This volume presents the findings of a joint team of Swedish and Russian scholars examining the social organization of work in early modern iron industry and their respective societies. The comparison was carried out against the backdrop of the international discussion on proto-industrialization, its prerequisites and consequences. There has, however, been a certain bias in much of that debate, the focus being mainly on Western Europe, particularly on Britain, and on textile trades. This book offers an important contribution to the debate in that it widens the perspective by discussing Northern and Eastern Europe and by studying the iron industry. More particularly it examines actual production processes, the organization of work, social conflict, questions of ownership and its evolution, as well as the diffusion and organization of technical knowledge. The comparative approach is consistently applied throughout, with each chapter closely integrating the results relating to the two selected geographical areas, thus showing ways of solving some of the problems arising from comparative history.
From Harald Bluetooth to Cnut the Great, the feared seamen and plunderers of the Viking Age ruled Norway, Sweden, and Denmark but roamed as far as Byzantium, Greenland, and America. Raiders and traders, settlers and craftsmen, the medieval Scandinavians who have become familiar to history as Vikings never lose their capacity to fascinate, from their ingeniously designed longboats to their stormy pantheon of Viking gods and goddesses, ruled by Odin in Valhalla. Robert Ferguson is a sure guide across what he calls "the treacherous marches which divide legend from fact in Viking Age history." His long familiarity with the literary culture of Scandinavia with its skaldic poetry is combined with the latest archaeological discoveries to reveal a sweeping picture of the Norsemen, one of history's most amazing civilizations.
Impeccably researched and filled with compelling accounts and analyses of legendary Viking warriors and Norse mythology, The Vikings is an indispensable guide to medieval Scandinavia and is a wonderful companion to the History Channel series.
In all this, the Vikings took untold treasures, but they weren't just barbarians, content to plunder and burn. They were builders of cities, founders of states, writers of poetry, and makers of laws. The Vikings also were bold and tenacious explorers who ventured across oceans to discover new territories - including the New World. Indeed, not since the golden age of the Roman Empire had any people so powerfully influenced the Western world. Here, from award-winning journalist Robert Wernick, is their dramatic story.
The Allied powers had met twice before, engaging in the cordial horse-trading of properties and promises, to perpetuate a united military front against Germany. Potsdam, however, was different. With Germany defeated, the Allies knew victory in the Far East was imminent. The objective was no longer how to unite for victory, but how instead to divide the spoils and create a new balance of power. In The Deal, Charles L. Mee Jr. demonstrates how, with national self-interest the primary motivation, peace was destined to be sacrificed to deliberate discord. If Allied harmony would stand in the way of expanding "spheres of influence," then it would become necessary to maintain the political expedient of aggression. What did each power want and were these objectives of sufficient importance to warrant forfeiting peace? Would the outcome have been different had Churchill's rhetoric been less powerfully disruptive, had Stalin been surer of domestic calm, had Truman been more open? Would the history of the last seventy years have been the same?
Through logbooks, eyewitness accounts, and conference transcripts, Mee vividly reconstructs this moment in history, when three men came together to forge a peace and a new face for Western Europe and left with a tri-partite declaration of the Cold War.
Between the ninth and fourteenth centuries, Arab travellers such as Ibn Fadlan journeyed widely and frequently into the far north, crossing territories that now include Russia, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. Their fascinating accounts describe how the numerous tribes and peoples they encountered traded furs, paid tribute and waged wars. This accessible new translation offers an illuminating insight into the world of the Arab geographers, and the medieval lands of the far north.
On July 22, 2011, Anders Behring Breivik detonated a bomb outside government buildings in central Oslo, killing eight people. He then proceeded to a youth camp on the island of Utøya, where he killed sixty-nine more, most of them teenage members of Norway's governing Labour Party. In One of Us, the journalist Åsne Seierstad tells the story of this terrible day and what led up to it. What made Breivik, a gifted child from an affluent neighborhood in Oslo, become a terrorist?
As in her bestseller The Bookseller of Kabul, Seierstad excels at the vivid portraiture of lives under stress. She delves deep into Breivik's troubled childhood, showing how a hip-hop and graffiti aficionado became a right-wing activist and Internet game addict, and then an entrepreneur, Freemason, and self-styled master warrior who sought to "save Norway" from the threat of Islam and multiculturalism. She writes with equal intimacy about Breivik's victims, tracing their political awakenings, aspirations to improve their country, and ill-fated journeys to the island. By the time Seierstad reaches Utøya, we know both the killer and those he will kill. We have also gotten to know an entire country—famously peaceful and prosperous, and utterly incapable of protecting its youth.
The Vikings are infamous for taking no prisoners, relishing cruel retribution, and priding themselves on their bloodthirsty skills as warriors. But their prowess in battle is only a small part of their story, which stretches from their Scandinavian origins to America in the West and as far as Baghdad in the East.
As the Vikings did not record their own history, we have to discover it for ourselves, and their tale, as Neil Oliver reveals, is an extraordinary story of a stalwart people who came from the brink of destruction to develop awesome seafaring power that reached a quarter of the way around the globe, building an empire that lasted nearly two hundred years.
Drawing on discoveries that have only recently come to light, Oliver follows the Vikings’ trail to uncover what drove them to embark on such extraordinary voyages more than 1,000 years ago.
An epic tale of one of the world’s great empires, The Vikings will fascinate all history buffs interested in finding out more about these real-life adventurers.
Readers will find themselves drawn into the timeless world of the gods and goddesses who dwell in Asgard, a magical realm reached by a rainbow bridge. Here unfold the exciting stories of how Frey won Gerda, the Giant Maiden, and how he lost his magic sword; how Thor and Loki fooled Thrym the Giant; the Dwarf’s hoard and the curse that it brought; Baldur’s doom; Sigurd’s youth; Brynhild in the House of Flame; the death of Sigurd; the twilight of the gods; and many more.
Enhanced with over 40 atmospheric illustrations by Willy Pogany, this charming volume will delight myth lovers with its rich selection of enduring legends.
Noirmoutier, France, 9th century AD
Beginning in 789AD, the Vikings raided monasteries, sacked cities and invaded
western Europe. They looted and enslaved their enemies. But that is only part
of their story. In long boats they discovered Iceland and America (both by
accident) and also sailed up the Seine to Paris (which they sacked). They
settled from Newfoundland to Russia, founded Dublin and fought battles as far
afield as the Caspian Sea.
A thousand years after their demise, traces of the Vikings remain all the way
from North America to Istanbul. They traded walruses with Inuits, brought
Russian furs to Western Europe and took European slaves to Constantinople.
Their graves contain Arab silver, Byzantine silks and Frankish weapons.
In this accessible book, the whole narrative of the Viking story is examined
from the eighth to the eleventh centuries. Arranged thematically, Vikings: A
History of the Norse People examines the Norsemen from exploration to religion
to trade to settlement to weaponry to kingdoms to their demise and legacy. But
today questions remain: what prompted the first Viking raids? What stopped
their expansion? And how much of the tales of murder, rape and pillage is myth?
Illustrated with more than 200 photographs, maps and artworks, Vikings: A
History of the Norse People is an expertly written account of a people who have
long captured the popular imagination.
New York Times bestselling historian Ian Grey threads his way through these turbulent centuries, his focus on the private lives of the tsars themselves, the rulers whose personal histories are entwined with the history of the empire. He brings to life the passions, rages, intrigues, and greatness of the remarkable men and women who guided the destiny of Russia and changed the world.
For the reader's convenience, the work is organized into chapters covering all aspects life: domestic, economic, intellectual, material, political, recreational, and religious. It includes a historical timeline of Viking history, complementary pictures, illustrations, and maps, and a bibliography.
Francione argues that the current legal standard of animal welfare does not and cannot establish fights for animals. As long as they are viewed as property, animals will be subject to suffering for the social and economic benefit of human beings.
Exploring every facet of this heated issue, Francione discusses the history of the treatment of animals, anticruelty statutes, vivisection, the Federal Animal Welfare Act, and specific cases such as the controversial injury of anaesthetized baboons at the University of Pennsylvania. He thoroughly documents the paradoxical gap between our professed concern with humane treatment of animals and the overriding practice of abuse permitted by U.S. law.
Norse Myths takes a wide-ranging approach, examining the creation stories of the Norse world, the monsters and the pantheons of the deities, including such figures as Heimdall, Freya and Baldr. It looks at the sagas and the Prose and Poetic Eddas, which tell of real and imagined people, featuring both heroic tales and humorous escapades. The book also examines how Norse myths were interpreted in a Christianized Europe and how their motifs influenced medieval German writers and, in turn, were used in the modern world in very different ways, by the likes of composer Richard Wagner and in the writings of J.R.R. Tolkien.
Illustrated with 180 colour and black-&-white artworks and illustrations, Norse Myths is an engaging and highly informative exploration of a rich mythology that still resounds today.
Denmark is the country of the moment. Recently named the happiest nation in the world, it’s the home of The Killing and Noma, the world’s best (and most eccentric) restaurant. We wear their sweaters, watch their thrillers, and covet their cool modern design, but how much do we really know about the Danes themselves? Part reportage, part travelogue, How to Be Danish fills in the gaps—an introduction to contemporary Danish culture that spans politics, television, food, architecture, and design.
Women in Old Norse Society places particular emphasis on changing sexual mores and the impact of the imposition of Christianity by the clergy and the Norwegian kings. It also demonstrates the vital role women played in economic production: homespun was used for every conceivable domestic purpose; the lengths of cloth became the standard of measurement for local commercial exchange and were used to obtain commodities abroad.
Jochens's masterly command of the Old Norse narratives and legal texts enables her to provide a rich social history that includes the fullest analysis to date of pagan and Christian marriage and the first comprehensive study of infanticide in the North.
The Norsemen eventually penetrated all of England and Scotland, founded cities in Ireland, gained a powerful province in France, controlled Frisia and the modern Netherlands, and raided lands around Spain, passing into the Mediterranean to attack Italy and North Africa. They established the first Russian kingdom, challenged Constantinople, and provided a personal guard for the Byzantine emperor. They settled Iceland, where they developed Europe’s first republic, founded two colonies on Greenland, and explored parts of North America five centuries before Christopher Columbus landed in the Americas. Then, like the abrupt end of a summer thunderstorm, their adventures ceased.
Here is their dramatic story.
In Tierra y Libertad, Steven W. Bender traces the history of Latinos’ struggle for adequate housing opportunities, from the nineteenth century to today’s anti-immigrant policies and national mortgage crisis. Spanning southwest to northeast, rural to urban, Bender analyzes the legal hurdles that prevent better housing opportunities and offers ways to approach sweeping legal reform. Tierra y Libertad combines historical, cultural, legal, and personal perspectives to document the Latino community’s ongoing struggle to make America home.
In relating this dramatic story, Kathleen Stokker draws upon her many interviews with survivors of the Occupation and upon the archives of the Norwegian Resistance Museum and the University of Oslo. Central to the book are four “joke notebooks” kept by women ranging in age from eleven to thirty, who found sufficient meaning in this humor to risk recording and preserving it. Stokker also cites details from wartime diaries of three other women from East, West, and North Norway. Placing the joking in historical, cultural, and psychological context, Stokker demonstrates how this seemingly frivolous humor in fact contributed to the development of a resistance mentality among an initially confused, paralyzed, and dispirited population, stunned by the German invasion of their neutral country.
For this paperback edition, Stokker has added a new preface offering a comparative view of resistance through humor in neighboring Denmark.
The author uses archaeological, literary and historical evidence to analyze the Vikings' overseas expeditions and their transformation from raiders to settlers. Focusing on the period from 800–1050, it studies the Vikings across the world, from Denmark and Sweden right across to the British Isles, the North Atlantic and the New World.
This edition includes:a new epilogue explaining the aims of the book updated further reading sections maps and photographs.
By taking this new archaeological and primary research into account, the author provides a vital text for history students and researchers of this fascinating people.
‘The best value and best format books on the market.’ - Ed Bates, Southampton University, UK
Routledge Student Statutes present all the legislation students need in one easy-to-use volume. Developed in response to feedback from lecturers and students, this book offers a fully up-to-date, comprehensive, and clearly presented collection of legislation - ideal for LLB and GDL course and exam use.
Routledge Student Statutes are:
• Exam Friendly: un-annotated and conforming to exam regulations
• Tailored to fit your course: 80% of lecturers we surveyed agree that Routledge Student Statutes match their course and cover the relevant legislation
• Trustworthy: Routledge Student Statutes are compiled by subject experts, updated annually and have been developed to meet student needs through extensive market research
• Easy to use: a clear text design, comprehensive table of contents, multiple indexes and highlighted amendments to the law make these books the most student-friendly Statutes on the market Competitively Priced: Routledge Student Statutes offer content and usability rated as good or better than our major competitor, but at a more competitive price
• Supported by a Companion Website: presenting scenario questions for interpreting Statutes, annotated web links, and multiple-choice questions, these resources are designed to help students to be confident and prepared.
Journalist Michael Booth has lived among the Scandinavians for more than ten years, and he has grown increasingly frustrated with the rose-tinted view of this part of the world offered up by the Western media. In this timely book he leaves his adopted home of Denmark and embarks on a journey through all five of the Nordic countries to discover who these curious tribes are, the secrets of their success, and, most intriguing of all, what they think of one another.
Why are the Danes so happy, despite having the highest taxes? Do the Finns really have the best education system? Are the Icelanders as feral as they sometimes appear? How are the Norwegians spending their fantastic oil wealth? And why do all of them hate the Swedes? In The Almost Nearly Perfect People Michael Booth explains who the Scandinavians are, how they differ and why, and what their quirks and foibles are, and he explores why these societies have become so successful and models for the world. Along the way a more nuanced, often darker picture emerges of a region plagued by taboos, characterized by suffocating parochialism, and populated by extremists of various shades. They may very well be almost nearly perfect, but it isn't easy being Scandinavian.
The A to Z of Norway supplies a wealth of information that illuminates Norway's remarkable history, society, and culture. This is done through a chronology, a bibliography, an introductory essay, appendixes, and over 250 cross-referenced dictionary entries covering events and individuals of historical, political, social, and cultural significance. Both past and present political parties are discussed, major economic sectors are described, and basic economic facts are provided. Several entries describe the history and attractions of major Norwegian cities, and Norway's role in the international community is detailed as well providing a full portrait of this vibrant country.
While Muhammad had no natural sons who reached the age of maturity, he is said to have adopted a man named Zayd, and mutual rights of inheritance were created between the two. Zayd b. Muhammad, also known as the Beloved of the Messenger of God, was the first adult male to become a Muslim and the only Muslim apart from Muhammad to be named in the Qur'an. But if prophecy is hereditary and Muhammad has a son, David Powers argues, then he might not be the Last Prophet. Conversely, if he is the Last Prophet, he cannot have a son.
In Muhammad Is Not the Father of Any of Your Men, Powers contends that a series of radical moves were made in the first two centuries of Islamic history to ensure Muhammad's position as the Last Prophet. He focuses on narrative accounts of Muhammad's repudiation of Zayd, of his marriage to Zayd's former wife, and of Zayd's martyrdom in battle against the Byzantines. Powers argues that theological imperatives drove changes in the historical record and led to the abolition or reform of key legal institutions. In what is likely to be the most controversial aspect of his book, he offers compelling physical evidence that the text of the Qur'an itself was altered.
Nearly 6.4 million homes were purchased in the U.S. last year -- and many of them are owned by young first-time buyers like you, who now find themselves wondering, "What's next?" And with the subprime crisis quickly becoming a general slide in the housing market, you're looking for guidance on how to stay on track financially.
With Nolo's Essential Guide to Buying Your First Home, you'll get the crucial information that will make the difference between worrying about your home and enjoying every minute you spend there. Packed with tips and timely reminders, our latest USA TODAY book gives you the lowdown on:prioritizing purchases maintenance and repairs safety and security insurance neighbors and disputes taxes remodeling and working with contractors decorating and renovating on a budget mortgages and refinancing, and preparing your home for an eventual sale.
This slim volume could potentially save you and your family thousands of dollars -- and perhaps even your home. Turn to this all-in-one resource for the tools and tips you need to keep home ownership simple and fun!
In addition to such well-known favorites as "Dapplegrim," "Katie Woodencloak," "Tatterhood," and "Legend of Tannhäuser," this collection also brings to light many gems difficult to find elsewhere. In "The Werewolf," a cruel stepmother thwarts a beautiful princess's marriage plans by transforming her fiancé into a hunted denizen of the forest. The hilarious "Such Women Are" proves the world is never without a sufficiency of fools, while "The Three Dogs" tells of a youth whose four-legged friends defeat a serpent with the nasty habit of devouring a town's young women. Among many other hard-to-find stories are "King Gram," "The Magician's Pupil," "The Outlaw," "Temptations," "The Widow's Son," "The Three Sisters Trapped in a Mountain," and "The Goatherd" (the inspiration for Washington Irving’s story of Rip van Winkle).
These stories preserve the ancient myths of Western Europe that have been passed down from generation to generation, but aside from their importance as seminal folktales, they are simply good reading — full of passion and excitement, magic, mystery, and sheer storytelling power. Popular Tales from Norse Mythology will delight any student or admirer of myths and mythology.
A separate thread tells the story of the Finland Swedes--"the minority within a minority" whose members were born in Finland but spoke Swedish and thus straddled two ethnic groups, belonging fully to neither. The book concludes with a personal narrative of Fred Torma (1888-1979), a miner and carpenter from Nashwauk, who describes establishing a Socialist hall, involvement in the 1907 Mesabi strike, and founding a cooperative boardinghouse and store. His is just one engaging example of the vibrant lives and legacy of Finnish Americans in Minnesota.
Arnold R. Alanen, professor emeritus of landscape architecture at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a third-generation Finnish A merican from Minnesota, has written extensively on the topics of landscape history, vernacular architecture, settlement patterns of Finnish A mericans, and cultural resource preservation.
The author focuses on current methodology and practice within the hotel market, the market trends and legalities which will change or amplify those practices, and further sets out property investment options with real examples.
Maximise your marks for every answer you write with Law Express Question and Answer. This series is designed to help you understand what examiners are looking for, focus on the question being asked and make even a strong answer stand out.
Fully updated and revised with all the most important recent legal developments, Routledge Lawcards are packed with features:
Revision checklists help you to consolidate the key issues within each topic Colour coded highlighting really makes cases and legislation stand out Full tables of cases and legislation make for easy reference Boxed case notes pick out the cases that are most likely to come up in exams Diagrams and flowcharts clarify and condense complex and important topics
'...an excellent starting point for any enthusiastic reviser. The books are concise and get right down to the nitty-gritty of each topic.' - Lex Magazine
Routledge Lawcards are supported by a Companion Website offering:Flashcard glossaries allowing you to test your understanding of key terms and definitions Multiple Choice Questions to test and consolidate your revision of each chapter Advice and tips to help you better plan your revision and prepare for your exams
Titles in the Series: Commercial Law; Company Law; Constitutional Law; Contract Law; Criminal Law; Employment Law; English Legal System; European Union Law; Evidence; Equity and Trusts; Family Law; Human Rights; Intellectual Property Law; Jurisprudence; Land Law; Tort Law
The key aim of the work is to identify the conditions for cooperation, stability and peace in the Arctic and to reach beyond simple description and expectation in order to explore in depth some of the main factors that will determine the future of international relations in the region. Furthermore, it addresses key topics such as the geopolitical significance of the Arctic and the importance of oil and gas resources in the Arctic. The book also investigates what the main characteristics of governance in the Arctic are, and how institutions and regimes can promote stability and security in the region. The volume maintains two layers of focus. The first relates to the dynamics within the Arctic and the second to developments outside the region, highlighting that we cannot understand the Arctic in isolation from global developments such as energy markets, security conflicts and NATO-Russian antagonism.
This book will be of much interest to students of Arctic politics, security studies, geopolitics, Russian and Scandinavian politics, and international relations in general.