Life is the most extraordinary phenomenon in the known universe; but how did it come to be? Even in an age of cloning and artificial biology, the remarkable truth remains: nobody has ever made anything living entirely out of dead material. Life remains the only way to make life. Are we still missing a vital ingredient in its creation?
Using first-hand experience at the cutting edge of science, Jim Al-Khalili and Johnjoe Macfadden reveal that missing ingredient to be quantum mechanics. Drawing on recent ground-breaking experiments around the world, each chapter in Life on the Edge illustrates one of life's puzzles: How do migrating birds know where to go? How do we really smell the scent of a rose? How do our genes copy themselves with such precision? Life on the Edge accessibly reveals how quantum mechanics can answer these probing questions of the universe.
Guiding the reader through the rapidly unfolding discoveries of the last few years, Al-Khalili and McFadden describe the explosive new field of quantum biology and its potentially revolutionary applications, while offering insights into the biggest puzzle of all: what is life? As they brilliantly demonstrate in these groundbreaking pages, life exists on the quantum edge.
– Winner, Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication
All Australians reeled in shock at the news. But what happens to those involved once the headlines have faded and the TV cameras have been switched off? For those who had witnessed the horror or lost loved ones, their lives had been changed irrevocably. Learning to cope with such an experience is a life-long process.
Through very personal stories, After Port Arthur documents the profound effects the event has had on the people involved. Their ongoing search to find strength in such tragedy is testament to the greater human spirit.
Wall Street Journal
From one of the most influential scientists of our time, a dazzling exploration of the hidden laws that govern the life cycle of everything from plants and animals to the cities we live in.
Visionary physicist Geoffrey West is a pioneer in the field of complexity science, the science of emergent systems and networks. The term “complexity” can be misleading, however, because what makes West’s discoveries so beautiful is that he has found an underlying simplicity that unites the seemingly complex and diverse phenomena of living systems, including our bodies, our cities and our businesses.
Fascinated by aging and mortality, West applied the rigor of a physicist to the biological question of why we live as long as we do and no longer. The result was astonishing, and changed science: West found that despite the riotous diversity in mammals, they are all, to a large degree, scaled versions of each other. If you know the size of a mammal, you can use scaling laws to learn everything from how much food it eats per day, what its heart-rate is, how long it will take to mature, its lifespan, and so on. Furthermore, the efficiency of the mammal’s circulatory systems scales up precisely based on weight: if you compare a mouse, a human and an elephant on a logarithmic graph, you find with every doubling of average weight, a species gets 25% more efficient—and lives 25% longer. Fundamentally, he has proven, the issue has to do with the fractal geometry of the networks that supply energy and remove waste from the organism’s body.
West’s work has been game-changing for biologists, but then he made the even bolder move of exploring his work’s applicability. Cities, too, are constellations of networks and laws of scalability relate with eerie precision to them. Recently, West has applied his revolutionary work to the business world. This investigation has led to powerful insights into why some companies thrive while others fail. The implications of these discoveries are far-reaching, and are just beginning to be explored. Scale is a thrilling scientific adventure story about the elemental natural laws that bind us together in simple but profound ways. Through the brilliant mind of Geoffrey West, we can envision how cities, companies and biological life alike are dancing to the same simple, powerful tune.
One of the most diverse of modern scientific disciplines, biophysics applies methods and technologies from physics to the study of biological systems and phenomena, from the human nervous system to soil erosion to global warming. What are the best options for satisfying the world's growing energy demands? How can we feed the world's growing population? How can we contain, or reverse, global warming? How can we vouchsafe a plentiful supply of potable water for future generations? These are among the critical questions to which biophysicists work to provide answers.Biophysics courses are increasingly taken by students of biology, physics, chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, statistics, bioengineering, neuroscience, computer science, pharmacology, agriculture,and many moreProvides a friendly, unintimidating overview of the material covered in a typical college-level biophysics courseA one-stop reference, course supplement and exam preparation tool for university students currently enrolled in an introductory biophysics coursesAn indispensable resource for those studying the natural sciences, biological sciences, and physics, as well as math, statistics,computer science, pharmacology and many other disciplinesThe current job market for people well versed in biophysics is very strong, and biophysics is currently listed as one of the fast-growing occupations in the North America
An Introduction to Systems Biology: Design Principles of Biological Circuits builds a solid foundation for the intuitive understanding of general principles. It encourages the reader to ask why a system is designed in a particular way and then proceeds to answer with simplified models.
This new edition discusses biological systems that can be analyzed quantitatively, and how advances in the life sciences have been aided by the knowledge of physical or engineering analysis techniques. The volume is organized into 18 chapters encompassing thermodynamics, electricity, optics, sound, solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, and atomic and nuclear physics. Each chapter provides a brief review of the background physics before focusing on the applications of physics to biology and medicine. Topics range from the role of diffusion in the functioning of cells to the effect of surface tension on the growth of plants in soil and the conduction of impulses along the nervous system. Each section contains problems that explore and expand some of the concepts. The text includes many figures, examples and illustrative problems and appendices which provide convenient access to the most important concepts of mechanics, electricity, and optics in the body.
Physics in Biology and Medicine will be a valuable resource for students and professors of physics, biology, and medicine, as well as for applied health workers.Provides practical techniques for applying knowledge of physics to the study of living systemsPresents material in a straight forward manner requiring very little background in physics or biologyIncludes many figures, examples and illustrative problems and appendices which provide convenient access to the most important concepts of mechanics, electricity, and optics in the body
After providing a brief introduction, the book describes the models for AT service delivery, the design tools and principles of universal design, and various technology-transfer mechanisms, models, and principles. The text then explains the process for creating assistive device standards, followed by a review of seating biomechanics and soft tissue biomechanics. Subsequent chapters examine design and service delivery principles of wheelchairs and scooters, functional electrical stimulation and its applications, wheelchair-accessible transportation legislation, and the applications of robotics in medical rehabilitation. The book proceeds to discuss prosthetic and orthotic design and usage, visual and hearing impairment, Web-related AT, and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technology. It concludes with an introduction to adaptive sports and recreation.
Incorporating the critical aspects of RE and AT, An Introduction to Rehabilitation Engineering focuses on the principles, modeling, standards, devices, and technologies of RE and AT. It presents a concise yet complete overview of RE to provide a solid foundation in the subject as well as to stimulate further study.
Situated hundreds of miles from any other settlement, deep within the inhospitable desert of northern Kenya where only thorn bushes grow, Dadaab is a city like no other. Its buildings are made from mud, sticks or plastic, its entire economy is grey, and its citizens survive on rations and luck. Over the course of four years, Ben Rawlence became a first-hand witness to a strange and desperate limbo-land, getting to know many of those who have come there seeking sanctuary. Among them are Guled, a former child soldier who lives for football; Nisho, who scrapes an existence by pushing a wheelbarrow and dreaming of riches; Tawane, the indomitable youth leader; and schoolgirl Kheyro, whose future hangs upon her education.
In City of Thorns, Rawlence interweaves the stories of nine individuals to show what life is like in the camp and to sketch the wider political forces that keep the refugees trapped there. Rawlence combines intimate storytelling with broad socio-political investigative journalism, doing for Dadaab what Katherinee Boo's Behind the Beautiful Forevers did for the Mumbai slums. Lucid, vivid and illuminating, City of Thorns is an urgent human story with deep international repercussions, brought to life through the people who call Dadaab home.
The Second Edition includes a robust instructor ancillary package that allows professors to easily incorporate the book's unique approach into their lectures. And in addition to the many free resources for students––including the E-Tutor, Bug Parade, Flashcards, and MicroMovies–– a new online homework platform, will be available for Spring 2016 courses. The homework platform will have a module for each chapter including tutorials, media assessments, and quizzes, and is accompanied by an instructor dashboard which displays data on student performance.
This book thus covers the spectrum ranging from fundamental interactions between light, cells, vascular tissue, and cell labeling particles, to strategies and opportunities for preclinical and clinical research. General topics include light scattering by cells, fast video microscopy, polarization, laser-scanning, fluorescence, Raman, multi-photon, photothermal, and photoacoustic methods for cellular diagnostics and monitoring of disease treatment in living organisms. Also presented are discussions of advanced methods and techniques of classical flow cytometry.
As biology increasingly depends on data, algorithms, and models, it has become necessary to use a computing language, such as the user-friendly MATLAB, to focus more on building and analyzing models as opposed to configuring tedious calculations. Explorations of Mathematical Models in Biology with MATLAB provides an introduction to model creation using MATLAB, followed by the translation, analysis, interpretation, and observation of the models.
With an integrated and interdisciplinary approach that embeds mathematical modeling into biological applications, the book illustrates numerous applications of mathematical techniques within biology, ecology, and environmental sciences. Featuring a quantitative, computational, and mathematical approach, the book includes:Examples of real-world applications, such as population dynamics, genetics, drug administration, interacting species, and the spread of contagious diseases, to showcase the relevancy and wide applicability of abstract mathematical techniquesDiscussion of various mathematical concepts, such as Markov chains, matrix algebra, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, first-order linear difference equations, and nonlinear first-order difference equationsCoverage of difference equations to model a wide range of real-life discrete time situations in diverse areas as well as discussions on matrices to model linear problemsSolutions to selected exercises and additional MATLAB codes
Explorations of Mathematical Models in Biology with MATLAB is an ideal textbook for upper-undergraduate courses in mathematical models in biology, theoretical ecology, bioeconomics, forensic science, applied mathematics, and environmental science. The book is also an excellent reference for biologists, ecologists, mathematicians, biomathematicians, and environmental and resource economists.
Adaptive Radiation Therapy describes technological and methodological advances in the field of ART, as well as initial clinical experiences using ART for selected anatomic sites. Divided into three sections (radiobiological basis, current technologies, and clinical applications), the book covers:
Morphological and biological biomarkers for patient-specific planning Design and optimization of treatment plans Delivery of IMRT and IGRT intervention methodologies of ART Management of intrafraction variations, particularly with respiratory motion Quality assurance needed to ensure the safe delivery of ART ART applications in several common cancer types / anatomic sites
The technology and methodology for ART have advanced significantly in the last few years and accumulated clinical data have demonstrated the need for ART in clinical settings, assisted by the wide application of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). This book shows the real potential for supplying every patient with individualized radiation therapy that is maximally accurate and precise.
The sixth edition of this established text takes readers through the general background of the subject, the technical principles underlying the control of radiation hazards, radiation detection and measurement, and the biological effects of radiation. These principles are followed by a consideration of radiation protection issues in the nuclear industry, the non-nuclear sector, and the medical field. Further specialised topics include risk assessment, waste management and decommissioning, radiological incidents and emergencies, relevant legislation, and organizational issues.
Supplemented by clear diagrams and photographs, summary sections, and revision questions, the book is suitable for the beginner as well as the more advanced radiation practitioner. It remains an ideal primer for those working in the nuclear industry, nuclear medicine technicians, radiographers and medical physics technicians, health and safety executives and occupational health professionals. It is also an invaluable companion for anyone training or undertaking a course in radiation protection.
Tomosynthesis produces quasi-three-dimensional images that can significantly enhance the visualization of important diagnostic features. This book highlights the flexibility of tomosynthesis systems for new clinical applications, and provides a detailed discussion of the tomosynthesis acquisition process and the impact of physical factors. It explores such topics as acquisition parameters, system components, modeling, image reconstruction algorithms, and system evaluation.Provides in-depth coverage of system design considerations, as well as image reconstruction strategies Describes the current state of clinical applications of tomosynthesis, including imaging of the breast and chest, as well as its use in radiotherapy Illustrates the merits of tomosynthesis imaging and its potential clinical applications in imaging of the breast and chest, as well as for radiation therapy
Divided into five sections, this text delves into the history and development of tomosynthesis. It introduces tomosynthesis imaging, discusses imaging system design considerations, and reviews image reconstruction algorithms that have been developed for tomosynthesis. It also describes system evaluation methodologies, emphasizes current clinical applications, and examines the future direction for tomosynthesis.
In Cannabinoids, Vincenzo Di Marzo has assembled contributionsfrom international experts to provide the definitive guide to whatcontinues to be a rapidly developing research field. After anintroductory historical chapter, the book continues by looking atthe biochemical, genetic and molecular elements of cannabinoids,followed by chapters covering their role in health anddisease. The final chapter outlines the need for a newnomenclature to reflect the complex and multi-disciplinary natureof this area.
Ion channels control the electrical properties of neurons and cardiac cells, mediate the detection and response to sensory stimuli, and regulate the response to physical stimuli. They can often interact with the cellular environment due to their location at the surface of cells. In nonexcitable tissues, they also help regulate basic salt balance critical for homeostasis. All of these features make ion channels important targets for pharmaceuticals.
Handbook of Ion Channels illustrates the fundamental importance of these membrane proteins to human health and disease. Renowned researchers from around the world introduce the technical aspects of ion channel research, provide a modern guide to the properties of major ion channels, and present powerful methods for modeling ion channel diseases and performing clinical trials for ion channel drugs.
Conveniently divided into five parts, the handbook first describes the basic concepts of permeation and gating mechanisms, balancing classic theories and the latest developments. The second part covers the principles and practical issues of both traditional and new ion channel techniques and their applications to channel research. The third part organizes the material to follow the superfamilies of ion channels. This part focuses on the classification, properties, gating mechanisms, function, and pharmacology of established and novel channel types. The fourth part addresses ion channel regulation as well as trafficking and distribution. The final part examines several ion channel-related diseases, discussing genetics, mechanisms, and pharmaceutical advances.
Most extensive compilation of values of physical properties of tissue**Presents data for thermal, optical, ultrasonic, mechanical, x-ray, electrical, and magnetic resonance properties**Comprehensive bibliography
Both size and time ranges are so vast that multiple instrumentations must be employed, often simultaneously. As a result, a variety of highly specialized and esoteric biochemical and biophysical methodologies are often utilized. This book addresses the salient features of membranes at the molecular level, offering cohesive, foundational information for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, biochemists, and membranologists who seek a broad overview of membrane science.Significantly expanded coverage on function, composition, and structure Brings together complex aspects of membrane research in a universally understandable mannerFeatures profiles of membrane pioneers detailing how contemporary studies originatedIncludes a timeline of important discoveries related to membrane science
Now revised and in its second edition, Introduction to Sports Biomechanics is full of visual aids to support the text. Every chapter contains cross references to key terms and definitions from that chapter, learning objectives and summaries, study tasks to confirm and extend your understanding, and suggestions to further your reading.
Clearly structured and with many student friendly features, the text covers:movement patterns – exploring the essence and purpose of movement analysis qualitative analysis of sports movements movement patterns and the geometry of motion quantitative measurement and analysis of movement force and torques – causes of movement the human body and the anatomy of movement.
This edition is supported by a website containing animation and video clips, and offers sample data tables for comparison and analysis and multiple choice questions to confirm your understanding of the material in each chapter. Introduction to Sports Biomechanics is a must have for students of sport and exercise, human movement sciences, ergonomics, biomechanics, and sports performance and coaching.
Visit the companion website at: www.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415339940.
These techniques, however, require careful planning, specialized equipment, and well-trained staff. This volume provides a cutting-edge look at the biological and technical underpinnings of SRS and SBRT techniques. It includes a history of the development of SRS and SBRT; clinical applications of the techniques; dedicated devices for delivering precisely shaped, high doses of radiation; use of in-room imaging for treatment planning and treatment guidance; immobilization techniques for accurate targeting; and future developments that will continue to evolve and refine existing techniques.
A valuable introduction to those just learning about these specialized techniques, and an ideal reference for those who are already implementing them, this book covers a wide variety of topics, with clear discussions of each aspect of the technology employed.
Written by one of the original MARSSIM authors, Decommissioning Health Physics: A Handbook for MARSSIM Users, Second Edition is the only book to incorporate all of the requisite technical aspects of planning and executing radiological surveys in support of decommissioning. Extensively revised and updated, it covers survey instrumentation, detection sensitivity, statistics, dose modeling, survey procedures, and release criteria.
New to the Second Edition
Chapter on hot spot assessment that recognizes appropriate dosimetric significance of hot spots when designing surveys and includes a new approach for establishing hot spot limits Chapter on the clearance or release of materials, highlighting aspects of the MARSAME manual Revised chapter on characterization survey design to reflect guidance in ANSI N13.59 on the value of data quality objectives (DQOs) Updated regulations and guidance documents throughout Updated survey instrumentation used to support decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) surveys, including expanded coverage of in situ gamma spectrometers Revised statistics chapter that includes an introduction to Bayesian statistics and additional double sampling and ranked set sampling statistical approaches More case studies and examples throughout
Implement the Surveys Effectively and Avoid Common Pitfalls
With more than 20 years of experience as a practitioner in the decommissioning survey field, author Eric W. Abelquist prepares you for the technical challenges associated with planning and executing MARSSIM surveys. He discusses the application of statistics for survey design and data reduction and addresses the selection of survey instrumentation and detection sensitivity. He presents final status survey procedures and covers pathway modeling to translate release criteria to measurable quantities. He also offers solutions for navigating the complexity inherent in designing and implementing MARSSIM and MARSAME surveys. Detailed derivations, thorough discussions of technical bases, and real-world examples and case studies illustrate effective strategies for demonstrating to regulators and stakeholders that contaminated sites can be released for other beneficial uses.
The structure and chemical modification of algal polymers are covered, as well as the biological properties of these materials – including antithrombic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antiviral aspects. Toxicity of algal biopolymers is also covered. Finally, the book introduces and explains real world applications of algal-based biopolymers in biomedical applications, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, and biosensors. This is the first book to cover the extraction techniques, biomedical applications, and the economic perspective of seaweed polysaccharides. It is an essential text for researchers and industry professionals looking to work with this renewable resource.Provides comprehensive coverage of the research currently taking place in biomedical applications of algae biopolymersIncludes practical guidance on the isolation, extraction, and characterization of polysaccharides from sustainable marine sourcesCovers the extraction techniques, biomedical applications, and economic outlook of seaweed polysaccharides
Dr. Irving Dardik's radical notions about how all matter moves in interconnected waves has drawn deep skepticism from physicists, and his early attempts to put his theory into practice in the field of health care got him banned from practicing medicine in the 1990s. But now, after a decade's worth of rigorous research that seems to support Dardik's SuperWave theory, scientists at such esteemed institutions as MIT, Harvard, and Stanford Research International are signing on with Dardik's team to probe the possibilities. For example, Dardik's unique approach to physical exercise, based on his Principle, has achieved some remarkable successes in reversing symptoms of chronic disease.
Making Waves weaves together two fascinating stories: Dardik's personal progression from vascular surgeon to scientific iconoclast and pioneer, chronicling his struggle to convince the scientific community to take him seriously; and the evolution of his mind-expanding SuperWave Principle. Colleagues--skeptics as well as supporters--consider the impact of SuperWave theory on current thinking about nature on all scales, from the universe to the subatomic world, and in the realms of biology, applied science, and medicine. The resulting read will interest those concerned with their own health and vitality as well as those curious about the fundamental workings of nature.
The Physical Measurement of Bone provides a detailed description of all the major methods of bone analysis, including brief comments on clinical evaluation. The physics of each method are introduced as well as a summary of practical procedures. The book is essential reading for practicing medical physicists and technicians who need to know about the many methods of bone analysis open to them, and, more importantly, the wide coverage provides a good introductory framework for students of medical physics and biomedical engineering.
This text emphasizes practical considerations for selecting and deploying core biophysical method, including but not limited to ITC, SPR, and both ligand-detected and protein-detected NMR.
Topics covered include:
• Design considerations in biophysical-based lead screening
• Thermodynamic characterization of protein-compound interactions
• Characterizing targets and screening reagents with HDX-MS
• Microscale thermophoresis methods (MST)
• Screening with Weak Affinity Chromatography
• Methods to assess compound residence time
• 1D-NMR methods for hit identification
• Protein-based NMR methods for SAR development
• Industry case studies integrating multiple biophysical methods
This text is ideal for academic investigators and industry scientists planning hit characterization campaigns or designing and optimizing screening strategies.
Recent advances have led to such remarkable improvements in fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy’s (FLIM) capacity for contrast and sensitivity that researchers can now employ it to detect signals at the single molecule level. FLIM also offers the additional benefit of independence from fluorophore concentration and excitation intensity. Moreover, its unique sensitivity makes it an excellent reporter of conformational changes and of variations in the molecular surroundings of biological molecules.
Most of this improvement and discovery have occurred during the past decade, and, to date, information that would benefit a broad range of researchers remains scattered in the literature. Edited by two of the top pioneers in the field, FLIM Microscopy in Biology and Medicine presents the fundamentals of FLIM along with a number of advanced considerations so that a wider audience can appreciate recent and potential improvements that make it such a valuable tool.
New Opportunities for Biomedical Researchers... New Challenges for Microscopy Researchers
Discussion sections in all the chapters clearly show the challenges for implementing FLIM for various applications. Certain chapters discuss limits on the number of photons required for highly accurate lifetime determinations, as well as the accuracy with which multiple, closely associated lifetime components can reliably be determined. Such considerations are important for the user when he or she is selecting the most advantageous method of FLIM to use for a particular application.
While this book provides an introduction for those new to FLIM, it gathers a wealth of material to enhance the work of experts involved in pioneering technological improvements, as well as those research opportunities in this unique and promising area of microscopy.
This book is simply unique in its scope and content. There is no equivalent. The author surveys and explains contemporary science in depth ranging over philosophy, anthropology, quantum physics and chemistry, neurobiology, psychology, genetics and epigenetics, cosmology, art, humanities, and mathematics. It presents a truly holistic view of nature, with profound implications for life in the social, political, and personal realm.
Simply put, the SuperWaves principle states that the fundamental stuff of nature is waves—waves waving within waves, to be exact. Dardik challenges the rationality of accepting a priori that the universe is made of discrete particles. Instead, by drawing from his own discovery of a unique wave behavior and combining it with scientific facts, he shows that every single thing in existence—from quantum particles to entire galaxies—is waves waving in the unique pattern he calls SuperWaves.
The discovery of SuperWaves and the ideas behind it, while profound, can be intuitively grasped by every reader, whether scientist or layperson. Touching on everything from quantum physics to gravity, to emergent complexity and thermodynamics, to the origins of health and disease, it shows that our health, and the health of the environment and civilization, depend upon our understanding SuperWaves.
The Nature of Nature is an absorbing account that combines Dardik’s contrarian look at the history of science with philosophical discussion, his own groundbreaking research, and hope for the future.
Based on a popular course given by the author at McGill University,the bookplaces the traditional tenets of radiation biology in the context of contemporary cell and molecular biology. Using terms that non-experts in molecular biology can understand, it clarifies the underlying mechanisms of radiation effects on molecular interactions including signal transduction pathways, modes of cell killing, and non-targeted effects. The author subsequently associates key principles and advances with potential applications, including the use of ionizing radiation as a cytotoxic and cytostatic agent, and radiosensitization by targeting molecular intermediates or signaling molecules involved in radiation-induced processes.
Raising the standard for radiation biology texts that are currently available, Biomolecular Action of Ionizing Radiation is an outstanding resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in medical physics, radiation oncology, radiation biology, and those who have an interest in the radiation sciences and in cancer treatment.
Starting with a brief definition and history of weightlessness, the authors then address in detail each problem as well as the countermeasures aimed at alleviating them. In some cases, alternative hypotheses regarding what can and should be attempted are also presented. As plans for long-term missions to the Moon and Mars develop, it will be essential to find countermeasures to weightlessness that are effective for missions that could span years.