In 1535 Jacques Cartier, a Frenchman, sailed up the St. Lawrence River and into the heart of New France, where he first set eyes upon Quebec. A half-century later, Samuel de Champlain arrived and capitalized on his countryman's discovery. Champlain established Quebecï¿1/2s first permanent settlement. These first settlers had to contend not only with the weather, but also with local Indians, and in 1629, a British barricade. Nevertheless, Quebec soon became a powerful center for trade and religion.