"The codling moth or apple worm and the apple scab have no direct relationship except that both attack the apple and are, respectively, the chief insect enemy and the chief fungous disease of this fruit. Both are, however, subject to practical control by sprays, which being necessary at the same dates, in the main, can be combined in single applications, and it is for this reason that they are considered together in this bulletin. A brief life history is given of the codling moth, with a description of the sprays and other remedies for it, followed by similar matter on the apple scab. The bulletin concludes with a joint consideration, for both pests, of spraying outfits and methods, with directions for the combination of the spray mixtures, and a spray calendar" -- introduction.
The taenioid cestodes are tapeworms characterized primarily by the presence of four cup-shaped suckers upon the head. They form a natural group, classed by some authorities as a superfamily Taenioidea, by others as an order Cyclophyllidea. About 140 species have been reported from North American birds, and these represent nearly 40 genera. It is with these forms that the present paper is concerned.