This book presents results of research into techniques to aid the formal verification of mixed hardware/software systems. Aspects of system specification and verification from requirements down to the underlying hardware are addressed, with particular regard to real-time issues. The work presented is largely based around the Occam programming language and Transputer microprocessor paradigm. The HOL theorem prover, based on higher order logic, has mainly been used in the application of machine-checked proofs.
The book describes research work undertaken on the collaborative UK DTI/SERC-funded Information Engineering Dictorate Safemos project. The partners were Inmos Ltd., Cambridge SRI, the Oxford University Computing Laboratory and the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, who investigated the problems of formally verifying embedded systems. The most important results of the project are presented in the form of a series of interrelated chapters by project members and associated personnel. In addition, overviews of two other ventures with similar objectives are included as appendices.
The material in this book is intended for computing science researchers and advanced industrial practitioners interested in the application of formal methods to real-time safety-critical systems at all levels of abstraction from requirements to hardware. In addition, material of a more general nature is presented, which may be of interest to managers in charge of projects applying formal methods, especially for safety-critical-systems, and others who are considering their use.
In a handful of nations, virtually all children are learning to make complex arguments and solve problems they’ve never seen before. They are learning to think, in other words, and to thrive in the modern economy. Inspired to find answers for our own children, author and Time magazine journalist Amanda Ripley follows three Americans embedded in these countries for one year. Kim, fifteen, raises $10,000 so she can move from Oklahoma to Finland; Eric, eighteen, trades his high-achieving Minnesota suburb for a booming city in South Korea; and Tom, seventeen, leaves a historic Pennsylvania village for Poland.
Through these young informants, Ripley meets battle-scarred reformers, sleep-deprived zombie students, and a teacher who earns $4 million a year. Their stories, along with groundbreaking research into learning in other cultures, reveal a pattern of startling transformation: none of these countries had many “smart” kids a few decades ago. Things had changed. Teaching had become more rigorous; parents had focused on things that mattered; and children had bought into the promise of education.
Now, with Finnish Lessons 2.0, Pasi Sahlberg has thoroughly updated his groundbreaking account of how Finland built a world-class education system during the past four decades. In this international bestseller, Sahlberg traces the evolution of Finnish education policies and highlights how they differ from the United States and much of the rest of the world. Featuring substantial additions throughout the text, Finnish Lessons 2.0 demonstrates how systematically focusing on teacher and leader professionalism, building trust between the society and its schools, and investing in educational equity rather than competition, choice, and other market-based reforms make Finnish schools an international model of success. This second edition details the complexity of meaningful change by examining Finland’s educational performance in light of the most recent international assessment data and domestic changes.
This second edition details the complexity of meaningful change by illustrating Finland’s educational performance in light of the most recent international assessment data, including PISA 2012, TIMSS 2011, PIAAC 2013, and TALIS 2013.
In the midst of continuous local reforms and global changes, Finnish Lessons 2.0 encourages educators, students, and policymakers to look beyond their own borders as they seek successful solutions for their education systems, districts, and schools.
“Reminds us that a nation can consciously build an admirable school system if it pays close attention to the needs of children; if it selects and prepares its educators well; and if it builds educational communities that are not only physically attractive but conducive to the joys of teaching and learning.”
—From the Foreword by Diane Ravitch, author of Reign of Error
“Solidifies Sahlberg’s reputation as the most thoughtful international educational researcher of our generation.”
—David Berliner, Regents' Professor Emeritus, Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College, Arizona State University
“Whether or not you have read Finnish Lessons, you should read and ponder this new edition right away.”
—Howard Gardner, author of Truth, Beauty, and Goodness Reframed
For years our schools and children have lagged behind international standards in reading, arithmetic, and most other areas of academic achievement. It is no secret that American schools are in dire need of improvement, and that education has become our nation's number-one priority. But even though almost every state in the country is working to develop higher standards for what students should be learning, along with the means for assessing their progress, the quick-fix solutions implemented so far haven't had a noticeable impact.
The problem, as James Stigler and James Hiebert explain, is that most efforts to improve education fail because they simply don't have any impact on the quality of teaching inside classrooms. Teaching, they argue, is cultural. American teachers aren't incompetent, but the methods they use are severely limited, and American teaching has no system in place for getting better. It is teaching, not teachers, that must be changed.
In The Teaching Gap, the authors draw on the conclusions of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) -- an innovative new study of teaching in several cultures -- to refocus educational reform efforts. Using videotaped lessons from dozens of randomly selected eighth-grade classrooms in the United States, Japan, and Germany, the authors reveal the rich, yet unfulfilled promise of American teaching and document exactly how other countries have consistently stayed ahead of us in the rate their children learn. Our schools can be restructured as places where teachers can engage in career-long learning and classrooms can become laboratories for developing new, teaching-centered ideas. If provided the time they need during the school day for collaborative lesson study and plan building, teachers will change the way our students learn.
James Stigler and James Hiebert have given us nothing less than a "best practices" for teachers -- one that offers proof that how teachers teach is far more important than increased spending, state-of-the-art facilities, mandatory homework, or special education -- and a plan for change that educators, teachers, and parents can implement together.
Education is fundamental to every aspect of development and there is widespread support across the world for policies that affirm that all children, regardless of their circumstances, have a right to quality schooling. Yet despite concerted efforts from national governments, multilateral organisations and NGOs over many decades we are still far from achieving education for all. In addition, while education can enhance human development, it is also associated with persistent inequalities.
Education and International Development provides a comprehensive introduction to the field, giving an overview of the history, influential theories, important concepts and areas of achievement, and presenting a critical reflection on emerging trends in policy, practice and research.
With chapters that review key challenges and inspiring initiatives in countries around the globe - focusing on critical issues such as language, conflict and teachers - this book serves both as a companion to graduate studies in international education and a concise reference book for practitioners and educators in the field.
Surveying many aspects of education—from administrative structures to the availability of health care to parent and student incentives—the contributors synthesize an impressive diversity of data, paying special attention to the gross imbalances in educational achievement that still exist between developed and developing countries. They draw out clear implications for governmental policy at a variety of levels, conscious of economic realities such as budget constraints, and point to crucial areas where future research is needed. Offering a wealth of insights into one of the best investments a nation can make, Education Policy in Developing Countries is an essential contribution to this most urgent field.
Akiko Hayashi and Joseph Tobin embed themselves in the classrooms of three different teachers at three different schools to examine how teachers act, think, and talk. Drawing on extended interviews, their own real-time observations, and hours of video footage, they focus on how teachers embody their lessons: how they use their hands to gesture, comfort, or discipline; how they direct their posture, gaze, or physical location to indicate degrees of attention; and how they use the tone of their voice to communicate empathy, frustration, disapproval, or enthusiasm. Comparing teachers across schools and over time, they offer an illuminating analysis of the gestures that comprise a total body language, something that, while hardly ever explicitly discussed, the teachers all share to a remarkable degree. Showcasing the tremendous importance of—and dearth of attention to—this body language, they offer a powerful new inroad into educational study and practice, a deeper understanding of how teaching actually works, no matter what culture or country it is being practiced in.
For example, the authors consider the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), an international mathematics examination. America is stuck in the middle of average scores, barely beating out European countries whose national economies are in the red zone. U.S. performance as measured against stronger economies is even weaker—in total, 32 nations outperformed the United States. The authors also delve into comparative reading scores. A mere 31 percent of U.S. students in the class of 2011 could perform at the "proficient" level as measured by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) program, compared with South Korea's result of 47 percent. And while some observers may downplay the significance of cross-globe comparisons, they should note that Canadian students are dramatically outpacing their U.S. counterparts as well.
Clearly something is wrong with this picture, and this book clearly explicates the costs of inaction. The time for incremental tweaking the system is long past—wider, deeper, and more courageous steps are needed, as this book amply demonstrates with accessible prose, supported with hard data that simply cannot be ignored.
The author describes selected significant Theatre for Development programs in diverse parts of Africa and determines the extent that these programs find congruence with the teachings of Paulo Freire. Case studies of Botswana, Zambia, Nigeria, and Kenya explore in detail the ongoing work in Zimbabwe, specifically the Zimbabwe Association of Community Theatre (ZACT). ZACT's work is analyzed in the context of Freirian pedagogy in order to highlight the development of a community-based theatre operation that is national in its scope and international in its influences.
This book examines the history of ethnic minorities particularly Chicano/as and Latino/as--in the field of composition and rhetoric; the connections between composition and major US historical movements toward inclusiveness in education; the ways our histories of that inclusiveness have overlooked Chicano/as; and how this history can inform the teaching of composition and writing to Chicano/a and Latino/a students in the present day. Bridging the gap between Ethnic Studies, Critical History, and Composition Studies, Ruiz creates a new model of the practice of critical historiography and shows how that can be developed into a critical writing pedagogy for students who live in an increasingly multicultural, multilingual society.
The Handbook attempts to address some of the above issues and problems confronting educators and policy makers globally. Different articles seek to conceptualize the on-going problems of education policy formulation and implementation, and provide a useful synthesis of the education policy research conducted in different countries, and practical implications.
The Handbook, by focusing on such issues as
- the OECD (2001) model of the knowledge society, and associated strategic challenge and 'deliverable goals' (OECD 2001:139)
- UNESCO-driven lifelong learning paradigm, and its relevance to education policy makers, globally
- different models of policy planning, and equity questions that are raised by centralization/decentralization, diversity/uniformity and curriculum standardization issues
- the 'crises' of educational quality, the debate of standards and excellence, and good and effective teaching.
- will contribute to a better and more holistic understanding of the education policy and research nexus; offering possible strategies for the effective and pragmatic policy planning and implementation at the local, regional and national levels.
This book focuses on approaches to internship in teacher education programmes in Europe and Asia. It explores the idea that a consideration of the rich variation in approaches and experience across Eurasia will foreground critical aspects of successful internship.
Each chapter provides a different focus from Asian and European perspectives on aspects of the teacher education practicum or internship, and what can be learned from school placement.
This book is an invaluable resource for all those involved in teacher education, educational policy and anyone who has a stake in ensuring effective teacher education for the 21st century. It offers a far reaching overview of the teacher internship phase across a number of countries, and contributes to identifying distinctive features of teacher education in European and Asian universities.
The Changing Academic Profession (CAP) survey has provided researchers and policy makers with the capacity to compare the academic profession around the world. Built around national analyses of the survey this book examines academics’ opinions on a range of issues to do with their job satisfaction. Following an introduction that considers the job satisfaction literature as it relates to higher education, country-based chapters examine aspects of job satisfaction within each country.
Colin R. Baker, Pro Vice-Chancellor, Bangor University, Bangor, Wales, UK
A norm-setting work on multilingual education, which combines theoretical perspectives with practical experience from different parts of the globe, this book demonstrates convincingly not only that multilingual education works, but also that, for most developing countries, there is no viable alternative.
Ayo Bamgbose, Professor Emeritus, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
This excellent volume brings to light the fascinating lived experiences of multilingual education in linguistically rich but resource impoverished countries, and offers important lessons from which we can all learn.
Amy B. M. Tsui, Professor , Pro Vice-Chancellor & Vice President, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
This is a book of hope and inspiration. Documenting the significant shift that is taking place in countries around the world in the status and legitimacy of mother tongue-based multilingual education, it represents a giant step towards a "tipping point" where mother tongue-based multilingual education will be normalized as the preferred and, in fact, common sense option for educating the children of the world.
Jim Cummins, The University of Toronto, Canada
This important book challenges us to think about multilingual education from a different angle––this time putting the periphery at the center. The effect is one of destabilizing old visions and imagining new worlds where multilingual education provides the backdrop for generous understandings of all peoples.
Ofelia García, Program in Urban Education, Graduate Center/The City University of New York, USA
There are regrettably few detailed accounts of successful elementary school instruction in the pupils' home language, which makes this book with its surprising examples (especially Ethiopia and Nepal but other third world cases) so relevant. Students of language education policy will learn a great deal about the possibility of multilingual education from the chapters of this important book.
Bernard Spolsky, Professor Emeritus, Bar-Ilan University, Israel
At least half of today’s languages are marginalised and endangered and the attention of the world needs to be focused on these minor and minority languages together with the value of multilingualism. If the book succeeds in enhancing the consciousness of the world towards predicaments of the third world, then its efforts will have been amply rewarded.
Debi Prasanna Pattanayak, Former Director, Central Institute of Indian Languages, India
Drawing on the most powerful and compelling research data to date and connecting this research to linguistic human rights, this book explores the conditions and practices of robust bilingual and multilingual educational innovations in both system-wide and minority-settings and what it is that makes these viable. It demonstrates how, in countries where educational practices are inclusive of linguistic diversity and responsive to local conditions and community participation, implementation of bilingual education even within limited budgetary investment can be successful.
The aim of the book is to provide an easily accessible, practical yet scholarly source of information about the international concern in the field of globalisation, global pedagogies, and educational transformation. Readers will find here the very latest thinking on globalisation, global pedagogies and educational transformation in the context of global culture. It offers a timely overview of current issues affecting discourses pertaining to global pedagogies and policy research in the global culture. It provides directions in education, and policy research, relevant to transformational educational reforms in the 21st century.
The book critically examines the overall interplay between comparative education discourses, globalisation, and education. It draws upon recent studies in the areas of globalisation, equity, social justice, and the role of the State. It explores conceptual frameworks and methodological approaches applicable in the research covering the State, globalisation, equity, and education. It demonstrates the neo-liberal ideological imperatives of education and policy reforms, and illustrates the way the relationship between the State and education policy affects current models and trends in education reforms and schooling globally. Various book chapters critique the dominant discourses and debates pertaining to comparative education discourses and the newly constructed and re-invented models of neo-liberal ideology in education. Using a number of diverse paradigms in comparative education research, ranging from critical theory to globalisation, the authors, by focusing on globalisation, ideology and democracy, attempt to examine critically both the reasons and outcomes of education reforms, policy change and transformation and provide a more informed critique on the Western-driven models of accountability, quality and school effectiveness. The book draws upon recent studies in the areas of equity, cultural capital and dominant ideologies in education.
Beginning with a number of chapters that describe recent developments in apprenticeship training in different national contexts, the book moves on to analyze the way in which both the quality and profitability of apprenticeship act in concert as the most influential drivers of innovation in this field.
In sum, this book makes an important contribution to the international literature on apprenticeship. It draws together some of the leading researchers in the area, and with its overview of a number of national Vocational Education and Training (VET) projects, provides a body of knowledge on current practices and issues that has previously been lacking in this complex interdisciplinary field. The lessons learned from countries’ experiences, as presented in this book, provide a valuable platform for policy-makers and scholars alike.
But given higher education’s current preoccupation with competitiveness, branding, and economic benefits are education hubs merely a fad, a branding exercise, or are they an important innovation worthy of serious investment and attention? This book tries to answer the question through a systematic and comparative analysis of the rationales, actors, policies, plans and accomplishments for six serious country level education hubs - United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Singapore and Botswana .
The in-depth case studies shows that "one size does not fit all". A variety of factors drive countries to prepare and position themselves as an education hub. They include income generation, soft power, modernization of domestic tertiary education sector, economic competitiveness, need for trained work force, and most importantly a desire to move towards a knowledge or service based economy. In response to these different motivations, three different types of education hubs are being developed: the student hub, talent hub, and knowledge/innovation hub.
Scholars, policy makers, professionals, students and senior decision makers from education, economics, geography, public policy, trade, migration will find that this book challenges some assumptions about crossborder education and provides new insights and information.
What do Michael Corleone, Jack Ryan, and Scout Finch have in common? Creative writing professor and thriller writer James W. Hall knows. Now, in this entertaining, revelatory book, he reveals how bestsellers work, using twelve twentieth-century blockbusters as case studies—including The Godfather, Gone with the Wind, To Kill a Mockingbird, and Jaws. From tempting glimpses inside secret societies, such as submariners in The Hunt for Red October, and Opus Dei in The Da Vinci Code, to vivid representations of the American Dream and its opposite—the American Nightmare—in novels like The Firm and The Dead Zone, Hall identifies the common features of mega-bestsellers. Including fascinating and little-known facts about some of the most beloved books of the last century, Hit Lit is a must-read for fiction lovers and aspiring writers alike, and makes us think anew about why we love the books we love.
Education Around the World provides a complete introduction to the field including:
- The history of the study of comparative and international education and why it matters today
- Issues of scale in conducting thorough comparative research with reference to the USA and the world of small states
- National and International educational development with examples from Europe, the emergent powers of Brazil, Russia, India and China, and the problems and prospects of Sub-Saharan Africa
“Proposes a systemic and comprehensive approach to put flesh on the American dream of a high-quality, excellent education for students of all backgrounds. School systems, colleges of education, and policymakers can all learn from these approaches.”
—Sonia Nieto, Professor Emerita, Language, Literacy and Culture College of Education, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
“I do not believe that other nations have smarter students then we do. But it is clear that some nations have better systems of education than we do. This book is filled with ideas that will change that!”
—David Berliner, author of 50 Myths and Lies That Threaten America's Public Schools
“Teaching in the Flat World is without a doubt the best single collection you will find on the topic of improving the teaching profession. It's got everything, including six great lessons from successful systems that you will not want to miss.”
—Michael Fullan, Professor Emeritus, OISE, University of Toronto
Amy Binder gives a brief history of both movements and then describes how their challenges played out in seven school districts. Despite their very different constituencies--inner-city African American cultural essentialists and predominately white suburban Christian conservatives--Afrocentrists and creationists had much in common. Both made similar arguments about oppression and their children's well-being, both faced skepticism from educators about their factual claims, and both mounted their challenges through bureaucratic channels. In each case, challenged school systems were ultimately able to minimize or reject challengers' demands, but the process varied by case and type of challenge. Binder finds that Afrocentrists were more successful in advancing their cause than were creationists because they appeared to offer a solution to the real problem of urban school failure, met with more administrative sympathy toward their complaints of historic exclusion, sought to alter lower-prestige curricula (history, not science), and faced opponents who lacked a legal remedy comparable to the rule of church-state separation invoked by creationism's opponents.
Binder's analysis yields several lessons for social movements research, suggesting that researchers need to pay greater attention to how movements seek to influence bureaucratic decision making, often from within. It also demonstrates the benefits of examining discursive, structural, and institutional factors in concert.
When Bowen Paulle speaks of toxicity, he speaks of educational worlds dominated by intimidation and anxiety, by ambivalence, degradation, and shame. Based on six years of teaching and research in the South Bronx and in Southeast Amsterdam, Toxic Schools is the first fully participatory ethnographic study of its kind and a searing examination of daily life in two radically different settings. What these schools have in common, however, are not the predictable ideas about race and educational achievement but the tragically similar habituated stress responses of students forced to endure the experience of constant vulnerability. From both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, Paulle paints an intimate portrait of how students and teachers actually cope, in real time, with the chronic stress, peer group dynamics, and subtle power politics of urban educational spaces in the perpetual shadow of aggression.
Globalization of Education, Second Edition features new and updated information on
• The World Bank
• OECD and the United Nations
• The World Trade Organization and the Global Culture of Higher Education
• Corporatization of Global Education
• Religious and Indigenous Education Models
• The Global Workforce: Migration and the Talent Auction
• Globalization and Complex Thought
New Anthropologies of Europe -- Daphne Berdahl, Matti Bunzl, and Michael Herzfeld, editors
Despite the fact that primary-school enrollment rates exceed those of the United States, the reverse is true for the crucial years between elementary school and college. After providing a history of Fidel Castro's educational revolution begun in 1953, Denise Blum delivers a close examination of the effects of the program, which was designed to produce a society motivated by benevolence rather than materialism. Exploring pioneering pedagogy, the notion of civic education, and the rural components of the program, Cuban Youth and Revolutionary Values brims with surprising findings about one of the most intriguing social experiments in recent history.
With chapters written by leading international scholars, drawing on a full range of theoretical perspectives and offering a diverse selection of case studies from Africa, Asia and South America, this book considers such topics as:
How are global education agendas and policies formed and implemented?
What is the impact of such policy priorities as public-private partnerships, child-centred pedagogies and school-based management?
What are the effects of political and economic globalization on educational reform and change?
How do mediating institutions affect the translation of global policies to particular educational contexts?
What are the limitations of globalised policy solutions and what problems do they encounter at local levels?
From students of education, development and globalization to practitioners working in developing contexts, this book is an important resource for those seeking to understand how global forces and local realities meet to shape education policy in the developing world.
Drawing on their backgrounds in fields as diverse as political science, history, sociology, anthropology, economics, psychology, management, and human ecology, this international line-up of contributors includes world systems theorist Immanuel Wallerstein, philosopher Peter Manicas, management professor Bill Halal, and industrial sociologist Arthur Shostak.
The book generates diverse perspectives on what written language may mean for childhoods. Looking at variations in the complex relationships between official (curricular) visions and unofficial (child-initiated) visions of relevant composing practices and appropriate cultural resources, it offers, first, insight into how those relationships may change over time and space as children move through early schooling, and, second, understanding of the dynamics of schools and the experience of childhoods through which the local meaning of school literacy is formulated. Each case—each child in a particular sociocultural site—does not represent an essentialized nation or a people but, rather, a rich, processual depiction of childhood being constructed in particular local contexts and the role, if any, for composing.
Walter Grnzweig is professor of American literature and culture at Universitt Dortmund. He holds adjunct professorships at the University of Pennsylvania, University of New York at Binghamton and Canisius College. Nana Rinehart is associate director of the International Student Exchange Program.
• Divisions between teachers and the public are wider and deeper than differences between other groups often thought to contest school policy, such as Republicans and Democrats, the young and the old, the rich and the poor, or African Americans and whites.
• The teacher-public gap is widest on such issues as merit pay, teacher tenure reform, impact of teacher unions, school vouchers, charter schools, and requirements to test students annually.
• Public support for school vouchers for all students, charter schools, and parent trigger laws increases sharply when people are informed of the national ranking of student performance in their local school district.
• Public willingness to give local schools high marks, its readiness to support higher spending levels, and its support for teacher unions all decline when the public learns the national ranking of their local schools.
• On most issues, teacher opinion does not change in response to new information nearly as much as it does for the public as a whole. In fact, the gap between what teachers and the public think about school reform grows even wider when both teachers and the public are given more information about current school performance, current expenditure levels, and current teacher pay.
The book provides the first experimental study of public and teacher opinion. Using a recently developed research strategy, the authors ask differently worded questions about the same topic to randomly chosen segments of representative groups of citizens. This approach allows them to identify the impact on public opinion of new information on issues such as student performance and school expenditures in each respondent's community.
The changes in public opinion when citizens receive information about school performance are largest in districts that perform below the national average. Altogether, the results indicate that support for many school reforms would increase if common core state standards were established and implemented in such a way as to inform the public about the quality of their local schools. These and many other findings illuminate the distance between teacher opinions and those of the public at large.
About the Research: In partnership with the Harvard Program on Education Policy and Governance and the journal, Education Next, authors Paul E. Peterson, Martin West and Michael Henderson surveyed nationally representative samples of teachers and the public as a whole annually between 2007 and 2013.