This volume also places on record the authoritative summary of many years of work, by T. Reichstein and coworkers, on the strange sugars found in the cardiac glycosides and first noted by Heinrich Kiliani.
R. W. Bailey and J. B. Pridham cooperate between New Zealand and London to provide a much-needed review of the many oligosaccharides disclosed by the newer isolative methods.
0. Theander of Stockholm furnishes a wide-ranging review of the dicarbonyl sugars and their derivatives, while K. Heyns and H. Paulsen of Hamburg concentrate on one type of oxidation procedure, namely, that employing oxygen with a platinum catalyst.
D. J. Manners of Edinburgh ably summarizes the present status of the enzymic synthesis and degradation of starch and glycogen.
Finally, J. C. Sowden closes a brilliant classical period in sugar chemistry by a review of the life and work of the late, beloved Hermann 0. L. Fischer.
the drama of the front lines.”
-Richard Danzig, former secretary of the navy
The first major bioterror event in the United States-the anthrax attacks in October 2001-was a clarion call for scientists who work with “hot” agents to find ways of protecting civilian populations against biological weapons. In The Demon in the Freezer, his first nonfiction book since The Hot Zone, a #1 New York Times bestseller, Richard Preston takes us into the heart of Usamriid, the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick, Maryland, once the headquarters of the U.S. biological weapons program and now the epicenter of national biodefense.
Peter Jahrling, the top scientist at Usamriid, a wry virologist who cut his teeth on Ebola, one of the world’s most lethal emerging viruses, has ORCON security clearance that gives him access to top secret information on bioweapons. His most urgent priority is to develop a drug that will take on smallpox-and win. Eradicated from the planet in 1979 in one of the great triumphs of modern science, the smallpox virus now resides, officially, in only two high-security freezers-at the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta and in Siberia, at a Russian virology institute called Vector. But the demon in the freezer has been set loose. It is almost certain that illegal stocks are in the possession of hostile states, including Iraq and North Korea. Jahrling is haunted by the thought that biologists in secret labs are using genetic engineering to create a new superpox virus, a smallpox resistant to all vaccines.
Usamriid went into a state of Delta Alert on September 11 and activated its emergency response teams when the first anthrax letters were opened in New York and Washington, D.C. Preston reports, in unprecedented detail, on the government’s response to the attacks and takes us into the ongoing FBI investigation. His story is based on interviews with top-level FBI agents and with Dr. Steven Hatfill.
Jahrling is leading a team of scientists doing controversial experiments with live smallpox virus at CDC. Preston takes us into the lab where Jahrling is reawakening smallpox and explains, with cool and devastating precision, what may be at stake if his last bold experiment fails.
Every brain begins as a female brain. It only becomes male eight weeks after conception, when excess testosterone shrinks the communications center, reduces the hearing cortex, and makes the part of the brain that processes sex twice as large.
Louann Brizendine, M.D. is a pioneering neuropsychiatrist who brings together the latest findings to show how the unique structure of the female brain determines how women think, what they value, how they communicate, and whom they’ll love. Brizendine reveals the neurological explanations behind why
• A woman remembers fights that a man insists never happened
• A teen girl is so obsessed with her looks and talking on the phone
• Thoughts about sex enter a woman’s brain once every couple of days but enter a man’s brain about once every minute
• A woman knows what people are feeling, while a man can’t spot an emotion unless somebody cries or threatens bodily harm
• A woman over 50 is more likely to initiate divorce than a man
Women will come away from this book knowing that they have a lean, mean communicating machine. Men will develop a serious case of brain envy.
Herbal remedies have been around for years and many people count on them every day. Some carry a strong belief that there is no need to rely on medications. Among the alternative medicine approaches, essential oils are used for a number of different conditions and offer a variety of benefits.
After a stress filled day, it would be nice to come home and just relax. Some have found that they can get fast relaxation by taking a warm bath using essential oils. A mix of the oils and the aromas can relax one so much that it puts the client to sleep.
Because essential oils are extracted from plant material, they often contain the nutritional essence of the plants themselves. In concentrated form, they can impart huge health benefits, when they are ingested into the body.
Essential Oils will guide you through the various uses and benefits of essential oils, highlighting how to use them to lose weight, relieve pain, maintain your skin, as well as strengthen your hair. The various uses of essential oils is nearly limitless. Come discover what many others have: that there is now a safer, more natural way to protect yourself and your family.
The easy way to take the confusion out of organic chemistry
Organic chemistry has a long-standing reputation as a difficult course. Organic Chemistry I For Dummies takes a simple approach to the topic, allowing you to grasp concepts at your own pace.
This fun, easy-to-understand guide explains the basic principles of organic chemistry in simple terms, providing insight into the language of organic chemists, the major classes of compounds, and top trouble spots. You'll also get the nuts and bolts of tackling organic chemistry problems, from knowing where to start to spotting sneaky tricks that professors like to incorporate.Refreshed example equations New explanations and practical examples that reflect today's teaching methods Fully worked-out organic chemistry problems
Baffled by benzines? Confused by carboxylic acids? Here's the help you need—in plain English!
Why do you fall in love with one person rather than another? In this fascinating and informative book, Helen Fisher, one of the world's leading experts on romantic love, unlocks the hidden code of desire and attachment. Each of us, it turns out, primarily expresses one of four broad personality types—Explorer, Builder, Director, or Negotiator—and each of these types is governed by different chemical systems in the brain. Driven by this biology, we are attracted to partners who both mirror and complement our own personality type.
Until now the search for love has been blind, but Fisher pulls back the curtain and reveals how we unconsciously go about finding the right match. Drawing on her unique study of 40,000 men and women, she explores each personality type in detail and shows you how to identify your own type. Then she explains why some types match up well, whereas others are problematic. (Note to Explorers: be prepared for a wild ride when you hitch your star to a fellow Explorer!) Ultimately, Fisher's investigation into the complex nature of romance and attachment leads to astonishing new insights into the essence of dating, love, and marriage.
Based on entirely new research—including a detailed questionnaire completed by seven million people in thirty-three countries—Why Him? Why Her? will change your understanding of why you love him (or her) and help you use nature's chemistry to find and keep your life partner.
Nickel, cobalt and platinum group metals are key elements for materials processing. They occur together in one book because they (i) map together on the periodic table (ii) occur together in many ores and (iii) are natural partners for further materials processing and materials manufacturing. They all are, for example, important catalysts – with platinum group metals being especially important for reducing car and truck emissions. Stainless steels and CoNiFe airplane engine super alloys are examples of practical usage.
The product emphasises a sequential, building-block approach to the subject gained through the author’s previous writings (particularly Extractive Metallurgy of Copper in four editions) and extensive experience. Due to the multiple metals involved and because each metal originates in several types of ore – e.g. tropical ores and arctic ores this necessitates a multi-contributor work drawing from multiple networks and both engineering and science.Synthesizes detailed review of the fundamental chemistry and physics of extractive metallurgy with practical lessons from industrial consultancies at the leading international plantsDiscusses Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals for the first time in one bookReviews extraction of multiple metals from the same tropical or arctic oreIndustrial, international and multidisciplinary focus on current standards of production supports best practice use of industrial resources
The author has drawn on his own research and the current literature to ensure that appropriate attention is given to topics across the range of modern organic chemistry. The text is unique in its inclusion of a chapter on reactions mediated or catalyzed by transition metals, an area in which mechanistic understanding is now essential. Relatively new topics such as olefin metathesis and cycloaromatization are covered without giving short shrift to more traditional areas such as carbonyl chemistry. The text assumes a basic knowledge of organic chemistry. It can be used either in a formal course or by students working on their own, and will be particularly useful for graduate students studying for qualifying examinations. It will also be useful to students and researchers in biochemistry, pharmacology, and inorganic chemistry.
"This is an excellent and well-presented work.... The author ... has succeeded well in treating the central ideas of reactivity and selectivity in an integrated whole. The clear style of writing, the well chosen examples, and the ... concise summaries of the main points provided at the end of each chapter should enable the reader to easily consolidate what has been learned.... The book is indeed a little work of art."
-- Jens Hartung, Angewandte Chemie International Edition
"I have taught a one-credit course with this book for three years, and, uniformly, the students have rated this book highly for its clarity and for the scope of the problems. ... This book does an excellent job at its stated goal: 'to teach students to come up with reasonable mechanisms for reactions they have never seen before.'"
-- Amy Howell, Synthesis
"I have just finished my first year of graduate studies in organic chemistry at Duke University. I just wanted to let you know how much your book got me through the past year of course work.... When it came to mechanisms, I found the clarity and thoroughness I needed only in your book. It was impressive how you were able to present so much information in a clear and comprehensive manner yet keep the book so manageable in size. In addition to the text, I also was able to benefit from the problems.... Great practice!! The on-line answers are much better than looking up answers by reference.... I am reading it again this summer in preparation for my preliminary exam next spring."
-- David Gooden
Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, 2nd Edition introduces this important technique, to help students to design their own organic syntheses. There are forty chapters: those on the synthesis of given types of molecules alternate with strategy chapters in which the methods just learnt are placed in a wider context. The synthesis chapters cover many ways of making each type of molecule starting with simple aromatic and aliphatic compounds with one functional group and progressing to molecules with many functional groups. The strategy chapters cover questions of selectivity, protection, stereochemistry, and develop more advanced thinking via reagents specifically designed for difficult problems.
Examples are drawn from pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, natural products, pheromones, perfumery and flavouring compounds, dyestuffs, monomers, and intermediates used in more advanced synthetic work. Reasons for wishing to synthesise each compound are given.
This second edition has been fully revised and updated with a modern look. Recent examples and techniques are included and illustrated additional material has been added to take the student to the level required by the sequel, “Organic Synthesis: Strategy and Control”.
Several chapters contain extensive new material based on courses that the authors give to chemists in the pharmaceutical industry.
Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, 2nd edition provides a full course in retrosynthetic analysis for chemistry and biochemistry students and a refresher for organic chemists working in industry and academia.
Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
In anticipation of the fully revised 2015 MCAT, 500 Review Questions for the MCAT: Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry has been updated to comprehensively cover the biology portion of the organic chemistry/biochemistry portion of the Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems section. This book provides the problem-solving practice you need to take the exam with confidence.500 questions organized by subject Follows the new MCAT format Complete explanations to every question given in the answer key
With its balanced presentation of polymer chemistry, physics, and engineering applications, the Third Edition of this classic text continues to instill readers with a solid understanding of the core concepts underlying polymeric materials. Both students and instructors have praised the text for its clear explanations and logical organization. It begins with molecular-level considerations and then progressively builds the reader's knowledge with discussions of bulk properties, mechanical behavior, and processing methods.
Following a brief introduction, Fundamental Principles of Polymeric Materials is divided into four parts:
Part 1: Polymer Fundamentals
Part 2: Polymer Synthesis
Part 3: Polymer Properties
Part 4: Polymer Processing and Performance
Thoroughly Updated and Revised
Readers familiar with the previous edition of this text will find that the organization and style have been updated with new material to help them grasp key concepts and discover the latest science, techniques, and applications. For example, there are new introductory sections on organic functional groups focusing on the structures found in condensation polymerizations. The text also features new techniques for polymer analysis, processing, and microencapsulation as well as emerging techniques such as atom transfer radical polymerization.
At the end of each chapter are problems—including many that are new to this edition—to test the reader's grasp of core concepts as they advance through the text. There are also references leading to the primary literature for further investigation of individual topics.
A classic in its field, this text enables students in chemistry, chemical engineering, materials science, and mechanical engineering to fully grasp and apply the fundamentals of polymeric materials, preparing them for more advanced coursework.
* The first reference work on named reactions to present colored schemes for easier understanding
* 250 frequently used named reactions are presented in a convenient two-page layout with numerous examples
* An opening list of abbreviations includes both structures and chemical names
* Contains more than 10,000 references grouped by seminal papers, reviews, modifications, and theoretical works
* Appendices list reactions in order of discovery, group by contemporary usage, and provide additional study tools
* Extensive index quickly locates information using words found in text and drawings
Assuming no prior knowledge, the book discusses everything from the simplest mixed acid nitration of toluene, to the complex synthesis of highly energetic caged nitro compounds.Reviews laboratory and industrial methods, which can be used to introduce aliphatic C-nitro, aromatic C-nitro, N-nitro, and nitrate ester functionality into organic compounds Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each synthetic method or route, with scope, limitations, substrate compatibility and other important considerations Features numerous examples in the form of text, reaction diagrams, and tables.
Drawing on the expertise of leading researchers in their fields, Current Topics in Elastomers Research provides the first comprehensive overview of rubber research activities from around the world. Divided into seven sections, this seminal work begins with a general introduction before presenting the chemistry and structure-property relationships of a variety of new materials and composites. The second section covers the most important rubber ingredients along with the current thinking on their mechanism of action.
Two important new characterization techniques, 3D-TEM and AFM, are evaluated in the third section, while the fourth considers the physics and engineering aspects of elastomers, including reinforcement mechanisms, viscoelastic properties, fatigue life, abrasion, adhesion, rheology, mixing and processing, and the effects of time, temperature and fluids. The fifth section pays respect to the tire, a driving impetus for research and one of the major applications of rubber. Finally, the book includes two chapters on eco-friendly technology and recycling, perhaps the most important engineering topic in this age of globalization and environmental responsibility.
Barring the inaccessibility of truly classified information, Current Topics in Elastomers Research is a complete review of current elastomers research and applications, compiling once-guarded knowledge and outlining the future directions of the field.
Junk DNA can play vital and unanticipated roles in the control of gene expression, from fine-tuning individual genes to switching off entire chromosomes. Its function has forced scientists to revisit the very meaning of the word “gene” and has engendered a bitter battle over whether or not this genomic “nonsense” is the source of human biological complexity. Drawing on her experience with leading investigators in Europe and North America, Nessa Carey provides a clear and compelling introduction to junk DNA and its critical involvement in phenomena as diverse as genetic diseases, viral infections, sex determination in mammals, disease treatments, and evolution. We are only now unlocking the secrets of junk DNA, and Carey’s book is an indispensable resource for navigating the codes and controversies of this fast-growing and hotly disputed field.
The first book to consider this topic, Click Chemistry for Biotechnology and Materials Science examines the fundamentals of click chemistry, its application to the precise design and synthesis of macromolecules, and its numerous applications in materials science and biotechnology. The book surveys the current research, discusses emerging trends and future applications, and provides an important nucleation point for research.
Edited by one of the top 100 young innovators with the greatest potential to have an impact on technology in the 21st century according to Technology Review and with contributions from pioneers in the field, Click Chemistry for Biotechnology and Materials Science provides an ideal reference for anyone wanting to learn more about click reactions.
Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.
This essential reference to SPS covers:
The preparation of syndiotactic polystyrene by half-metallocenes and other transition metal catalysts
The structure and fundamental properties, especially morphology and crystallization and solution behavior
The commercial process for SPS manufacturing
Properties, processing, and applications of syndiotactic polystyrenes
Polymers based on syndiotactic polystyrenes, for example, by functionalization and modification, and nanocomposites
Ideal for polymer chemists, physicists, plastics engineers, materials scientists, and all those dealing with plastics manufacturing and processing, this important resource provides the information one needs to compare, select, and integrate an appropriate materials solution for industrial use or research.
Beginning with simple theoretical models and experimental techniques, the book develops the complete repertoire of theoretical principles and experimental techniques necessary for understanding and implementing the most sophisticated NMR experiments.
Important new techniques and applications of NMR spectroscopy have emerged since the first edition of this extremely successful book was published in 1996. This updated version includes new sections describing measurement and use of residual dipolar coupling constants for structure determination, TROSY and deuterium labeling for application to large macromolecules, and experimental techniques for characterizing conformational dynamics. In addition, the treatments of instrumentation and signal acquisition, field gradients, multidimensional spectroscopy, and structure calculation are updated and enhanced.
The book is written as a graduate-level textbook and will be of interest to biochemists, chemists, biophysicists, and structural biologists who utilize NMR spectroscopy or wish to understand the latest developments in this field.Provides an understanding of the theoretical principles important for biological NMR spectroscopyDemonstrates how to implement, optimize and troubleshoot modern multi-dimensional NMR experimentsAllows for the capability of designing effective experimental protocols for investigations of protein structures and dynamicsIncludes a comprehensive set of example NMR spectra of ubiquitin provides a reference for validation of experimental methods
This is a revised edition of a very successful book, which appeals to both academic and industrial markets.Illustrates the organic mechanism associated with each enzyme-catalyzed reactionMakes the connection between organic reaction mechanisms and enzyme mechanismsCompiles the latest information about molecular mechanisms of enzyme reactionsAccompanied by clearly drawn structures, schemes, and figuresIncludes an extensive bibliography on enzyme mechanisms covering the last 30 yearsExplains how enzymes can accelerate the rates of chemical reactions with high specificityProvides approaches to the design of inhibitors of enzyme-catalyzed reactionsCategorizes the cofactors that are appropriate for catalyzing different classes of reactionsShows how chemical enzyme models are used for mechanistic studiesDescribes catalytic antibody design and mechanismIncludes problem sets and solutions for each chapter Written in an informal and didactic style
This book is comprised of 11 chapters and begins with a brief overview of plasma polymerization and its growing importance for the formation of entirely new kinds of materials. The discussion then shifts to a comparison between plasma-state polymerization and plasma-induced polymerization, between plasma polymerization and graft polymerization, and between plasma polymerization and radiation polymerization. The reader is also introduced to fundamental aspects of gas-phase reactions, paying particular attention to the classical kinetic theory of gas, as well as the mechanisms of formation of polymeric materials in plasma, competitive ablation and polymer formation in plasma, and polymer deposition in plasma polymerization. The operational parameters of plasma polymerization are described and a chapter devoted to the electrical properties of plasma-polymerized thin organic films concludes the book.
This book will be of interest to students and researchers of material science.