In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often expressed as "who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects?" The purpose of public speaking can range from simply transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to simply telling a story. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them. Public speaking can also be considered a discourse community. Interpersonal communication and public speaking have several components that embrace such things as motivational speaking, leadership/personal development, business, customer service, large group communication, and mass communication. Public speaking can be a powerful tool to use for purposes such as motivation, influence, persuasion, informing, translation, or simply entertaining. A confident speaker is more likely to use this as excitement and create effective speech thus increasing their overall ethos.
Dale Breckenridge Carnegie (originally Carnagey until 1922 and possibly somewhat later) (November 24, 1888 – November 1, 1955) was an American writer, lecturer, and the developer of famous courses in self-improvement, salesmanship, corporate training, public speaking, and interpersonal skills. Born in poverty on a farm in Missouri, he was the author of How to Win Friends and Influence People (1936), a massive bestseller that remains popular today. He also wrote How to Stop Worrying and Start Living (1948), Lincoln the Unknown (1932), and several other books.
Perhaps one of Carnegie’s most successful marketing moves was to change the spelling of his last name from “Carnagey” to Carnegie, at a time when Andrew Carnegie (unrelated) was a widely revered and recognized name. By 1916, Dale was able to rent Carnegie Hall itself for a lecture to a packed house. Carnegie's first collection of his writings was Public Speaking: a Practical Course for Business Men (1926), later entitled Public Speaking and Influencing Men in Business (1932). His crowning achievement, however, was when Simon & Schuster published How to Win Friends and Influence People. The book was a bestseller from its debut in 1936, in its 17th printing within a few months. By the time of Carnegie's death, the book had sold five million copies in 31 languages, and there had been 450,000 graduates of his Dale Carnegie Institute. It has been stated in the book that he had critiqued over 150,000 speeches in his participation in the adult education movement of the time. During World War I he served in the U.S. Army.
One of the core ideas in his books is that it is possible to change other people's behavior by changing one's reaction to them.
In his book, Carmine Gallo has broken down hundreds of TED talks and interviewed the most popular TED presenters, as well as the top researchers in the fields of psychology, communications, and neuroscience to reveal the nine secrets of all successful TED presentations. Gallo's step-by-step method makes it possible for anyone to deliver a presentation that is engaging, persuasive, and memorable.
Carmine Gallo's top 10 Wall Street Journal Bestseller Talk Like TED will give anyone who is insecure about their public speaking abilities the tools to communicate the ideas that matter most to them, the skill to win over hearts and minds, and the confidence to deliver the talk of their lives.
The opinions expressed by Carmine Gallo in TALK LIKE TED are his own. His book is not endorsed, sponsored or authorized by TED Conferences, LLC or its affiliates.
Synonym is a word that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word.
English Synonyms – A
001. ABET -- (meaning) to encourage somebody to do something illegal
Synonyms for ‘Abet’ --
incite / instigate / provoke
002. ABEYANCE -- (meaning) being stopped for a period of time
Synonyms for ‘Abeyance’ --
dormancy / intermission / suspension
003. ABILITY -- (meaning) the fact that somebody is able to do something
Synonyms for ‘Ability’ --
aptitude / capability / competence / knack / potential / proficiency / skill / talent
004. ABLAZE -- (meaning) burning; on fire
Synonyms for ‘Ablaze’ --
aflame / afire / alight
005. ABRASIVE -- (meaning) not smooth
Synonyms for ‘Abrasive’ --
coarse / harsh / rough
006. ABSENCE -- (meaning) not available, present, etc.
Synonyms for ‘Absence’ --
nonexistence / nonappearance / nonattendance
007. ABSTRUSE -- (meaning) difficult to understand
Synonyms for ‘Abstruse’ --
arcane / complicated / convoluted / esoteric / garbled / inarticulate / incoherent / incomprehensible / indecipherable / inexplicable / intricate / obscure / rarefied / recondite / unfathomable / unintelligible / unplumbed
008. ABUSE -- (meaning) unfair or cruel treatment
Synonyms for ‘Abuse’ --
brutality / cruelty / exploitation / ill-treatment / maltreatment / mistreatment / misuse / spitefulness / viciousness
009. ABYSS -- (meaning) a very deep crack in the ground
Synonyms for ‘Abyss’ --
chasm / gulf
010. ACCEDE -- (meaning) to agree to a demand, request, proposal, etc.
Synonyms for ‘Accede’ --
acquiesce / approve / assent / commend / comply / endorse / grant / permission / ratify / sanction
011. ACCENTUATE -- (meaning) to make something more noticeable
Synonyms for ‘Accentuate’ --
emphasize / highlight / underline / underscore
012. ACCLIMATIZE -- (meaning) to get used to new situation
Synonyms for ‘Acclimatize’ --
adapt / adjust
013. ACCOMPLISH -- (meaning) to succeed in getting something
Synonyms for ‘Accomplish’ --
attain / conquer / manage
014. ACCOST -- (meaning) to come near to somebody/something
Synonyms for ‘Accost’ --
advance / approach / confront
015. ACCREDITED -- (meaning) officially recognized
Synonyms for ‘Accredited’ --
certified / endorsed / licensed
016. ACCRUAL -- (meaning) increase in something over a period of time
Synonyms for ‘Accrual’ --
accretion / addition / amassing / buildup / gathering
017. ACCUSE -- (meaning) to say somebody is guilty of something
Synonyms for ‘Accuse’ --
arraign / blame / charge / impeach / indict / prosecute
018. ACQUIT -- (meaning) to say officially that somebody is not guilty for a crime
Synonyms for ‘Acquit’ --
absolve / exculpate / exonerate
019. ADMIRATION -- (meaning) praise or approval
Synonyms for ‘Admiration’ --
acclaim / accolade / applause / approbation / commendation / ovation
020. ADMIRING -- (meaning) behavior that shows that you respect somebody/something
Synonyms for ‘Admiring’ --
chivalrous / considerate / courteous / deferential / gracious / respectful / reverent / reverential
021. ADROIT -- (meaning) skillful and accurate
Synonyms for ‘Adroit’ --
agile / deft / dexterous / natty / nifty / nimble / swift
022. ALARMING -- (meaning) causing feeling of fear and worry
Synonyms for ‘Alarming’ --
baffling / bewildering / confounding / disconcerting / disquieting / distressing / perplexing / puzzling / tormenting / upsetting / worrying
• How to overcome shyness and put other people at ease
• How to choose an appropriate conversation topic for any situation
• How to ace a job interview, run a meeting, and mingle at a cocktail party
• What the most successful conversationalists have in common
• The one great question you can ask to enhance your conversation with anyone, anytime, anywhere
From the Hardcover edition.
This book is an introduction to public speaking by the master of the art, Dale Carnegie. It contains a wealth of information on the voice, delivery, distinctness and much more. This is a fascinating work and is thoroughly recommended for everyone. If you need to do any type of public speaking, networking and small talk, pick up this book right away and start skimming.
(The Art of Public Speaking by Dale Carnegie, 9788180320422)
A letter or group of letters added to the beginning or end of a word to get a new word with a changed meaning.
im- in impossible; ntier- in international
-able in agreeable; -er in learner
English Affixes could be divided into two groups:
Prefixes and Suffixes
A letter or group of letters added to the beginning of a word to get a new word with a changed meaning.
im- in impossible; inter- in international; un- in unaffected
A letter or group of letters added to the end of a word to get a new word with a changed meaning.
-able in agreeable; -er in learner; -ness in quickness
ENGLISH PREFIXES – A
Used to form: adjectives, adverbs and nouns
General meaning: not, without
acellular / amoral / apolitical / atheism / atheist / atypical
Used to form: nouns and verbs
General meaning: addition, tendency
adjoin / adjudge / admixture
Used to form: adjectives, adverbs and nouns
General meaning: both of two
ambidexterity / ambidextrous / ambivalence / ambivalent
Used to form: adjectives, nouns and verbs
General meaning: prior to; in front of
antedate / antenatal / anterior / ante-room
Used to form: adjectives and nouns
General meaning: against; the opposite of; preventing
anti-aircraft / anti-bacterial / antibiotic / antibody / anti-choice / anticlerical / anticlimax / anticlockwise / anticoagulant / anti-competitive / anti-copying / anti-corruption / anticyclone / antidepressant / anti-drug / anti-encroachment / anti-extremism / antifreeze / anti-globalization / anti-graft / antigravity / anti-hate / anti-hero / anti-inflammatory / anti-liquor / anti-lock / anti-malarial / anti-national / antioxidant / antiparticle / anti-people / anti-personnel / antiperspirant / anti-poaching / antipyretic / antiretroviral / anti-rowdy / anti-sabotage / antiseptic / antisocial / anti-stalking / antitank / anti-terror / anti-terrorism / anti-theft / antitrust / antiviral / antivirus
ENGLISH SUFFIXES – A
Used to form: adjectives, adverbs and nouns
General meaning: that can, should or must be done; having the characteristic of
adaptable / agreeable / amenable / amicable / appreciable / approachable / assessable / avertable / avoidable / believable / breakable / calculable / changeable / chargeable / comfortable / companionable / computable / conceivable / controllable / curable / decipherable / declarable / desirable / detectable / detestable / doable / enjoyable / escapable / excitable / explainable / explicable / exploitable / fashionable / foreseeable / graspable / honorable / imaginable / imperturbable / indubitable / inevitable / justifiable / manageable / moveable / noticeable / observable / payable / pleasurable / portable / preventable / punishable / quantifiable / questionable / ratable / reachable / readable / reasonable / reckonable / recognizable / reliable / reputable / respectable / serviceable / sociable / stoppable / taxable / traceable / transferable / translatable / transportable / understandable / usable / utilizable / variable / washable / wearable / workable
Used to form: nouns
General meaning: a level of skill, intelligence, etc.
capability / curability / excitability / inescapability / inevitability / playability / preventability / serviceability / unavoidability / usability / workability
Used to form: adverbs
General meaning: skillful and well; in a particular manner
affably / capably / charitably / comfortably / demonstrably / indisputably / inevitably / irritably / notably / noticeably / presumably / probably / reasonably / remarkably
Used to form: nouns
General meaning: the position, quality, state or status of
accuracy / adequacy / delicacy / democracy / intimacy / primacy / privacy / supremacy
Straightforward advice on making your speeches sparkle
With the right preparation even the most nervous speaker can deliver a winning presentation. Public Speaking & Presentations For Dummies shows you how, from drafting your content to honing your tone for a perfect delivery. More confident speakers can find expert advice on getting visual aids right, impromptu speaking, dazzling in roundtables, and much more.
Discover how toOrganise your speech Conquer your fears Research content effectively Get your body language right Use humour properly Speak to a foreign audience
Editor William Safire has collected a diverse range of speeches from both ancient and modern times, from people of many different backgrounds and political affiliations, and from people on both sides of history’s greatest battles and events. This book provides a wealth of valuable examples of great oratory for writers, speakers, and history aficionados.
English Idioms and Phrases -- A
001. -- State governments should add more teeth to anti-ragging law. [‘add more teeth’ -- to make something more effective]
002. -- Financial issues are further going to add to their woes.
003. -- He appeared to be taken aback when it was revealed to him that an avid fan had his face tattooed on his arm. || We all were taken aback by bomb attacks. [‘taken aback’ -- very surprised]
004. -- Our opponents hold all the Aces as they are strong where we are weak. [‘hold all the aces’ -- to have all the advantages]
005. -- From all accounts, he was a loving family man. || From all accounts, he is a smart, fair-minded, detail-oriented middle-of-the road jurist. [‘from all accounts’ -- according to what other people say]
006. -- An accidental fire in your home is not considered an act of God because it could have been prevented. [‘act of God’ -- an event that is caused by natural forces]
007. -- The celebration started a day in advance. [‘in advance’ -- ahead of time]
008. -- Budget data revealed an alarming state of affairs. [‘state of affairs’ -- situation]
009. -- My birthday is going to be a quiet affair with a nice dinner. || We want our wedding to be a quiet affair.
010. -- Democracy requires that we agree to differ. [‘agree to differ’ -- (of people) to decide not to argue with each other over their different opinions about something.]
011. -- Her clarification did not clear the air. [‘clear the air’ -- to improve a tense situation]
012a. -- When the residents started receiving mysterious threats, there was an air of mystery and fear.
012b. -- The air of celebration was evident outside the president’s office.
013a. -- It was fortunate that he arrived and erased the negativity in the air.
013b. -- There was an evil smell in the air.
014a. -- Body is nothing but a pile of ashes and it will one day disappear into thin air.
014b. -- Money was vanishing into thin air.
015. -- I do not think we will be paying much more, if at all we do.
016. -- If you stop her doing anything, she wants to do it all the more. [‘all the more’ -- extra]
017. -- These problems are needed to be solved once and for all. [‘once and for all’ -- forever]
018. -- All of a sudden, there was fire. | All of a sudden a warm gust of wind came. [‘all of a sudden’ -- surprisingly]
019. -- I learnt computer programming all by myself. || It is a lot of work, and I do it all by myself. || He had to run the family all by himself.
020. -- Workers were clearly in no mood to listen let alone comply with the request. || They could not figure out how to punish corrupt officials, let alone fix them. [‘let alone’ -- used to emphasize that because the first thing is not true, possible, etc. the next thing cannot be true, possible, etc. either]
021. -- A saddle tank on the tractor-trailer came apart and caused a diesel spill. [‘come apart’ -- to shatter]
022. -- In less than a fortnight of its formation, the Joint Committee for drafting the bill is falling apart. || Talks on a deal finally fell apart. [‘fall apart’ -- to collapse]
023. -- Storm has torn apart the lives of thousands of people. [‘tear apart’ -- to destroy]
024. -- We are poles apart. || Two exhibitions in prominent galleries immediately next to each other showed works that were poles apart in concept. [‘pole apart’ -- completely opposite]
025. -- We expected him to keep his business affairs in apple pie order. || Everything inside the shop was spick and span and in apple pie order, from the well-polished service counters to the glistening display cabinets. [‘in apple pie order’ -- well organized]
026. -- Government maintained arms length distance in all matters relating to film certification. [‘arms length distance’ -- to avoid having a close relationship]
027. -- Nation welcomed new football coach with open arms. || European counties had welcomed the refugees with open arms. [‘with open arms’ -- in an extremely happy manner]
Every time we open our mouths, we have an effect on ourselves and the way others perceive us. The ability to speak clearly and confidently can make or break a presentation, an important meeting, or even a first date. Now, with the advent of Skype, YouTube, podcasting, Vine, and any number of reality talent competitions, your vocal presence has never been more necessary for success or more central to achieving your dreams.
Roger Love has over 30 years of experience as one of the world's leading authorities on voice. Making use of the innovative techniques that have worked wonders with his professional clients, Love distills the best of his teaching in SET YOUR VOICE FREE, and shares exercises that will help readers bring emotion, range, and power to the way they speak.
This updated edition incorporates what he's learned in the last 15 years as the Internet and talent competitions have completely changed the role your voice plays in your life. These are the new essentials for sounding authentic, persuasive, distinctive, and real in a world that demands nothing less.
The four steps:Form the attitude and intent to be open, and then let your body naturally express that intent. This feeling of openness will naturally affect the content of what you are saying, and it's that natural evolution that is at the heart of the process. Become connected to your audience. This creates a mutual energy, and you will naturally begin to think in terms of what the audience wants and needs in shaping your content. Ask yourself, what's my underlying emotion? Why does this matter to me? Becoming passionate about what you have to say naturally makes your audience care about it too. Really listen to the audience. Understanding their needs and reactions will enable you to direct your communication in mutually beneficial ways.
Homonym a word that is spelt like another word (or pronounced like it) but which has a different meaning, for example Key meaning ‘set of answer to problems’ and Key meaning ‘button on computer keyboard’.
The state of being a homonym is called homonymy.
Very Important Note:
In Strict Sense, Homonyms have same spelling, same pronunciation, and different meaning.
HOMONYMS in Strict Sense:
Same Spelling / Same Pronunciation / Different meaning
Homonyms are also known as “Multiple Meaning Words”.
Examples: fare, principal, etc.
Fare -- a passenger | Fare -- price
Principal -- most important | Principal -- head of a school
In Wider Sense, Homonyms can also include words that have same or similar pronunciation (but different spelling) or same spelling (but different pronunciation).
In first situation, they are called ‘HOMOPHONES’
In second situation, they are called ‘HOMOGRAPHS’
HOMONYMS In Wider Sense:
Different Spelling / Same or Similar Pronunciation / Different meaning
Note: ‘Homophones’ are also called ‘Heterographs’.
Homophones are also known as “Sound-Alike Words”.
Examples: ad/add, know/no, etc.
ad -- advertisement | add -- to include
know -- to have information | no -- refusal
Same Spelling / Different Pronunciation / Different meaning
Note: ‘Homographs’ are also called ‘Heterophones’.
Examples: bow, lead, etc.
Bow (noun) -- [Pronunciation -- boʊ] -- a weapon used for shooting arrows
Bow (verb) -- [Pronunciation -- baʊ] -- to move your head forwards and downwards
Lead (noun) -- [Pronunciation -- led] -- a metallic element
Lead (verb) -- [Pronunciation -- li:d] -- to go in front
100 HOMONYMS ALONG WITH THEIR MEANINGS:
1. Accident -- an event in which injury or damage is caused in or by vehicle
2. Accident -- something that happens unexpectedly
1. Action -- a legal process
2. Action -- fighting in a war
1. Alight -- on fire
2. Alight -- to get out of a vehicle
1. Angle -- inclination of two lines with each, measure in degrees
2. Angle -- to catch fish
1. Arch -- curve; semicircle
2. Arch -- mischievous
600 HOMOPHONE PAIRS ALONG WITH THEIR MEANINGS:
01. Abhorrent / Aberrant
1. Abhorrent -- causing hatred for moral reasons
2. Aberrant -- unusual and socially unacceptable
02. Accede / Exceed
1. Accede -- to agree
2. Exceed -- to surpass
03. Accept / Except
1. Accept -- to admit
2. Except -- apart from
04. Acclamation / Acclimation
1. Acclamation -- loud and enthusiastic welcome
2. Acclimation -- process of getting used to a new climate or situation
05. Adapt / Adept / Adopt
1. Adapt -- to adjust or modify
2. Adept -- skillful
3. Adopt -- to become legal parents of somebody’s child
150 HOMOGRAPHS ALONG WITH THEIR MEANINGS:
1. Absent (adjective) -- not present
2. Absent (verb) -- to not be in a place
1. Abuse (noun) -- misuse
2. Abuse (verb) -- to misuse something
1. Accent (noun) -- pronunciation
2. Accent (verb) -- to put emphasis on a part of something
1. Address (noun) -- details of the place where you live or work; postal address
2. Address (verb) -- to make a formal speech
1. Advocate (noun) -- supporter of something
2. Advocate (verb) -- to support something publicly
Sample This: Difficult English Words -- A --
0001 -- abandon (v.) -- to discard; to dump; to leave sb/sth permanently || related word: abandoned (adj.), abandonment (n.)
0002 -- abase (v.) -- to do sth that makes people have less respect for you; to degrade || related word: abasement (n.)
0003 -- abashed (adj.) -- ashamed in a social situation; embarrassed
0004 -- abate (v.) -- to become very weak; to fade away; to subside || related word: abatement (n.)
0005 -- abdicate (v.) -- to step down from the position of being king; to renounce || related word: abdication (n.)
0006 -- aberrant (adj.) -- abnormal, unsocial or weird; nonstandard || related word: aberration (n.)
0007 -- abet (v.) -- to assist or support sb in doing sth illegal, immoral, etc; to encourage
0008 -- abhor (v.) -- to extremely hate or dislike sb/sth for ethical reasons; to detest || related words: abhorrent (adj.), abhorrence (n.)
0009 -- abide (v.) -- to reside somewhere | can’t abide -- to not stand for sb/sth
0010 -- abiding (adj.) -- (of feelings, ideas, etc.) long lasting
0011 -- abject (adj.) -- having no hope or self-esteem; miserable || related word: abjectly (adv.)
0012 -- abjure (v.) -- to give up a belief or idea publicly; to renounce
0013 -- ablaze (adj.) -- on fire; afire
0014 -- ablutions (n.) -- action of cleaning or washing yourself
0015 -- abnegate (v.) -- to reject sth that you like; to renounce || related word: abnegation (n.)
0016 -- abode (n.) -- a house where you live; residence
0017 -- abolish (v.) -- to get rid of law, rule, etc. officially; to eliminate || related words: abolition (n.), abolitionist (n.)
0018 -- abominate (v.) -- to hate || related words: abominable (adj.), abomination (n.)
0019 -- aboriginal (adj.) -- primitive
0020 -- abortive (adj.) -- unsuccessful
0021 -- abound (v.) -- to be plentiful
0022 -- about-turn (n.) -- reversal of a plan, etc.
0023 -- above board (adj./adv.) -- honest; genuine
0024 -- abrasion (n.) -- cut or scratch
0025 -- abrasive (adj.) -- rough | rude || related words: abrasively (adv.), abrasiveness (n.)
0026 -- abreast (adv.) -- side by side
0027 -- abridge (v.) -- to shorten || related words: abridged (adj.), abridgement (n.)
0028 -- abrogate (v.) -- to cancel a law || related word: abrogation (n.)
0029 -- abrupt (adj.) -- sudden || related words: abruptly (adv.), abruptness (n.)
0030 -- abscond (v.) -- to run away; to escape
0031 -- abseil (v.) -- to descend a steep cliff
0032 -- absolution (n.) -- forgiveness
0033 -- absolutism (n.) -- rule by dictator; autocracy || related word: absolutist (adj./n.)
0034 -- absolve (v.) -- to forgive
0035 -- abstain (v.) -- to give up or stay away from sth bad, illegal or immoral | to decide not to cast your vote in election | related words: abstainer (n.), abstention (n.)
0036 -- abstemious (adj.) -- self-disciplined
0037 -- abstinence (n.) -- restraint from eating or drinking because of ethical reasons | related word: abstinent (adj.)
0038 -- abstracted (adj.) -- absentminded || related word: abstractedly (adv.)
0039 -- abstruse (adj.) -- that cannot be understood easily; obscure
0040 -- abundant (adj.) -- plentiful || related word: abundantly (adv.)
0041 -- abut (v.) -- to be next to sth; to adjoin
0042 -- abysmal (adj.) -- extremely bad || related word: abysmally (adv.)
0042 -- abyss (n.) -- deep hole
0044 -- accede (v.) -- to give approval to a plan, request, etc.
0045 -- accentuate (v.) -- to emphasize || related word: accentuation (n.)
0046 -- accession (n.) -- state of becoming a ruler
0047 -- acclaim (v.) -- to praise enthusiastically || related word: acclamation (n.)
0048 -- acclimatize (acclimate) (v.) -- to get used to new climate, situation, etc. || related word: acclimatization (acclimation) (n.)
0049 -- accolade (n.) -- honor for a marvelous achievement
0050 -- accommodate (v.) -- to give a place to stay | to adjust | to oblige or help || related words: accommodating (adj.), accommodation (n.)
0051 -- accord (n./v.) -- agreement | to agree
0052 -- accost (v.) -- to come close and talk to sb
0053 -- accouter (accouter) (v.) -- to put on special clothes, equipments, etc. | related word: accoutrements (n.)
0054 -- accredit (v.) -- to officially recognize sb/sth || related words: accredited (adj.), accreditation (n.)
0055 -- accretion (n.) -- addition of a layer
0056 -- accrue (v.) -- to mount up; to accumulate || related word: accrual (n.)
0057 -- acculturate (v.) -- to adjust yourself in different culture || related word: acculturation (n.)
0058 -- acerbic (adj.) -- bitter in speech || related word: acerbity (n.)
0059 -- Achilles heel (n.) -- weak point in character
0060 -- acme (n.) -- highest point in development; peak
0061 -- acolyte (n.) -- helper of a leader
0062 -- acoustic (adj.) -- designed to make natural sound | connected with sound || related words: acoustically (adv.), acoustician (n.), acoustics (n.)
0063 -- acquiesce (v.) -- to agree without arguing || related words: acquiescent (adj.), acquiescence (n.)
0064 -- acrid (adj.) -- bitter
0065 -- acrimony (n.) -- bitterness or hostility || related words: acrimonious (adj.), acrimoniously (adv.)
0066 -- acrobat (n.) -- circus performer || related words: acrobatic (adj.), acrobatically (adv.), acrobatics (n.)
0067 -- acronym (n.) -- short form
0068 -- acuity (n.) -- the ability to hear, see or think in a clear way
0069 -- acumen (n.) -- intelligence
0070 -- ad hominem (adj./adv.) -- (of criticism, etc.) connected with sb’s character
0071 -- ad infinitum (adv.) -- infinitely
0072 -- ad nauseam (adv.) -- without limit; repeatedly
0073 -- adamant (adj.) -- obstinate || related word: adamantly (adv.)
0074 -- adamantine (adj.) -- unbreakable
0075 -- addendum (n.) -- extra section in a book; appendix
0076 -- addle (v.) -- to confuse || related word: addled (adj.)
0077 -- adduce (v.) -- to cite sth
0078 -- adhere (v.) -- to stick fast to sth | to follow a particular set of rules || related word: adherence (n.)
0079 -- adherent (n.) -- supporter
0080 -- adhesive (adj./n.) -- sticky | glue || related word: adhesion (n.)
0081 -- adieu (exclamation) -- goodbye
0082 -- adjure (v.) -- to seriously request or urge sb to do something
0083 -- adlib (v.) -- to speak without preparation
0084 -- admonish (v.) -- to speak harshly to sb; to warn || related words: admonitory (adj.), admonition (n.)
0085 -- adore (v.) -- to admire or love || related words: adorable (adj.), adoring (adj.), adoringly (adv.), adorably (adv.), adoration (n.)
0086 -- adorn (v.) -- to decorate || related word: adornment (n.)
0087 -- adrift (adj.) -- floating | without aim
0088 -- adroit (adj.) -- skillful || related words: adroitly (adv.), adroitness (n.)
0089 -- adumbrate (v.) -- to summarize
0090 -- advent (n.) -- arrival of an important person or event
0091 -- adventitious (adj.) -- unplanned
0092 -- aesthete (n.) -- admirer of art and beauty || related words: aesthetic (adj./n.), aesthetically (adv.), aesthetics (n.), aestheticism (n.)
0093 -- affable (adj.) -- friendly || related words: affably (adv.), affability (n.)
0094 -- affinity (n.) -- attraction or resemblance
0095 -- afflict (v.) -- to create trouble for sb || related word: affliction (n.)
0096 -- affluent (adj.) -- wealthy || related word: affluence (n.)
0097 -- affray (n.) -- fight
0098 -- affront (n./v.) -- insulting remark | to offend
0099 -- aficionado (n.) -- enthusiast
0100 -- aflame (adj.) -- on fire | enthusiastic
0101 -- agglomerate (adj./n./v.) -- formed into mass | collection | to collect and form a group || related word: agglomeration (n.)
0102 -- aggrandizement (n.) -- increase in the power of country or state
0103 -- aggravate (v.) -- to make sth worse || related words: aggravated (adj.), aggravating (adj.), aggravation (n.)
0104 -- aggrieved (adj.) -- angry or hurt
0105 -- aggro (n.) -- violent
0106 -- aghast (adj.) -- shocked
0107 -- agile (adj.) -- swift || related word: agility (n.)
0108 -- agog (adj.) -- excited
0109 -- agonize (v.) -- to worry a lot || related words: agonized (adj.), agonizing (adj.), agonizingly (adv.)
0110 -- agony (n.) -- pain
0111 -- agrarian (adj.) -- related to farming
0112 -- aground (adv.) -- ashore
0113 -- ail (v.) -- to create problems | to make sb ill
0114 -- airy-fairy (adj.) -- idealistic
0115 -- ajar (adj.) -- slightly open
0116 -- al fresco (adj./adv.) -- outdoors
0117 -- alacrity (n.) -- quickness
0118 -- albatross (n.) -- something that creates difficulty and hinders progress
0119 -- alchemy (n.) -- mysterious power
0120 -- alien (adj.) -- foreign | hostile
0121 -- alienate (v.) -- to lose your support with sb || related word: alienation (n.)
0122 -- alight (adj./v.) -- on fire | to get down from the bus, etc.
0123 -- allay (v.) -- to reduce the intensity of feelings, emotions, etc.
0124 -- allegiance (n.) -- loyalty
0125 -- alleviate (v.) -- to reduce the intensity of sth bad || related word: alleviation (n.)
0126 -- allure (n.) -- attraction | related words: alluring (adj.), alluringly (adv.)
0127 -- allusion (n.) -- indirect reference || related word: allusive (adj.)
0128 -- alluvial (adj.) -- made of sand || related word: alluvium (n.)
0129 -- aloft (adv.) -- in the air
0130 -- also-ran (n.) -- unsuccessful person
0131 -- altercation (n.) -- quarrel
0132 -- altruism (n.) -- selflessness || related word: altruistic (adv.)
0133 -- ambidextrous (adj.) -- able to use both hands
0134 -- ambience (n.) -- surroundings || related word: ambient (adj.)
0135 -- ambivalence (n.) -- state of two minds || related words: ambivalent (adj.), ambivalently (adv.)
0136 -- amble (v.) -- to walk slowly
0137 -- ambrosia (n.) -- delicious thing to eat
0138 -- ambulatory (adj.) -- connected with walking; mobile
0139 -- amenable (adj.) -- agreeable or controllable
0140 -- amicable (adj.) -- pleasant and friendly || related word: amicably (adv.)
0141 -- amiss (adj./adv.) -- wrong
0142 -- amity (n.) -- peace and friendship
0143 -- amnesia (n.) -- loss of memory || related word: amnesiac (n.)
0144 -- amorous (adj.) -- expressing feeling of love passionately || related word: amorously (adv.)
0145 -- amorphous (adj.) -- formless
0146 -- amplify (v.) -- to make stronger || related word: amplification (n.)
0147 -- anachronism (n.) -- old-fashioned person or thing || related word: anachronistic (adj.)
0148 -- analgesia (n.) -- loss of pain || related word: analgesic (adj./n.)
0149 -- analogy (n.) -- a comparison that shows similarities between two things
0150 -- anathema (n.) -- sth that you detest
0151 -- anecdote (n.) -- a short and real story or event
0152 -- angst (n.) -- anxiety
0153 -- anguish (n.) -- suffering || related word: anguished (adj.)
0154 -- animated (adj.) -- energetic || related word: animatedly (adv.)
0155 -- animism (n.) -- belief that natural objects possess soul || related words: animistic (adj.), animist (n.)
0156 -- animosity (n.) -- enmity
0157 -- animus (n.) -- hatred
0158 -- annals (n.) -- historical records
0159 -- annex (v.) -- to forcefully take over another country || related word: annexation (n.)
0160 -- annihilate (v.) -- to destroy completely || related word: annihilation (n.)
0161 -- annotate (v.) -- to add notes to explain sth || related words: annotated (adj.), annotation (n.)
0162 -- annul (v.) -- to cancel sth officially || related word: annulment (n.)
0163 -- anodyne (adj.) -- bland
0164 -- anoint (v.) -- to smear
0165 -- anomalous (adj.) -- abnormal or irregular || related words: anomalously (adv.), anomaly (n.)
0166 -- anomie (n.) -- unsocial or immoral behaviour
0167 -- anorexia (n.) -- fear of being fat || related word: anorexic (adj./n.)
0168 -- antagonize (v.) -- to irritate or annoy sb | to make sb no longer friendly with you || related words: antagonistic (adj.), antagonistically (adv.), antagonist (n.), antagonism (n.)
0169 -- antecedent (adj./n.) -- previous | predecessor
0170 -- antediluvian (adj.) -- primitive
0171 -- anthology (n.) -- compilation of stories, poems, etc. from different sources
0172 -- antipathy (n.) -- hostility || related word: antipathetic (adj.)
0173 -- antiquated (adj.) -- old-fashioned
0174 -- antiquity (n.) -- an object, a work of art, etc. from the ancient past
0175 -- antithesis (n.) -- exact opposite || related word: antithetical (adj.)
0176 -- apathy (n.) -- lack of interest || related words: apathetic (adj.), apathetically (adv.)
0177 -- aphorism (n.) -- a short phrase that expresses sth sensible || related word: aphoristic (adj.)
0178 -- aplomb (n.) -- self-confidence
0179 -- apnea (apnoea) (n.) -- loss of breath
0180 -- apocalypse (n.) -- disaster || related word: apocalyptic (adj.)
0181 -- apocryphal (adj.) -- mythical
0182 -- apoplexy (n.) -- loss of feeling
0183 -- apostate (n.) -- sb who has changed their religious beliefs
0184 -- apostle (n.) -- follower
0185 -- appalled (adj.) -- shocked || related words: appalling (adj.), appallingly (adv.)
0186 -- apparent (adj.) -- obvious
0187 -- apparition (n.) -- spirit
0188 -- appease (v.) -- to calm down sb by accepting their demands || related word: appeasement (n.)
0189 -- append (v.) -- to add || related word: appendage (n.)
0190 -- appetizing (adj.) -- mouth-watering
0191 -- applaud (v.) -- to clap in order to praise sb; to praise | related word: applause (n.)
0192 -- appliqué (n.) -- needlework || related word: appliquéd (adj.)
0193 -- apportion (v.) -- to divide || related word: apportionment (n.)
0194 -- apposite (adj.) -- appropriate
0195 -- appraise (v.) -- to evaluate || related words: appraisal (n.), appraiser (n.)
0196 -- appreciable (adj.) -- noticeable || related word: appreciably (adv.)
0197 -- appurtenance (n.) -- small part of sth
0198 -- apropos (prep.) -- concerning
0199 -- aquifer (n.) -- layer of rock
0200 -- arable (adj.) -- related to growing crops
0201 -- arbiter (n.) -- a judge who is authorized to settle a dispute
0202 -- arbitrary (adj.) -- illogical || related words: arbitrarily (adv.), arbitrariness (n.)
0203 -- arbitrate (v.) -- to officially settle a dispute between two parties || related word: arbitration (n.)
0204 -- arboreal (adj.) -- connected with trees
0205 -- arcane (adj.) -- mysterious
0206 -- archetype (n.) -- a typical example
0207 -- ardent (adj.) -- enthusiastic || related word: ardently (adv.)
0208 -- ardor (ardour) (n.) -- passion
0209 -- arduous (adj.) -- difficult || related word: arduously (adv.)
0210 -- argot (n.) -- jargon
0211 -- arid (adj.) -- dry | ordinary || related word: aridity (n.)
0212 -- Armageddon (n.) -- an extremely terrible war
0213 -- armistice (n.) -- ceasefire
0214 -- arm-twisting (n.) -- persuasion by force
0215 -- arouse (v.) -- to wake | to stimulate || related word: arousal (n.)
0216 -- arraign (v.) -- to charge sb for a crime || related word: arraignment (n.)
0217 -- arrant (adj.) -- (of sth bad) absolute or complete
0218 -- arrogant (adj.) -- very proud || related word: arrogantly (adv.)
0219 -- artifact (artefact) (n.) -- historical object
0220 -- ascend (v.) -- to rise
0221 -- ascendancy (n.) -- dominance or supremacy || related words: ascendant (n.), ascension (n.)
0222 -- ascetic (adj./n.) -- self-disciplined | monk || related word: asceticism (n.)
0223 -- ascribe (v.) -- to assign or attribute || related words: ascribable (adj.), ascription (n.)
0224 -- ashen (adj.) -- pale
0225 -- asinine (adj.) -- foolish
0226 -- askew (adj./adv.) -- bent
0227 -- aslant (adv.) -- at an angle
0228 -- asperity (n.) -- harshness || related word: aspersions (n.)
0229 -- aspire (v.) -- to aim big
0230 -- assail (v.) -- to attack
0231 -- assault (n./v.) -- violent attack | to attack violently
0232 -- assent (n./v.) -- agreement | to agree
0233 -- assertive (adj.) -- self-confident || related words: assertively (adv.), assertiveness (n.)
0234 -- assiduous (adj.) -- hard-working || related words: assiduously (adv.), assiduity (n.)
0235 -- assign (v.) -- to allocate
0236 -- assimilate (v.) -- to incorporate || related word: assimilation (n.)
0237 -- assuage (v.) -- to lessen painful feeling
0238 -- astonish (v.) -- to extremely surprise sb
0239 -- astound (v.) -- to shock or surprise sb too much || related words: astounded (adj.), astounding (adj.), astoundingly (adv.)
0240 -- astride (adv./prep.) -- with a leg on each side of sth
0241 -- astringent (adj.) -- harsh || related word: astringency (n.)
0242 -- astronomical (adj.) -- excessive || related word: astronomically (adv.)
0243 -- astute (adj.) -- shrewd || related words: astutely (adv.), astuteness (n.)
0244 -- asunder (adv.) -- not together
0245 -- atavistic (adj.) -- connected with primitive humans
0246 -- ataxia (n.) -- loss of body movement || related word: ataxic (adj.)
0247 -- atone (v.) -- to apologize || related word: atonement (n.)
0248 -- atrocity (n.) -- dreadful act; evil || related words: atrociously (adv.), atrociousness (n.)
0249 -- attenuate (v.) -- to make sth almost ineffective || related words: attenuated (adj.), attenuation (n.)
0250 -- attire (n.) -- clothes || related word: attired (adj.)
0251 -- attuned (adj.) -- completely familiar with sth
0252 -- audacity (n.) -- boldness || related words: audacious (adj.), audaciously (adv.)
0253 -- auditory (adj.) -- related to hearing
0254 -- augment (v.) -- to increase || related word: augmentation (n.)
0255 -- augur (v.) -- to foretell || related word: augury (n.)
0256 -- aura (n.) -- noticeable quality of surrounding areas
0257 -- aural (adj.) -- related to hearing and listening || related word: aurally (adv.)
0258 -- austere (adj.) -- simple and serious || related words: austerely (adv.), austerity (n.)
0259 -- autism (n.) -- loss of relationship || related word: autistic (adj.)
0260 -- automation (n.) -- mechanization
0261 -- avarice (n.) -- greed || related word: avaricious (adj.)
0262 -- avenue (n.) -- path
0263 -- aver (v.) -- to firmly express a truth
0264 -- averse (adj.) -- not liking sth || related word: aversion (n.)
0265 -- avert (v.) -- to prevent or foil
0266 -- avid (adj.) -- enthusiastic || related words: avidly (adv.), avidity (n.)
0267 -- avow (v.) -- to say sth openly; to affirm || related words: avowed (adj.), avowedly (adv.), avowal (n.)
0268 -- awash (adj.) -- covered with water
0269 -- awe (n./v.) -- admiration and wonder | to respect
0270 -- awe-inspiring (adj.) -- splendid
0271 -- awesome (adj.) -- amazing || related word: awesomely (adv.)
0272 -- awestruck (adj.) -- fascinated
0273 -- awful (adj./adv.) -- too bad | extremely || related word: awfulness (n.)
0274 -- awry (adj./adv.) -- wrong
0275 -- axiom (n.) -- a principle that is believed to be true || related word: axiomatic (adj.)
Today's challenging times call for passionate visionaries who are authentic and articulate communicators. Speaking coach and consultant Gail Larsen presents a proven program that liberates the "speaker within" and transforms even the reluctant orator into an agent of change.
While most books on public speaking focus on polishing your presentation and overcoming fear, Larsen's holistic blend of spirit and logic goes far beyond the standard format, making TRANSFORMATIONAL SPEAKING a must-read for even the most seasoned speechmakers. With her uniquely inspirational approach, Larsen reaches out to those who want to make a genuine difference in our world by changing minds through touching hearts.
TRANSFORMATIONAL SPEAKING offers insightful advice on everything from defining your message and refining your delivery, to managing the dynamics of a room, handling logistics like a pro, and building a connection with an audience of any size. Larsen has helped business executives and entrepreneurs, community and social change leaders, and healers and life coaches become active movers and shakers through the power of effective communication.
This book covers the following topics:
(01). Related Words
(02). Scientific Studies
(03). That Which Cannot Be…
(04). Types of Behavior
(05). Types of Doctors
(06). Different Instruments
(07). A Particular Type of Place
(08). A Particular Type of Person
(09). Phobia and Mania
(10). Connected With…
(12). Types of States
(13). Types of Statements
(15). Other Topics
(B). A Collection of Things
(C). Act of Killing
(D). Physical Appearance of A Person
(16). Various One-word Substitutes
(01). Related Words
01a. A person who looks at the bright side of things -- Optimist
01b. A person who looks at the dark side of things -- Pessimist
02a. All the animals living in a particular area -- Fauna
02b. Plants and vegetation in a particular area -- Flora
03a. A government tax on goods brought into the country -- Customs
03b. A government tax on goods made within a country -- Excise
04a. A person who is more interested in others -- Extrovert
04b. A person who keeps himself to himself -- Introvert
05a. That which cannot be harmful or dangerous -- Innocuous
05b. Causing serious harm in gradual or unnoticeable way -- Insidious
06a. A person who is taking examination -- Examinee
06b. A person who examine the copies of examinees -- Examiner
07a. A person who talks too much -- Garrulous/Loquacious
07b. A person who eats too much -- Glutton
08a. To suddenly change direction -- Deflect
08b. To keep on changing direction during movement -- Meander
09a. Ability to know something on the basis of feelings rather than reasoning -- Intuition
09b. Ability to speak without moving your lips -- Ventriloquism
10a. To change a law in order to improve it -- Amend
10b. To correct the mistakes in manuscript, etc. -- Emend
11a. A person between 70 and 79 years old -- Septuagenarian
11b. A person between 80 and 89 years old -- Octogenarian
12a. Animals having spinal column -- Vertebrate
12b. An animal with thick skin -- Pachyderm
13a. Obeying rules and requests -- Compliance
13b. Open refusal to obey -- Defiance
14a. The state of being married -- Matrimony
14b. The state of being unmarried -- Bachelorhood
15a. A woman whose husband has died -- Widow
15b. A man whose wife has died -- Widower
16a. Things of different nature -- Heterogeneous
16b. Things of same nature -- Homogeneous
17a. A religious song -- Hymn
17b. A pleasant song used for causing children to sleep -- Lullaby
18a. To rise in value -- Appreciate
18b. To go down in value -- Depreciate
19a. A disorder in which person eats too less because of abnormal fear of being fat -- Anorexia
19b. A disorder in which person repeatedly eats too much -- Bulimia
20a. To increase the intensity of a disease -- Aggravate
20b. To go from bad to worse – Deteriorate
21a. A school for small children -- Kindergarten
21b. A student who has left school or class without permission -- Truant
22a. To free somebody from all blame -- Exonerate
22b. To free a person from a charge by verdict -- Acquit
23a. A co-worker in the same institution -- Colleague
23b. Equal in rank -- Peer
24a. An office with high salary but no work -- Sinecure
24b. A position in an organization without salary -- Honorary
25a. An assembly of hearers at a lecture or concert -- Audience
25b. An assembly of worshippers -- Congregation
What are “Tenses”?
AGREEMENT between SUBJECT and VERB
TWENTY-FOUR Auxiliary Verbs
REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS
Present Indefinite Tense
Present Continuous/Progressive Tense
Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
Past Indefinite Tense
Past Continuous/Progressive Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
Future Indefinite Tense
Future Continuous/Progressive Tense
Future Perfect Tense
Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
Tenses could be defined as “any of the form of a verb that may be used to show the time of the action or an event or state expressed by the verb”.
THERE ARE THREE KINDS OF TENSES:
The Past Tense – The form of a verb that usually expresses an action that happened in the past
[Action happened before present]
The Present Tense – The form of a verb that usually expresses an action that happens at this time
[Action happens in present]
The Future Tense – The form of a verb that usually expresses an action that will happen in future
[Action will happen after present]
EACH OF THESE THREE KINDS OF SENTENCES HAS FOUR TYPES OF FORMS:
Indefinite or Simple Form
Continuous or Progressive Form
Perfect Continuous or Perfect Progressive Form
EACH OF THESE FOUR TYPES OF FORMS HAS FOUR KINDS OF STATEMENTS:
Affirmative Statement --
Used to Show ‘Agreement’
Negative Statement --
Used to Show ‘Disagreement’
Interrogative Statement --
Used to Ask ‘Question’
Interrogative-Negative Statement --
Used to Ask ‘Question’ and Show ‘Disagreement’
Present Indefinite Tense
Permanent situation [in the past, present and future]
Example: Our family lives in Seattle.
General truth (fact or statement)
Example: Clean water is fundamental to public health.
Example: Many barrages have no utility and causes floods.
Habitual action [actions that occurs regularly]
Example: She listens to music every day.
‘Future meaning’ (timetable, planned event, etc.)
Example: My shop closes at 9pm.
Example: The train arrives at 7:30pm.
Traditions, rituals, customs
Example: Indians celebrate festival of light in the month of Oct-Nov.
Commands and Instructions [Imperative Sentences]
[Note: In imperatives, subject ‘you’ remains hidden]
Example: Condemn perpetrators of terrorism.
Example: Promote values of humanity and tolerance.
Example: Tell us about the exact nature of your work.
Used in if-clause of present and future real conditional sentences
Example: If I go there, I meet him.
Example: If things don't work out, we won't be panicked.
Headlines in news reporting [Use of simple present tense instead of simple past tense is common in news headlines]
Example: Flight skids on landing at airport.
Example: Thunder storm brings relief to residents.
(A). AFFIRMATIVE PATTERN –
subject + first form of main verb + other words
Singular Verb is used with subject ‘He and She’ + All Singular Subjects.
Plural Verb is used with subject ‘I, We, You and They’ + All Plural Subjects.
He/She talks. I/We/You/They talk.
We seek opportunity to chart out our own course.
Lean margin of victory or defeat gives an impression of a tough contest.
Nowadays, voters value development over other issues.
They want civic amenities and employment opportunities.
(B). NEGATIVE PATTERN –
subject + auxiliary verb ‘do/does’ + not + first form of main verb + other words
Auxiliary Verb ‘Does’ is used with subject ‘He and She’ + All Singular Subjects.
Auxiliary Verb ‘Do’ is used with subject ‘I, We, You and They’ + All Plural Subjects.
He/She does not talk. I/We/You/They do not talk.
Most buses do not cater to interior parts of the villages.
He does not know what to say.
01 – English Sentences -- After
Period (a particular length of time) + After
[This Pattern Is Used To Denote “Following Something In Time”]
Area was cordoned off an hour after the incident.
A picture was released a day after the attack.
Statement came 10 days after police claim.
The committee was formed two days after expose.
She had gone missing a few days after her husband was kidnapped.
He was saved a few days after other members were rescued.
She was killed weeks after returning from years in exile.
The shooting came less than a year after a massacre at main market.
That was more than 10 years after we had seen each other last.
She received a call soon after at her residence.
Soon after being informed by people, police swung into action.
Chopper collided mid-air shortly after take-off from an air base here.
The satellite started malfunctioning shortly after its deployment in orbit.
People will remember the song long after we are gone.
A week after abducted executive rescued, city has been rocked by abduction.
Three months after she took over reins of the state, she fulfilled her poll promises.
Two days after she got married, a 22-year old woman won the prestigious award.
Three days after hundred patients were treated, fifty more were admitted.
Noun + After + Noun
[This pattern is used to show something happens many times or continuously.]
He missed opportunity after opportunity.
Village has been caught in controversy after controversy.
You Can Also Use The Following Patterns:
One + Noun + After + Another
He missed one opportunity after another.
Village has been caught in one controversy after another.
The industry at large has faced one pain after another.
He indulged in one scam after another.
One After The Other
He established loyalty with three persons one after the other.
Events are taking place one after the other.
Many enemies came into his life one after the other.
One after the other, the survivors came out, each better than the other.
There were false allegations one after the other.
Second Event (Simple Past) + After + First Event (Past Perfect)
I returned after he had gone.
He came after night had fallen.
I reached after the train had already left.
She named his daughter after Lincoln.
The scheme (was) named after Party founder.
Indian NSG was modelled after their UK’s SAS.
My dog went after the thief.
Passengers said they heard a loud explosion after which the bus hurtled down.
Popular Sentences in English -- I
Sentence Beginning With IT/THERE/THAT/THIS
It began to rain.
It has become tough to walk on these roads.
It is a bit lower than expected.
It is a clean and clear probe.
It is a problem of large magnitude.
It is all set to be a thing of the past.
It is an all-out Japanese effort.
It is easier to lose weight than gain it.
It is fourth lane from here.
It is hard not to be suspicious about this regime.
It is just not my day.
It is never too late to start life afresh.
It is not possible!
It is not that the police aren’t doing anything.
It is tantamount to discrimination.
It is time to awaken the voters.
It is tough to survive in the wild.
It is up to them to decide how to proceed.
It is very personal decision that we have taken.
It isn’t worth having it repaired.
It made my heart beat faster.
It seemed OK at the time.
It seems there is no administration in the state.
It should not only be done with honesty, but it should seem to be so.
It tastes something like apple.
It was a huge bang.
It was an experience I will cherish all my life.
It was bound to happen.
It was his third home trip in as many years.
It was not a favorable time to start a journey.
It was the fastest growing state for the second year.
It will be convenient for some people to not have me here.
It will not be too long until their names are whispered.
It will only upset her further.
It would create complications for him.
There are many reasons for it.
There are no two opinions about it.
There are times when you are not in the mood to talk.
There are times when your best efforts are not good enough.
There has been a noticeable increase.
There have been several such instances in the past.
There is a cool breeze just before a rain storm.
There is an acute shortage of water.
There is general financial slowdown.
There is hardly any scope of reformation for them.
There is more than you know.
There is nothing that can be done to sort this out.
There seems political conspiracy behind it.
There was no such move at the moment.
There were security issues.
There will be no early elections.
There would be no fare hike.
That had happened long before.
That has been our consistent stand.
That is for sure.
That is no longer the case now.
That money would bring big relief to family.
That part of sting operation was stage managed.
That way, there will not be any ill feelings.
That’s how far I was from reality.
That’s not me saying it.
This envelope is under-stamped.
This incident has made him stone-like.
This is a clear case of corruption.
This is no way to deal with a crisis.
This is no way to live.
This is not the first time he has achieved this feat.
This is off-season for us but sales continue to be normal.
This is one list; state will be ashamed to top.
This is something to do in advance.
This is the most complained about university.
This is the third such incident within a week.
This issue stands concluded.
This project cost a lot of money.
This seems to be worrying him.
This year will be expensive till the end.
Equal coverage is given to both sides of each debate in a dual column format which allows for easy comparison. Each entry also includes a list of related topics and suggestions for possible motions.
The introductory essay describes debating technique, covering the rules, structure and type of debate, and offering tips on how to become a successful speaker. The book is then divided into eight thematic sections, where specific subjects are covered individually.
English modal auxiliary verbs - may, might, can, could, will, would, shall, should, must, need, used(to), ought(to), dare | different patterns and examples | may and might are used to express- possibility, compulsion, obligation, probability (in present and future) | can, could are used to express- ability, probability, possibility, suggestion, request, condition | will, would are used to express- action in future, present habit, compulsion, obligation | shall, should are used to express- action in future, suggestion, surprise, importance or purpose | need is used to express necessity | used(to) is used to express- past habit | ought(to) is used to express- probability, recommendation, obligation, advise | dare is used to express– be brave enough to
Modal Auxiliary Verb -- May and Might
‘May’ and ‘Might’ are used to show Possibility and Probability
‘May’ and ‘Might’ are used to ask for Permission
‘May’ is used to give or refuse Permission
Some Important Uses of ‘May’ and ‘Might’
To say what the purpose of something is
We eat that we may live.
Her prayer was that the child might live.
That he might be well fed his mother starved herself.
To admit that something is true before introducing another point, argument, etc.
You may not return to past glory, but don't stop believing.
City may not have the roads to drive sports car, but it has excellent infrastructure.
It may not be wise, but using force may be lawful.
I may not have deserved the house I bought, but I'm glad I own it.
He may not have been loved, but he was respected.
We may have had to go without food, but he is very considerate.
‘May’ is used to express wishes and hopes
May you live prosperous life!
‘May’ is used to give or refuse Permission [In Informal and Polite Way]
You may contact us for queries regarding donations.
When you have finished your work you may go home.
Note: Never use ‘might’ to give permission. [Always use ‘may’]
Never use ‘might not’ to refuse permission. [Always use ‘may not’]
Difference between ‘May’ and ‘Might’
Note: ‘Might’ is the past equivalent of ‘may’ in indirect speech.
But it is used in the same way as ‘may’ to talk about the present or future.
‘May’ denotes more possibility/probability
‘Might’ denotes less possibility/probability
It may rain tomorrow (Perhaps a 75% chance) - More possible
It might rain tomorrow (Perhaps a 50% chance) - Less possible
‘Might’ also denotes ‘would perhaps’
You might attract President’s attention later. (= Perhaps you would attract.)
He might have to go (Perhaps he had to go.)
‘Might’ is frequently used In conditional sentences
If I pursued studies further, I might learn more.
If I had pursued studies further, I might have learned more.
‘Might’ has limitations while ‘asking permission’
‘Might’ is very polite and formal. It is not common. It is mostly used in indirect questions.
I wonder if I might work on your computer.
Note: ‘Maybe’ is an adverb. [‘Maybe’ means ‘perhaps’]
Maybe he came to know something secret and was removed from the post.
Difference Between ‘May’ and ‘Can’
‘May’ is more formal than ‘Can’
‘May’ is mostly used in ‘formal’ English.
‘Can’ is mostly used in ‘informal’ (or spoken) English
Common English Sentences -- A
About- It doesn’t matter who says what about me.
About- That’s what being American is all about.
About- They were going about their daily lives.
About- This is what life is about.
About- This training has been all about that.
About- We have nothing to feel defensive about.
About- What city was all about today?
Abuse- He was found guilty of abusing his office.
Accept- He accepted an opportunity with enthusiasm.
Accept- He accepted his invitation for birthday.
Accept- He accepted it without protest.
Account- Asia accounts for the maximum oral cancer cases.
Account- Lighting accounts for 20 percent of the total electricity demand.
Account- Our state accounts for 9 of 10 eggs exported.
Account- She gave the police a full account of the incident.
Account- The team gave a good account of themselves in the match.
Accuse- Protestors accused the state govt. of inaction.
Achieve- He achieved some measure of success.
Across- A wave of attacks across the country killed 95.
Across- Moonlight glittered across the coconut leaves.
Across- My house is just across the street.
Across- Police officers across ranks expressed shock.
Across- Red alert sounded across the state.
Across- She watched the incident from across the road.
Across- The blast has cut across class and gender.
Across – The government launched military drills across half the country.
Across- The issue is slowly becoming a matter of debate across villages in the country.
Across- We could also attack across the border.
Act- He acted in a street play.
Act- Heat acts on metals.
Act- I act from a sense of duty.
Act- My lawyer acts for me.
Act- You should act up to my advice.
Activity- It is quite unfortunate that such an inhuman activity is taking place here.
Add- He added his signature to the petition.
Address- President addressed a press conference.
Address- They received 25 objections and addressed all of them.
Administer- Administer anti-polio drops.
Admit- She was admitted with severe breathing problem.
Adopt- He adopted the look of Obama.
Advance- The mob advanced us shouting angrily.
Advice- I have a piece of advice for you.
After- Take medicine twice after the fever is down.
Agree- He agreed to act opposite me in the movie.
Agree- We agreed to another demand of him.
Ahead- Our team was ahead by two goals.
Ahead- Preparations for the festival begin ahead.
Aim- My remarks were not aimed at you.
Aim- The new bill aims at filling the gaps in the existing laws.
Alarm- It is nothing to be alarmed about.
Allocate- The government has allocated the funds.
Along- CM and Deputy CM were sworn in along with a 24-member cabinet by Governor.
Along- Enter the lane alongside the Newspaper office.
Along- He had come to the city along with his wife for sight-seeing a week ago.
Along- He was missing along with his servant.
Along- The sanctuary area runs along three states.
Among- From among those he prescribes medicines too are ministers.
Amount- Cartoon amounted to an “insult” to the icon.
Amount- It amounts to judicial indiscipline.
Amount- It amounts to violation of human and civil rights.
Anger- This angered driver and a clash ensued.
Answer- Nobody answered the repeated knocks.
Any- It was the funniest thing any of us have seen for ages.
Any- The situation is not any better in nearby villages.
Apart- Explosion tore apart a coach of a passenger train.
Appear- Blip appeared on Radar.
Appear- Efforts appeared to be getting nowhere.
Appear- He appeared calm.
Appear- He appeared unsteady on his feet.
Appear- News-item appeared in the national dailies.
Appear- She appeared most pretty thing of the world.
Appear- Ship appeared a huge black shadow to me.
Appear- The match appeared to have been fixed.
Appear- They wanted her to appear in advertisements.
Apply- She applied vermilion on her head.
Apply- I applied this on myself.
Approach- They approached a checkpoint.
Arise- A dispute arose between two groups over the sum of money won in gambling.
Arise- His behaviour aroused the suspicion of the security guards.
Arise- The only difficulties arose from language barriers.
Arise- The question does not arise.
Arise- They aroused other people’s suspicions.
Arm- Cops were armed with tear gas shells.
Ask- Goddess asked me for a boon.
Ask- He asked “uncomfortable” questions.
Ask- He asked her about her well-being.
Assess- A team of experts will assess the situation.
Assess- CM assessed the status of relief work.
Associate- He was in fear of her life and the life and safety of anyone associated with her.
Associate- People associate harmful or bad with the word bacteria.
Associate- Pink is associated with grace.
Assume- His remarks assume significance.
Assume- The meeting assumed great importance for student’s future.
Assume- The move assumed importance in the light of the incident.
Attach- We attach great importance to our health.
Attain- Their families had decided to wed them once they attained marriageable age.
Attempt- He attempted to answer all his questions.
Attempt- He was attempting to overtake another vehicle.
Attract- He attracted my attention.
Attribute- He attributed the bad state of parks to a lack of funds.
Authorize- I authorized him for payments.
Avenge- He wanted to avenge the humiliation he suffered.
Average- He is above average height for his age.
Avoid- He avoided a direct answer.
Avoid- She was upset because she thought he was avoiding her.
Avoid- They avoided looking at each other.
Awake- City awoke to a clear but a cold morning.
Awake- I awoke later on to the sound of my cell phone ringing.
Away- We were away so long.
1. What is an “Exclamation”?
2. Exclamatory Sentences
3. Exclamatory Sentences with ‘What’
4. Exclamatory Sentences with ‘How’
5. Exclamatory Sentences with So and Such
6. Exclamations in Declarative Sentences
7. Exclamations in Interrogative Sentences
8. Exclamations in Imperative Sentences
9. Detailed List of Interjections
10. Using ‘Common Words’ as Exclamations
11. Useful Exclamatory Phrases/Sentences
12. Other Patterns
13. List of Emotions Shown by Exclamations
1. What is an “Exclamation”?
DEFINITION: An exclamation (or interjection) is a short sound, word or phrase which is spoken suddenly to express strong emotion.
Exclamatory words that can stand alone as a sentence while expressing emotions or reactions are called exclamations (or interjections).
Exclamation mark (!) should be written after an exclamation. “Exclamation Mark” is called "Exclamation Point" in American English.
There are many exclamatory words (interjections or exclamations) which are often used in daily life. Some of these words express one strong emotion while others express two or more strong emotions. They do not have a grammatical purpose in the sentence and are not associated to the other parts of the sentence. They do not play the role of a subject or a verb. They can stand by themselves, or are placed before, after or in middle of a sentence to express a strong emotion or feeling.
Exclamatory Word -- Alas!
Represents feeling of ‘Sadness, Sorry’
Exclamatory Word -- Um!
Represents feeling of ‘Hesitation’
Exclamatory Word -- Yum!
Represents feeling of ‘Pleasant Taste or Smell’
You can use exclamations to show the following emotions:
admiration, affection, anger, annoyance, anticipation, apathy, approval, attention, awe, confusion, delight, despair, disappointment, disapproval, discontent, dislike, distress, eagerness, elation, enjoyment, excitement, fear, frustration, grief, happiness, humour, hurt, irritation, joy, love, mourning, pain, panic, pleasure, pride, remorse, respect, shame, shock, sorrow, sorry, surprise, sympathy, terror, wonder, etc.
(1). Use Of An Exclamation (Interjection) In A Sentence
(a). Beginning A Sentence With An Interjection
When you begin a sentence with an interjection you can place either comma (,) or exclamatory mark (point) (!) after the interjection.
Ah, what a wonderful gift!
Comma (,) after an interjection expresses less emotion.
Ah! What a wonderful gift!
Exclamatory mark (point) (!) after an interjection expresses more emotion.
Note: Both the sentences have exclamatory mark at the end.
Obviously, both are exclamatory sentences. But second one is more emphatic. Also note: if you put comma after an interjection then next word in the sentence will begin from small letter but if you put exclamatory mark after an interjection then next word in the sentence will begin from capital letter.
Important Note: You can also end the sentence with period (.) or question mark (?) to show mild emotion.
Ah, what a wonderful gift.
Ah! What a wonderful gift.
Wow, We won.
Oh, did you go there?
(B). Use Of An Interjection In The Middle Of A Sentence
Hundreds of people, alas, feared killed in a massive landslide.
Albert Einstein was born in...er…Germany.
You deleted my folder…um…my file!
(C). Use Of An Interjection At The End Of A Sentence
So got married, huh!
What do you think of me, eh?
A Big Myth
List of Prepositions
Ending a sentence with a preposition – About, Against, At, By, For, From, In, Into, Of, On, Out, To, Upon, With - Example Sentences
When to End a Sentence with a Preposition
Situation – 01 - Interrogative Sentences
Situation – 02 - Passive Voice Sentences
Situation – 03 - Infinitive Structures
Situation – 04 - Relative Clauses
Situation – 05 - Phrasal Verbs
How to Avoid Ending a Sentence with a Preposition
Option – 01 - Restructuring the Sentence
Option – 02 - Using a Different Word
Avoid Unnecessary Use of Prepositions
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)
A Big Myth
It is said we should avoid ending a sentence with a preposition. A preposition should be placed before a noun or a pronoun. The word preposition expresses “position before” so it is improper to place a preposition at the end! This is, however, not a rule. You can use a preposition to end a sentence with.
Here, you will learn when you can use a preposition at the end of a sentence and how you can avoid using a preposition at the end of a sentence.
As there is no hard and fast rule regarding use of a preposition at the end of a sentence, so whether you use it or not at the end of a sentence, it is your choice. But as most people avoid ‘excessive’ use of prepositions at the end of sentences, you can follow suit, and may use them only when they give strength to your language.
Some words (on, off, over, etc.) may be used as both prepositions and adverbs. However, everyone can’t easily differentiate between preposition and adverb. So, whenever they see these words at the end of sentences, they think that they are prepositions. As most of the people are averse to the idea of using prepositions at the end of sentences, they even don’t use these words as adverbs at the end of sentences.
Actually, it is a myth that you shouldn’t use preposition at the end of a sentence. Using a preposition at the end of a sentence is not grammatically incorrect. You can end your sentences with prepositions. Sometimes, using preposition at the end of a sentence seems better than using it in the middle or beginning of a sentence.
Ending a Sentence with a Preposition - ABOUT
An ad agency's job is to take a brand to consumers and communicate the proposition well to them, so that they understand what the brand is all about.
Could you tell me what he was on about?
For last 5 years, he has been part of the corruption in our country that we are angry about.
Governor said even clerical staff could easily address some of the complaints that students were approaching him about.
He warned her against commenting on things he is not authorized to speak about.
Her success is all everybody in the town is talking about.
How did the company come about?
How did this all come about?
I decided to leave my career, and concentrate my energies in an area which I was passionate about.
I do not know which video you are talking about.
Intimate details of his life have been flung about.
There are many healthcare centers worth talking about.
This is the player I told you about.
This is what the fight is about.
What are all these girls doing about?
What are you getting upset about?
What are you thinking about?
What did you want to read about?
What do they want to talk about?
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The word "imperative" is derived from the term "emperor".
Imperative sentences are used to give commands (orders).
Imperative sentences are also used to give instruction/advice/suggestion/warning/invitation/appeal.
Imperative sentences are also used to make a request. You should use ‘please’ (or other polite word) in the beginning or at the end of the sentence to make a request.
An imperative sentence begins with the base (first) form of a verb which is also called verb word. In imperative sentence, subject - ‘you’ - is understood. However, for first and third person imperative, imperative sentence begins with ‘let’.
You can end imperative sentence with period (.) or exclamation (!). Exclamation is used to show direct and firm command.
‘Imperative’ is one of the three moods of an English verb (indicative, imperative and subjunctive).
EXAMPLES OF IMPERATIVE SENTENCES:
(A). DIRECT ORDER
Attend the meeting.
Discharge your duty.
Enforce the law.
Quash the previous order.
Return to work.
Vacate this place.
Climb the stair.
Fill out this form.
Go on foot.
Hang a painting.
Light a candle.
Note this down.
Open up the cage.
Push a trolley.
Spell it out.
Tie your shoe laces.
Unpack the luggage.
(C). INFORMAL ADVICE
Book a hotel room.
Improve your appearance.
Mend your ways.
Follow your dreams
Keep up your English.
Don’t Jump that gate!
Watch out for traffic signal!
Come to the party with me.
Have a meal with us.
Let’s stay in my house.
Let’s curb the menace of drugs addiction.
Give me five hundred dollars, please.
Come soon, please.
Other Uses of Imperative Sentences:
1. Wish -- Have a safe journey.
2. Apology -- Pardon me.
3. Permission -- Join us if you want.
4. Public Notice --
Imperatives are used on signboards or notice board:
Keep off the grass.
Insert your ATM card.
Pull the door.
Important Note -- An imperative sentence can imply different senses (command/instruction/advice, etc.) based on the intonation. [Note: ‘Intonation’ is defined as the rise and fall of the voice in speaking, as this affects the meaning of what is being said.]
English Imperative Sentences -- A
Abide by the commission’s verdict.
Accept his decision.
Achieve your target.
Acknowledge achievements of women.
Acquire land for road infrastructure.
Act quickly. / Act swiftly.
Add details to this report.
Address a press conference.
Address his concerns regarding payments next week.
Address their demands.
Adhere to dos and don’ts of the pilgrimage.
Adhere to the standard operating procedure.
Adjust the rules to help consumers.
Adjust to a new location.
Admire your parents.
Adopt ‘do it right’ approach.
Adopt a good strategy in choosing right candidates.
Adopt long-term vision for industry.
Adopt modern technology.
Adopt wait and watch policy.
Adopt zero tolerance against underage driving.
Airlift the injured to the state capital for treatment.
Allow her to explain herself completely without interrupting her.
Allow him to return home.
Alter the course of your life.
Amend the act.
Analyze the reasons for your defeat.
Analyze the sample.
Announce a compensation for the victim’s family.
Announce your candidacy.
Answer the question.
Anticipate rate hikes.
Apologize if you hurt someone.
Apply band aid / Apply ointment.
Apply colours on his forehead.
Apply for a job.
Apply for marks verification.
Apply for passport.
Appoint a manager.
Appreciate compassionate behaviour.
Approach him for help.
Approach the court.
Approve the plan.
Arrange everything before it is late.
Arrange for cash to meet your expenses.
Arrange funds from your relatives.
Arrange funds on your own.
Arrive early on the scene.
Ask for a receipt.
Ask for more information.
Ask him his name.
Ask him what had happened.
Ask the right questions.
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Present Real Conditional Sentences
The Present Real Conditional Is Used To Talk About What You Normally Do In Real-Life Situations.
[First Part – If / When + Subject + Present Verb…, Second Part – Simple Present]
[First Part – Simple Present, Second Part – If / When + Subject + Present Verb…]
Whether Use “If” OR “When”?
"If" implies - things don’t happen regularly.
“When” implies - things happen regularly.
If you eat too much fast food, it makes you overweight.
Or [It makes you overweight if you eat too much fast food.]
If you put salt on salad, they taste nicer.
Or [They taste nicer if you put salt on salad.]
When I have a free time, I often sit in the library. [Regularly]
Or [I often sit in the library when I have a free time.]
[First Part – If / When + Subject + Present Verb…, Second Part – Simple Present]
If I move to school, I never take my mobile.
If you want to be a super achiever, first recognize your own capabilities.
If it melts, it raises the sea level.
If something bad happens anywhere, it is natural to be sad.
If you heat water, it boils.
If office closes early, we definitely go to library.
If you need help, call me.
If I don’t come on time, you are supposed to leave the office.
If you feel sleepy, just go to bed.
If that isn’t absolute verification, I don’t know what is.
If the contractors fail to achieve the target within the specified period, they are liable to pay damages.
If you don't get the first good, be content with the second good. [Note: Use of Imperative Sentence]
If you are working for something with convictions, you are satisfied.
If proper punishment is not awarded to the accused, the faith of the society is shaken in the legal system of the country. [Note: Use of passive voice – is + awarded, and is + shaken]
If uranium is bombarded with neutron, it absorbs some.
If a Swedish govt. is interested in such a deal at all, Sweden can negotiate for itself a better deal.
If a person is abused repeatedly then that person has the right to object and right to argue also.
If my statement has pained someone then I regret it.
If they have done something wrong that doesn’t mean I have also done something wrong.
If the refugee cannot afford to pay, she may be refused access to the hospital or have her refugee card confiscated.
[First Part – Simple Present, Second Part – If / When + Subject + Present Verb…]
I have come to bother you if you don’t mind.
We don’t even know if any person by that name exists.
Their wages are cut if they do not report for duty on time.
You learn a language better if you visit the country where it is spoken.
Agency works under pressure if one goes by what ex-Director says.
I apologize if at all the article hurt anyone.
Power companies can hike the tariffs if the cost of imported coal rises.
Hang me if I am guilty.
I meet him if I go there.
Butter dissolves if you leave it in sun.
Plants die if you don’t water them.
Milk goes off if you don’t keep it in a cool place.
Ask the officer if you have any problem.
I don’t mind if you sit in my cabin.
Customers get upset if they are being overcharged.
I have no problem if her name is disclosed.
They promised to slash power rates if they are elected.
Existing laws can be deterrent if time-based trial is conducted.
Do you mind if I turn on the radio for a while.
A death row convict cannot be executed if he is not physically and mentally fit.
A student may not be motivated to work hard if promotion is guaranteed.
Many of the deaths can be avoided if bikers wear the helmet.
I go by taxi when the bus is late.
Structure (1) -- Multiple Number [In the Beginning or Middle of Sentence]
Hundreds gathered in front of the parliament building early on Monday.
Hundreds injured in two days of clashes.
Thousands evacuated after explosions at munitions depot.
Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of Cubans and Haitians have lost their lives at sea seeking freedom and opportunity.
Millions marched against government in over 400 cities.
Industry produced several hundred million units a year.
Exact loss of the property is not yet known but rough estimates put the losses to ten million dollars.
More than three million Australians lack access to critical financial services.
Trillions dong spent to build ports which have been left idle.
Trillions will need to be spent on infrastructure very soon.
Agriculture and tourism are a trillion dollar economy.
Mobiles are a multi-trillion-dollar industry, even bigger than pharmaceuticals.
It would add more than a trillion dollars to the economy every year.
There are spiral galaxies out there with more than a trillion stars, and giant elliptical galaxies with 100 trillion stars.
Our inability to comprehend the sheer magnitude of 1 billion has been eclipsed by our inability to comprehend 1 trillion.
Global loss to fraud ran into trillions.
She said she would have donated most of her $4 trillion to charity.
The universe is estimated to be somewhere between 13 billion to 14 billion years old.
Structure (2) -- Multiple Number + of + Noun
2-A. HUNDREDS OF
Hundreds of stocks saw much more dramatic gains.
Hundreds of new jobs were being created every year.
Hundreds of homes destroyed in wildfires.
Hundreds of police officers had taken off their bullet-proof vests.
Hundreds of students participated in the competition.
Hundreds of wannabe leaders are roaming our streets.
Hundreds of candidates were standing for parliamentary elections.
Hundreds of angry residents surrounded the police post to protest against the incident and demanded the arrest of the culprits.
Hundreds of railway officials would be deployed to manage the smooth running of special trains.
Hundreds of residents remained without electricity and water Monday evening.
Hundreds of riot police continued to fire tear gas and jets of water during the agitation.
Hundreds of protestors from a wide variety of activist groups staged protests.
He has received hundreds of awards.
Stories behind these and the hundreds of other Asian bus accidents are same.
He was welcomed to University by hundreds of students and fans.
The flames torched hundreds of homes now.
The explosion killed 15 people and destroyed or damaged hundreds of homes.
Medical laboratory admitted to paying bribes to hundreds of doctors in the city.
Many have walked hundreds of miles fleeing fighting in the capital.
Just one severe typhoon could leave behind hundreds of people dead.
Wildfires fueled by hot, gusty winds were burning hundreds of acres and forcing evacuations.
He posted hundreds of messages on a public Internet forum.
The process will involve hundreds of community meetings.
There's little sense in having hundreds of followers who don't know what you do.
Every year, hundreds of people across the country get infected with contagious diseases.
He had hundreds of hats which were on display at the museum.
There are hundreds of young writers in India.
What about the hundreds of illegal refineries 'discovered' every day?
The Corps of Engineers operates hundreds of reservoirs across the nation.
We found maps of hundreds of houses.
Heavy rainfall, cloud bursts, landslides and floods have caused widespread loss of life and property displacing hundreds of people.
The fire has wiped out hundreds of homes.
The police raid left hundreds of protesters injured.
A squall line is a line of thunderstorms that extend for hundreds of miles.
Police detained hundreds of illegal migrants.
Many hundreds of fun activities exist on each Hawaiian Island.
Part - 01 – Daily Use English Sentences -- KITCHEN
Add cumin seeds. When crackling, add red chilies.
Add peas and mix well. Add remaining water. Stir once.
Gradually add half cup water to coriander and cumin powder, blending into a smooth paste.
Boil water with seven basil leaves till the water turns dark.
Boil one cup of water. Add cheese cubes into it until they melt properly.
Boil vegetable until it is partly cooked.
Bring the sauce to simmer.
Bring the cooker to full pressure.
Bring to full pressure on high heat.
Bring to boil on high heat.
In a pan bring milk to boil.
Fry till pale brown.
Fry to a golden brown.
The mutton has been browned.
Cut cheese into cubes and fried to a golden brown.
Fry till rice turn opaque.
It starts turning pink. It turns pinkish brown.
Heat oil and butter together till smoky.
Cook for about 2 minutes.
Cook for less time rather than more.
Cook vegetables in minimum oil.
Cook dish over medium-high heat on both sides.
What dishes are cooked today?
Cook till gravy is slightly thickened.
Cook till liquid dries up.
Cook without a lid on for 10 minutes before adding 100 gm each of diced carrots and onions.
His servants cooked the tastiest food possible.
Cooking process is barely a few minutes.
Overcooking ruins the taste.
Hours of open pot cooking are just reduced to mere minutes in pressure cooker.
Slow down or speed up cooking by either cutting the vegetables thickly or thinly.
Indian cooking makes liberal use of coconut.
Art of cooking lies in the selection and combination of spices rather than their quantity.
Mention of cooking makes one think of rich aromatic foods.
Cut potatoes into four pieces each lengthwise.
Cut square pieces of sweets.
Cut the mango into slices.
Cut as desired or as per recipe requirement.
Cut the loaf into thick slices.
Cut the tomatoes in half.
Cut in halves.
With a sharp knife, cut away peel.
Drain off cooking liquid and reserve.
Drain off excess oil leaving one cup in cooker.
Drain the water.
Drop the cherries into the bowl, seeds and stems into a large pan.
Drain the water. Dry potatoes by shaking pan over low heat.
Dry it before use.
The dry chicken tastes best with chapattis while curry type goes well with rice.
Fry it on both sides.
In many dishes, frying before pressure-cooking is essential.
Fry one cup vermicelli in a small quantity of butter till light brown.
Boil 6 cups of milk and cook the fried vermicelli in it.
Grind ginger into paste.
Grind together ginger and garlic into a paste.
Grind together cloves and cinnamon into a powder.
Prefer to use whole spices and grind them fresh each time in a blender.
For tempering, heat oil in cooker for about 2 minutes.
Heat 2 tablespoon oil in a pan for about 1 minute.
Heat 3 spoons of water in a non-stick pan.
Heat in skillet over low heat with two tablespoons oil.
Heat up a pressure cooker.
How much heat? High, low, medium
Set the microwave to a low/high/medium heat
Reduce heat and cook for 3 minutes.
Reduce heat from high to medium (or low).
Turn off heat.
Return the pan to heat and stir for a few minutes.
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PLEASE NOTE: This eBook edition of SHOW AND TELL is carefully laid out to match the print book; this means it reads much better as designed pages, but you won't be able to use some features such as highlighting and annotating text.
Learn Difficult English Words & Their Meanings
("sb" implies somebody, "sth" implies something)
abate to become, or make sth less strong
abed in bed
aberrant not socially acceptable
abet to help, or encourage sb to do sth wrong
in abeyance not being used for a period of time
ablutions act of washing yourself
aboard on a ship, plane, bus etc.
abode where sb lives
abolition ending of sth
abominate to feel hatred, or disgust
abomination extremely unpleasant, disgusting
above board legal and honest; in a legal and honest way
abridge to make book, etc. shorter
absent minded forgetful
abstainer who chooses not to vote, who never drinks alcohol
abstruse difficult to understand
abysmal extremely bad
abyss deep wide space, or hole that seems to have no bottom
accede to agree, to become king, or queen
accommodating willing to help, obliging
accomplish to achieve sth
in accord with sb/sth in agreement with
accord with sth to agree with sth
accoutrements pieces of equipment for a particular activity
accredited officially recognized
accrue to increase over a period of time
accursed suffering from a curse, or black magic
ace person who is very good at doing sth
Achilles heel weak point in sb's character attacked by other people
acquaintance with sb slight friendship
make sb's acquaintance to meet sb first time
acquiesce to accept sth, even if you do not agree
acrobat rope dancer
acronym a word formed using initial letters of other words
act up to behave badly
acumen ability to understand and decide things quickly
ad hominem against person's character
ad nauseam again and again in boring and annoying way
Adam's apple lump at the front of the throat
adamantine very strong and impossible to break
add up to seem reasonable
add-on a thing that is added to sth else
ad-infinitum for ever
adjourn to postpone
adjudicate to make official decision
adjure to order sb to do sth
Adonis extremely attractive young man
adoration great love, or worship
adore to love very much, to like very much
adrenalin hormone produced in the body due to excitement, fear, or anger
adulation excessive praise
the advent of sb/sth coming of invention, etc.
adventitious happening by accident; not planned
advise sb of sth to inform
advisory official warning
aeon thousands of years
aerodrome small airport
aesthete who love art and beautiful things
affaire love affair
affectation behaviour, action to impress other people
affections person's feelings of love
affective connected with emotions, attitudes
affliction pain and suffering, or sth that causes it
afforestation process of planting areas of land with trees
aficionado who likes a particular subject, etc. very much and knows a lot about it
afloat floating on water
afoot being planned
afore mentioned mentioned earlier
aftermath situation existing after a war, an accident, etc.
her mouth was agape wide open, because of surprise or shock
come of age to become mature
age of consent legal age to have sex
aggrandizement increase in the power, or importance of a person, or country
aggravate to worsen
agonize over sth to spend a long time thinking and worrying about sth
agreeable pleasant and easy to like
aggrieved feeling that you have been treated unfairly
ahead of earlier than
English Words And Meanings, Advance English Words And Their Meanings, Learn English Words For Improving Your English, English Words And Meanings From Letter A To Letter Z
("sb" implies somebody, "sth" implies something)
abase yourself to accept sb's power over you
knuckle under to sb/sth to accept sb/sth else's authority
submissive too willing to accept sb else's authority
subservient to sth submissive, less important than sth else
abashed ashamed and embarrassed
bashful shy and easily embarrassed
put sb on the spot to make sb feel embarrassed by asking difficult question
about turn / volte face complete change of opinion, etc.
turn about sudden and complete change in sth
abstemious not allowing yourself to have much food or alcohol or enjoyable activities
austere without any decorations; (of a person) strict and serious; abstemious
ad-lib to give a speech or a performance without preparation or practice
improvise to make or do sth using whatever is available, to ad-lib
abuse unfair or cruel treatment of sb/sth
oppress to treat sb cruelly, to weigh down
persecute to treat sb cruelly
acclaim to praise sb publicly, praise and approval
commendation / plaudits praise and approval
accolade praise or award of honour
laurels honour and praise given to sb because of sth they have achieved
acrid bitter smell or taste
acrimony bitter feelings or words
adolescent young person who is developing from a child into an adult
teens years of a person's life when they are between 13 and 19 years old
affront to insult or offend sb
take umbrage at sth to feel offended or upset by sth
aft in the stern of the ship or aircraft
abaft in the stern of a ship
stern the back end of a boat or ship
agglomeration group of things put together in no particular order
conglomeration mixture of different things found all together
a la carte food which is selected from the list of dishes and prices
table d' hot plate of food with fixed price
agnosia inability to recognize people and things
analgesia loss of the ability to feel pain while still conscious
apoplexy inability to feel, move because of injury in the brain
asphyxia difficulty in breathing which may cause death or unconsciousness
dyslexia difficulty in reading and spelling but no effect in intelligence
agoraphobia fear of being in the crowd
claustrophobia fear of being in a small confined place
alimony money, which is given to former husband or wife after the end of the marriage
palimony money which is given to former partner after the end of a relationship
altercation noisy argument or disagreement
argy-bargy noisy disagreement
alumna former woman student
alumnus former male student
amble / saunter / stroll to walk in a slow relaxed way
ramble to walk for pleasure
Structure (1a) ---- Comparison of Actions - I
Structure (1b) ---- Comparison of Actions - II
Structure (2a) ---- Comparison of Qualities - I
Structure (2b) ---- Comparison of Qualities - II
Structure (3a) ---- Specific Similarity – Quality Adjectives
Structure (3b) ---- Specific Similarity – Quality Nouns
Structure (4) ---- Comparison of Number/Quantity
Structure (5a) ---- As + Much/Many, etc. + Word/Words + As
Structure (5b) ---- Comparative Estimates – Multiple Numbers
Structure (6) ---- Parallel Increase or Decrease / Gradual Increase
Structure (7) ---- Illogical Comparatives
Structure (8) ---- General Similarity and Difference
Structure (9) ---- Using Word ‘Compare’ or ‘Comparison’
Structure (10) ---- Comparison Degrees
10a. Regular and Irregular Forms of Adjectives
10b. Interchange of Positive and Comparative Degrees
10c. Interchange of Positive and Superlative Degrees
10d. Interchange of Comparative and Superlative Degrees
10e. Interchange of Positive, Comparative and Superlative Degrees
EXERCISE – 1
EXERCISE – 2
Structure (1a) ---- Comparison of Actions - I
-ING form of Verb + Verb ‘Be’ + As + Adjective + As + -ING form of Verb
It + Verb ‘Be’ + As + Adjective + To + Ordinary Verb + As + Ordinary Verb
Writing is as easy as thinking.
Jogging is as easy as exercising.
Closing is as easy as opening.
Designing is as easy as publishing.
It is as easy to write as think.
It is as easy to jog as exercise.
It is as easy to close as open.
It is as easy to design as publish.
-ING form of Verb + Verb ‘To Be’ + Not + As + Adjective + As + -ING form of Verb
It + Verb ‘To Be’ + Not + As + Adjective + To + Ordinary Verb + As + Ordinary Verb
Studying is not as easy as playing.
Swimming is not as easy as running.
Singing is not as easy as talking.
Reading is not as easy as listening.
It is not as easy to study as play.
It is not as easy to swim as run.
It is not as easy to sing as talk.
It is not as easy to read as listen.
Structure (1b) ---- Comparison of Actions - II
(A). Prefer/Would Prefer + -ING form of Verb + To + -ING form of Verb, OR
(B). Prefer/Would Prefer + To + Ordinary Verb + Rather Than + Ordinary Verb, OR
(C). Had Better/Had Rather/Had Sooner/Would Rather/Would Sooner + Ordinary Verb + Than + Ordinary Verb
I prefer studying to playing.
I would prefer studying to playing.
I prefer to study rather than play.
I would prefer to study rather than play.
I had better study than play.
I had rather study than play.
I had sooner study than play.
I would rather study than play.
I would sooner study than play.
You prefer writing to talking.
You would prefer writing to talking.
You prefer to write rather than talk.
You would prefer to write rather than talk.
You had better write than talk.
You had rather write than talk.
You had sooner write than talk.
You would rather write than talk.
You would sooner write than talk.
1. ENGLISH VERB -- ‘GET’
2. Meanings of Main Verb ‘GET’
3. GET + THIRD FORM OF VERB
3A. Get + Third Form of Verb
3B. Have/Has + Got + Third Form of Verb
3C. Got + Third Form of Verb
3D. Had + Got + Third Form of Verb
3E. Will + Get + Third Form of Verb
3F. Will + Have + Got + Third Form of Verb
3G. Modal Verbs + Get + Third Form of Verb
3H. Getting + Third Form of Verb
3I. Verb + To + Get + Third Form of Verb
4. GET TO + FIRST FORM OF VERB
4A. Get To + First Form of Verb
4B. Got To + First Form of Verb
4C. Will + Get To + First Form of Verb
5. HAVE + GOT TO + FIRST FORM OF VERB
6. ‘GET’ + ADJECTIVE
7. ‘GET’ + USED TO
8. Use of ‘Get’ In Causative Sentences
9. English Idioms With ‘Get’
10. Phrasal Verbs With ‘Get’
11. Other Sentences With ‘Get’
12. Conjugation of Verb ‘Get’
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)
Exercises: 3(A) and 3(B)
1. ENGLISH VERB -- ‘GET’
Get is an irregular verb. Its three forms are as follows:
First Form (Base Form) -- GET
Second Form (Past Form) -- GOT
Third Form (Past Participle) -- GOT/GOTTEN
Present Perfect of ‘Get’ – Have/Has Got || Have/Has Gotten
Past Perfect of ‘Get’ -- Had Got || Had Gotten
Gotten (past participle form of ‘get’) is generally used in Spoken American English. Gotten is incorrect in British English.
-ING Form of ‘Get’ -- Getting
Infinitive of ‘Get’ -- To Get
“Have/has got” is the ‘Present Perfect’ Form of ‘get’. But it is mainly used in the present indefinite (simple) tense. “Have/has got” is generally used with ‘simple present meaning’ to show characteristics, ownership, illnesses, and relationships.
‘Have got’ and ‘has got’ have the same meaning as ‘have’ and ‘has’ respectively. They can be used as present indefinite (simple) tenses.
Affirmative Sentences --
They have got computers. = They have computers.
He has got a computer. = He has a computer.
Negative Sentences --
They have not got computers. = They do not have computers.
He has not got a computer. = He does not have a computer.
Note:- Negative form of ‘have/has got’ is made by adding ‘not’ between ‘have/has’ and ‘got’; whereas, negative form of ‘have/has’ is made by using ‘do/does not’.
Interrogative Sentences --
Have they got computers? = Do they have computers?
Has he got a computer? = Does he have a computer?
Note:- Interrogative pattern of ‘have/has got’ is made by putting auxiliary verb ‘have/has’ before the subject; whereas Interrogative pattern of ‘have/has’ is made by putting auxiliary verb ‘Do/Does’ before the subject.
However, in past events you should prefer using ‘had’ instead of ‘had got’ ’ to show characteristics, ownership, illnesses, and relationships.
More Common -- They had computers. They did not have computers. Did they have computers?
Less Common -- They had got computers. They had not got computers. Had they got computers?
Also Note: Use of ‘have got’ and ‘has got’ in present perfect tenses:
Pattern: Have/has got + past participle of verb
A project has got stuck. || Many projects have got stuck.
And, in past perfect tenses you should use ‘had got’.
A project had got stuck. || Many projects had got stuck.
GOTTA - Very informal and non-standard way of referring to ‘have got to’ or ‘have got a’ in writing. This form is grammatically incorrect. Avoid using writing this form.
English Verb ‘Get’ can be used in a number of patterns and has lots of different uses and meanings.--
A. “Get” is used as a main verb with many different meanings.
B. “Get” is used in several idioms.
C. “Get” is used in several phrasal verbs.
Meanings of Main Verb ‘GET’
MOST COMMON MEANINGS OF “GET” AS A MAIN VERB ARE AS FOLLOWS:
to receive / to obtain or acquire (to gain, attain, achieve something) / to bring / to receive prison term / to receive broadcasts / to buy something / to earn / to receive marks or grade in an exam / to become affected by (a disease or bodily condition) / to be infected with an illness, etc. / to start doing something / to arrive/come/reach / to move to a particular direction or place / to use transport (to catch) / to answer (receive) the phone call / to capture somebody / to understand / to have / to memorize / to find out by calculation / to deliver / to prepare a meal, etc.
1. TO RECEIVE
We get assurance every time, but nothing has materialized.
I got the medal and the money.
I got an appointment letter today.
Flood-affected families got compensation.
We got some high-resolution images.
‘Literary words’ are associated with literature.
‘Literary words’ are typical of a work of literature and imaginative writing.
‘Literary words’ are used with a particular meaning, in narrative, drama, poetry and other writing in a literary manner.
This book has been divided into three sections:
Section 01: Common Literary Words
Section 02: Figurative Use of the Words
Section 03: Glossary of Literary Terms
NOTE -- A:
Use of an ‘Elevated’ Word in Place of a ‘Simple’ Word
‘Elevated language’ is widely used in literature.
Elevated Word -- a word that is used to show a high intellectual level
Simple Word -- a word that is used to keep conversation simple in daily life
‘Behold’ [elevated word] | ‘See’ [simple word]
Meaning of ‘behold’ and ‘see’:
to become aware of something by using your eyes
‘Blithe’ [elevated word] | ‘Happy’ [simple word]
Meaning of ‘blithe’ and ‘happy’:
showing or feeling pleasure
NOTE -- B:
FIGURATIVE USE OF THE WORDS
Many words and phrases are used in a different (literary) way from their usual (literal) meanings to produce a special effect. [I have put these words together in Section-2 (figurative use of the words) of this book.]
ache: In general sense -- to feel a continuous pain
His leg ached because of injury.
ache: In literary sense -- to be very sad
His false accusations made our heart ache. [= made us sad]
Flash: In general sense -- to shine brightly for a few moments
Camera flashed once.
Flash: In literary sense -- to suddenly show a strong emotion
Their eyes flashed with horror.
NOTE -- C:
There are many words which are used to describe particular form of writing in a literary work, or used in analysis, discussion, classification, and criticism of a literary work. [I have defined these terms in Section-3 (glossary of literary terms) of this book.]
catharsis -- the process of releasing strong feelings through artistic activities
diction -- the choice and use of words to create a specific effect in a literary work
epithet -- a word or expression used to attribute special quality to somebody/something
genre -- a particular category, style or type to which a literary wok belongs
holograph -- handwritten piece of writing by its author
idyll -- a poem that describes a peaceful and happy scene
juvenilia -- a literary work produced by an artist, in his/her youth
melodrama -- a literary work that is full of exciting and exaggerated events or emotions
opera -- a dramatic work where a majority of the words are sung to music
panegyric -- a speech or written composition that praises somebody/something
prosody -- the patterns of rhythms and sounds in poetry
quatrain -- a verse of a poem that has four lines
refrain -- a line or number of lines of a song or poem that is repeated after each verse
scene -- one of the small sections within an act (a major division) of a play
semantic -- relating to the meaning of words and sentences
trilogy -- a set of three books, plays, movies, etc. on the same characters or subject
figure of speech -- an expression in which a word or phrase represents one thing in terms of something dissimilar (non-literal) to create a particular effect in somebody’s mind, or in which an emphasis is produced by patterns of sound. [Some common figures of speech are as follows -- alliteration, anaphora, antistrophe. apostrophe, assonance, consonance, hyperbole, irony, litotes, metaphor, metonymy, periphrasis, personification, simile, synecdoche]
1500 Useful phrasal verbs for daily use
What are “Phrasal Verbs”?
A PHRASAL VERB is made up of a Verb and an Adverb or a Preposition or both.
Adverbs or prepositions which are used in Phrasal Verbs are called ‘Particles’.
Verb + adverb = Phrasal verb
Verb + preposition = Phrasal verb
Verb + adverb + preposition = Phrasal verb
break down -- verb + adverb [break= verb; down= adverb]
ward off -- verb + preposition [ward= verb; off= preposition]
keep up with -- verb + adverb + preposition [keep= verb; up= adverb; with=preposition]
‘USUAL’ and ‘IDIOMATIC’ Meanings of Phrasal Verbs
A Phrasal verb may have usual or idiomatic meaning -
Phrasal Verb with Usual meaning:
Verb and Particle keep their ordinary meaning
Example: turn around -- to turn around
Phrasal Verb with Idiomatic meaning:
Verb and Particle doesn’t keep their ordinary meaning
Example: turn down -- to reject an offer
Following is the detailed list of useful Phrasal Verbs and their meanings:
English Phrasal Verbs -- A
abide by -- to obey/follow a decision, rule, etc.
abound with/in -- to be full of
account for -- to explain | to be a definite amount for | to destroy
accustom to -- to be familiar
act on -- to affect
act out -- to express a feeling or an emotion in your behavior
act up -- to behave inappropriately
act upon -- to take an action on the basis of particular information, etc.; to execute
add in -- to include
add to -- to increase
add up -- to calculate or count | to be sensible or reasonable
add up to -- to have a particular result | to have a certain total amount
adhere to -- to follow a particular rule
not agree with -- to dislike or disapprove
aim at -- to Intend to achieve particular goal
alight on -- to find something by chance
align with -- to support a person, rules, etc, openly or publicly because you agree with them
allow for -- to take something into consideration
allow of -- to make possible; to permit
allude to -- to refer to
amount to -- to be equal to something | to count something as a total
angle for -- to try to get something indirectly by hinting
answer back -- to make counter-argument | to give rude reply to your senior, an authority, etc.
answer for -- to be responsible
answer to somebody for something -- to explain your decision or action
appertain to -- to refer or relate
argue down -- to beat somebody in an argument or a debate | to persuade people not to accept a proposal or motion | to persuade a seller to reduce the price
argue somebody into doing something -- to give reasons to persuade somebody do or not do something
arrive at -- to decide something after deliberation
arrogate to yourself -- to claim/take without having right
ascribe to -- to think or say something is done by somebody
ask around -- to talk to many people with a view to get information | to invite
ask for -- to request or demand something | to provoke a negative reaction
ask in -- to invite somebody into your house
ask out -- to invite someone for a date
attend to -- to deal with somebody/something
auction off -- to sell something at an auction
avail yourself of -- to take advantage of an opportunity
average out -- to make even; to calculate the average | to balance or equalize
awake/awaken to -- to be aware of possible effects of something
Definition of ‘Old-fashioned words’:
“Words and expressions that were common in the past but are passing out of ordinary use.”
‘Old-fashioned words’ are also known as ‘archaic words’. Many people use the term ‘old use’ for the words and expressions that were common in the past but have passed out of ordinary use.
These words are mainly used in historical novels. They are also used to amuse people.
(of a man) too careful about his look or clothes
to leave fast
blot your copybook -- to do something bad to spoil your good reputation among people
Old-fashioned phrasal verb
buck up! -- used to tell somebody to make haste
Detailed list of “old-fashioned words”, parts of speech they belong to, and their meanings are as follows:
Old-fashioned Words -- A
to stay or live in a place
Use in a sentence: Everybody must abide by the law.
the part of grammar that deals with the change in the form of a word
having a bad magic spell on something
Use in a sentence: They lived in the forest as if accursed. || There is no escaping the sense of anxiety that we humans are accursed with.
Use in a sentence: They bid adieu to him with mixed emotions.
confused / (of an egg) not fresh
Use in a sentence: He is not a silly and addled dude.
without further/more ado [idiom]
at once; immediately
Use in a sentence: Once it was sure that the area had been secured, the children were without more ado accompanied to the assembly hall.
adventurer / adventuress [noun]
a person who is very fond of going to unusual places or gaining new experiences
Use in a sentence: She is a hard-core adventuress, a travel journalist, who has traveled around the world.
aerodrome (airdrome) [noun]
a small airport
Use in a sentence: The extension of the runway was aimed at better services for private operators at the aerodrome.
an strange or inexplicable thing
to scare; to frighten
Use in a sentence: Let nothing affright you.
malaria, dengue or other disease that causes fever and shivering
to make somebody ill/sick
air hostess [noun]
a female flight attendant
a word that is used to show you are sad or sorry
Use in a sentence: Alas and alack, only a few of those stories are all that funny.
a word that is used to show you are sad or sorry
Use in a sentence: His experiments, alas, were flawed and had been mythologized.
be all up (with somebody) [idiom]
to be the end for somebody
a person employed by a hospital to handle financial and social problems of patients
Use in a sentence: They wanted a more active almoner, who could find innovative ways to help the poor.
money, clothes, food, etc. given to beggars or poor people
Use in a sentence: They were injured in a stampede to receive alms being distributed by a charity.
in the altogether [idiom]
without wearing any clothes
Use in a sentence: The word 'guava' originates from the language of the Arawaks, an Amerindian people from the Caribbean.
Use in a sentence: They have tested and run a lot of ammo through their rifles.
a secret love affair
soon; early, immediately; in a moment
the sudden and complete loss of the ability to sense or move
related to apoplexy
Use in a sentence: The US apparel industry is highly fragmented with many players.
Use in a sentence: All politics is applesauce!
to understand, realize or be aware of something
Use in a sentence: Making language easy to apprehend is intrinsic to making it appealing.
the sun’s warmth on a cold winter’s day
correctly or properly
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What are “Causative Sentences”?
Causative Sentences -- HAVE
Structure 1(A) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure 1(B) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Structure 2(A) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure 2(B) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Structure 3(A) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure 3(B) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Causative Verb ‘Have’ and Tense Change
Causative Sentences -- GET
Structure (1) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure (2) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Causative Sentences -- MAKE
Causative Sentences -- LET
Causative Sentences -- HELP
Sentences with Verb ‘Cause’
Other ‘Causative Verbs’
Use of ‘Modal Verbs’ with Causative Verbs
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)
Exercises: 3(A) and 3(B)
What are “Causative Sentences”?
In a causative, a person or thing does not perform an action directly. The subject (person or thing) causes it to happen by forcing, persuading, assisting, etc. an agent (another person or thing) to perform it. The subject (person or thing) does not carry out an action oneself but rather has the action done by an agent (another person or thing).
Faulty design caused a bridge to collapse.
Modern lifestyles cause children and adults to spend most of their time indoors.
Rain caused water to collect on the road.
She caused needle to run.
Causative verbs – Have, Get, Make, Let, Help -- Comparison
Causative ‘Have’ has less force and authority than Causative ‘Get’.
Causative ‘Get’ has less force and authority than Causative ‘Make’
Causative Verb ‘Have’ -- used to express “arrangement/duty/responsibility” [Less Forceful]
Causative Verb ‘Get’ -- used to express “encouragement/persuasion". [Forceful]
Causative Verb ‘Make’ -- used to express "compulsion/insistence/requirement” [Most Forceful]
Causative Verb ‘Let’ -- used to express “permission". [No Force]
Causative Verb ‘Help’ -- used to express “assistance". [No Force]
Causative ‘Have’ is more formal than causative ‘Get’.
In the imperative form, causative ‘Get’ is more frequent than causative ‘Have’.
Types of Causative Verbs
Causative structures are of two types –
(1). ‘Active’ in Nature – (Done By Somebody/Something)
(2). ‘Passive’ in Nature – (Done To Somebody/Something)
Passive causatives are used to take attention away from the doer of the action, and give more attention to the action being done.
“Have somebody do something” is more common in American English.
“Get somebody to do something” is more common in British English.
All causative verbs are transitive.
CAUSATIVE VERB – HAVE
Structure 1(A) ---- Active Causative Structure
Subject + Have (Causative Verb) + Agent (Someone/Something) + Base Form of Verb + Object (Someone/Something)
Example: I have him take my photograph. (Present)
I arrange for my photograph to be taken by him.
[I cause him to take my photograph.]
Therefore, this is like active causative structure.
Example: I had him take my photograph. (Past)
I arranged for my photograph to be taken by him.
[I caused him to take my photograph.]
Therefore, this is like active causative structure.
Example: I will have him take my photograph. (Future)
I will arrange for my photograph to be taken by him.
[I will cause him to take my photograph.]
Therefore, this is like active causative structure.
CAUSATIVE - HAVE --
Have/Has + Someone/Something + Base Form of Verb
Note: This pattern may denote past, present, or future tense based on another verb in the sentence.
Her desire to have me write a memoir only raised my stress level.
We are so blessed to have her sing on one of our songs.
It is one thing to have somebody else ask him about what he has done and it is quite another to have me ask him.
He refused to have investigation officers search his home.
Active and Passive Voice
Interchange of Active and Passive Voice
1. First or Second Form of Verb
2. Auxiliary Verb ‘Be’ + -ING Form of Verb
3. Have/Has/Had + Past Participle
4. Present/Future Modals + Verb Word
5. Past Modals + Past Participle
6. Verb + Preposition
7. Main Verb + Object + Complement
8. Main Verb + Object + Object
9. Have/Has/Had + Infinitive (To + Verb)
10. Auxiliary Verb ‘Be’ + Infinitive (To + Verb)
11. Verb + Object + Infinitive (Without ‘To’)
12. There + Verb ‘Be’ + Noun + Infinitive
13. Interrogative Sentences
14. Imperative Sentences
15. Principal Clause + That + Noun Clause (Object)
16. Verb followed by --ING form or an Infinitive
17. Use of Prepositions
18. The Passive With Get
19. Middle Voice
Exercise -- 01
Exercise -- 02
Exercise -- 03
VOICE - Definition
Voice refers to the form of a verb that shows whether the subject of a sentence performs the action or is affected by it.
ACTIVE VOICE - Definition
The form of a verb in which subject is the person or thing that performs the action.
They finished the work.
[subject -- “they”, verb -- “finished”, object -- “work”]
In this sentence, the subject (they) acts on the object (work).
The teacher praises him.
She posted the letter.
I buy new books.
We will celebrate his birthday.
PASSIVE VOICE - Definition
The form of a verb in which subject is affected by the action of the verb.
Important Note -- The object of the active voice becomes the subject in the passive voice.
The work was finished by them.
[subject -- “work”, passive verb -- “was finished”, object -- “them”]
In this example, the subject (work) is not the doer; it is being acted upon by the doer ‘them’)
He is praised by the teacher.
The letter was posted by her
New books are bought by me.
His birthday will be celebrated by us.
WHEN TO USE PASSIVE VOICE
(1). You should use passive voice when you do not know the active subject.
(2). When you want to make the active object more important.
(3). When active subject is obvious.
(4). When you want to emphasize the action of the sentence rather than the doer of the action.
(5). Passive voice is frequently used to describe scientific or mechanical processes
(6). Passive voice is often used in news reports:
(7). When active voice does not sound good.
(8). When you want to make more polite or formal statements.
(9). You can use passive voice to avoid responsibility.
(10). You can also use passive voice for sentence variety in your writing.
(11). You can also use passive voice when you want to avoid extra-long subjects.
Changing Active Voice Into Passive Voice
Move the object of the active voice into the position of subject (front of the sentence) in the passive voice. And move the subject of the active voice into the position of object in the passive voice.
Passive voice needs a helping verb to express the action. Put the helping verb in the same tense as the original active sentence. The main verb of the active voice is always changed into past participle (third form of verb) in different ways.
Place the active sentence's subject into a phrase beginning with the preposition ‘by’.
If the object in an active voice sentence is a pronoun (me, us, you, him, her, they, it), it changes in passive voice sentence as follows:
me -- I; us -- we; you -- you; him -- he; her -- she; them -- they; it – it
Subject- Verb Agreement
Make the first verb agree with the new subject in passive voice.
When there are two objects (direct object and indirect object), only one object is interchanged. The second object remains unchanged.
Following Tenses Cannot Be Changed Into Passive Voice:
1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
2. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
3. Future Continuous Tense
4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense
VERB – ‘HAVE’
PART (A). Ordinary Verb -- ‘HAVE’
PART (B). Auxiliary Verb -- ‘HAVE’
1. Have/Has/Had + Third Form of Verb
2. Have/Has/Had + Been + Third Form of Verb
3. Have/Has/Had + Been + -ING Form of Verb
4. Have/Has/Had + Been
5. Have/Has/Had + Had
PART (C). Modal Verb -- ‘HAVE’
1A. [Have/Has + To + First Form of Verb]
1B. [Have/Has + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
2A. [Had + To + First Form of Verb]
2B. [Had + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
3A. [Have/Has + Had + To + First Form of Verb]
3B. [Have/Has + Had + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
4A. [Had + Had + To + First Form of Verb]
4B. [Had + Had + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
5A. [Having + To + First Form of Verb]
5B. [To + Have + To + First Form of Verb]
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)
Exercises: 3(A) to 3(C)
VERB – ‘HAVE’
Verb ‘HAVE’ is used as an AUXILIARY VERB as well as a MAIN (ORDINARY) VERB. It also does function of ‘MODAL VERB’.
MAIN VERB: When used as main verb, verb ‘have’ is followed by an object.
AUXILIARY VERB: When used as an auxiliary verb, it forms the perfect and perfect continuous tenses. [Note: ‘Auxiliary verb’ is a verb which is used with main verb to show tenses, etc.]
MODAL VERB: ‘Modal verb’ is a verb that is used with main verb to express intention, permission, possibility, probability, obligation, etc. Following patterns are possible: “have to, has to, had to, have had to, has had to, had had to, having to”
FORMS OF VERB ‘HAVE’:
Present form – Have or Has
Past form – Had
Past Participle form – Had
IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT VERB ‘HAVE’
‘Have’ Is Used With Subject ‘I, We, You and They’ + All Plural Subjects
‘Has’ Is Used With Subject ‘He and She’ + All Singular Subjects
‘Had’ Is Used With All Subjects (Singular or Plural)
USE OF ‘HAVE GOT’
In some senses, you can also use ‘have got’.
‘have got’ is especially used in ‘British English’.
She has got a loose temper. (= She has a loose temper.)
I have got a backache. (= I have a backache.)
He has got a management degree (= He has a management degree.)
PART (A). Ordinary Verb -- ‘HAVE’
As a Main Verb, ‘Have’ is used to express different kinds of thoughts: Some of them are as follows: to possess, to own, to show a quality, to show a feature, to suffer from illness, to perform a particular action, to produce a particular effect, to trick, to cheat, to hold, to experience, to receive, to allow, to put in a position, etc.
When used as main verb, ‘have’ is followed by an object.
I have an American passport.
He has an American passport.
She had an American passport.
Negative Forms Of Main Verb ‘Have’:
Have – Do not have (Don’t have)
Has – Does not have (Doesn’t have)
Had – Did not have (Didn’t have)
I don’t have an American passport.
He doesn’t have an American passport.
She didn’t have an American passport.
NOTE– Instead of using do/does/did, you can also use modal verbs (may, can, must, should, etc.) in negative sentences to show possibility, intention, obligation, etc.
I may not have an American passport.
He may not have an American passport.
She may not have an American passport.
You can also use ‘Never have/Never has/Never had’ to emphasize negative statements.
I never have my breakfast at 7 am.
This park never has any trace of greenery.
We never had the guts to question him.
Interrogative Patterns Of Main Verb ‘Have’:
Have – Do + Subject + Have
Has – Does + Subject + Have
Had – Did + Subject + Have
Do I have an American passport?
Does he have an American passport?
Did she have an American passport?
NOTE– Instead of using do/does/did, you can also use modal verbs (may, can, must, should, etc.) in interrogative sentences to show possibility, intention, obligation, etc.
Can I have an American passport?
Can he have an American passport?
Can she have an American passport?
Interrogative-Negative Patterns Of Main Verb ‘Have’:
Have – Don’t + Subject + Have
Has – Doesn’t + Subject + Have
Had – Didn’t + Subject + Have
Don’t I have an American passport?
Doesn’t he have an American passport?
Didn’t she have an American passport?
Transitional Expressions -- Definition
Transitional Expressions – Punctuation Rules
01. Transitional Expressions -- Addition
02. Transitional Expressions -- Cause and Effect
03. Transitional Expressions -- Concession
04. Transitional Expressions -- Condition
05. Transitional Expressions -- Consequence
06. Transitional Expressions -- Contrast
07. Transitional Expressions -- Dismissal
08. Transitional Expressions -- Illustration
09. Transitional Expressions -- Emphasis
10. Transitional Expressions -- Exception
11. Transitional Expressions -- Explanation
12. Transitional Expressions -- Generalization
13. Transitional Expressions -- Location
14. Transitional Expressions -- Purpose
15. Transitional Expressions -- Quantifier
16. Transitional Expressions -- Reference
17. Transitional Expressions -- Sequence
18. Transitional Expressions – Similarity
19. Transitional Expressions -- Summary
20. Transitional Expressions -- Time
Exercise: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercise: 2(A) to 2(C)
Transitional Expressions -- Definition
Meaning of ‘Transition’ -- to go from one point to another
“Transitional Expressions” = “Transitional Words” + “Transitional Phrases”
“Transitional (or Transition) Words” are also known as “connecting words”, “linking words” or “signal words“
“Transitional (or Transition) Phrases” are also known as “connecting phrases”, “linking phrases” or “signal phrases“
“Transitional Expressions” (also “Transitions”) could be defined as follows:
• ‘Transitional expressions’ are words or phrases that provide bridges between sentences, parts of sentences, paragraphs and sections.
• ‘Transitional expressions’ connect and relate sentences and paragraphs.
• ‘Transitions expressions’ signal the relationship between sentences and paragraphs.
• ‘Transitions expressions’ state the connections between ideas.
• ‘Transitions expressions’ help carry over a thought from one part of a sentence to another, from one sentence to another, from one paragraph to another, from one section to another, or from one idea to another.
• ‘Transitional expressions’ connect ideas from sentence to sentence and paragraph to paragraph.
• ‘Transitional expressions’ are placed in the beginning, middle, or end of the sentences/paragraphs to explain connections between two or more ideas.
• ‘Transitional expressions’ help carry over a thought from one idea to another.
• ‘Transitional expressions’ produce clearer expression, by eliminating the excessive use of such words as ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘for’ ‘nor’, ‘or’ ‘so’ ‘yet’, etc.
Choosing Transitional Expression --
Some transitional words and transitional phrases belong to more than one category. A transitional expression can change the whole meaning of a sentence. Therefore, you should choose the transition that best conveys your meaning. You should also avoid repetition and use different transition words or phrases in the same category if necessary.
Placing transitional words:
There are three options for placing transitional words:
• The beginning of a sentence [Most common]
• The middle of a sentence
• The end of a sentence [Least Common]
Their products come with an insurance pack that covers accidental damage, theft, and breakage for a year. Furthermore, customers can also avail for an additional year of warranty. [Use of transitional word ‘furthermore’ at the beginning of a sentence]
Their products come with an insurance pack that covers accidental damage, theft, and breakage for a year. Customers, furthermore, can also avail for an additional year of warranty. [Use of transitional word ‘furthermore’ in the middle of a sentence]
Their products come with an insurance pack that covers accidental damage, theft, and breakage for a year. Customers can also avail for an additional year of warranty, furthermore. [Use of transitional word ‘furthermore’ in the end of a sentence]