire knowledge of gene expression and neuropeptide receptors.
Comprehensive protocols included for the study of:The brain-immune systemThe neuroimmune system: Effects of the brain on the peripheral immune systemNeuroimmune effects from substances of abuse (e.g. cocaine) to hypnosisMeasurement of interferons, cytokines, natural killer cells, and major histocompatibility complex moleculesImmunohistochemistry methods in the brainNeuropeptides as immunomodulators
Section I involves data collection using a personal microcomputer system. One paper presents a tutorial on using a PC-based motor control composed of an electronic circuit to adjust the motion of a light microscope stage through a software program. Other papers discuss computer methods in nuclei cartography and a computer-assisted quantitative receptor autoradiography in studying receptor density distribution. Section II deals with data analysis and some computer programs for kinetic modeling of gene expression in neurons.
The book also discusses a computerized analysis of opioid receptor heterogeneity by ligand binding in test animals using computerized programs instead of employing manual or graphical methods. Computerized curve-fitting allows the researcher to utilize a more precise mathematical model to describe the binding of one ligand to one class of sites. Section III evaluates data modeling and simulations and describes the practicality of using computers to design model ion channels. Another paper discusses a graphical interaction program called MEMPOT to simulate an electrophysiological investigation of the properties of the membrane potential in stimulated cells. The book also presents a quantitative data gathered from computer simulation of the factors that affect neuronal density per measured sections.
The book is suitable for microbiologists, biochemists, neuroscientists, and researchers in the field of medical research, as well as for advanced computer programmers in medical research work.
* Highlights usefulness of techniques in basic research detailing MRI imaging of small animals, fMRI of Macaque monkeys, and baboon model of reperfused stroke * Built from volumes in the flagship brand, Methods in Enzymology * Provides tricks, tips and different approaches
This book alternates scientific and clinical chapters that explain the basic science underlying neurological processes and then relates that science to the understanding of neurological disorders and their treatment. Chapters cover disorders of the spinal cord, neuronal migration, the autonomic nervous system, the limbic system, ocular motility, and the basal ganglia, as well as demyelinating disorders, stroke, dementia and abnormalities of cognition, congenital chromosomal and genetic abnormalities, Parkinson's disease, nerve trauma, peripheral neuropathy, aphasias, sleep disorders, and myasthenia gravis.
In addition to concise summaries of the most recent biochemical, physiological, anatomical, and behavioral advances, the chapters summarize current findings on neuronal gene expression and protein synthesis at the molecular level. Authoritative and comprehensive, Conn’s Translational Neuroscience provides a fully up-to-date and readily accessible guide to brain functions at the cellular and molecular level, as well as a clear demonstration of their emerging diagnostic and therapeutic importance.Provides a fully up-to-date and readily accessible guide to brain functions at the cellular and molecular level, while also clearly demonstrating their emerging diagnostic and therapeutic importanceFeatures contributions from leading global basic and clinical investigators in the fieldProvides a great resource for researchers and practitioners interested in the basic science underlying neurological processesRelates and translates the current science to the understanding of neurological disorders and their treatment
* This series provides a forum for discussion of new discoveries, approaches, and ideas
* Contributions from leading scholars and industry experts
* Reference guide for researchers involved in molecular biology and related fields