Wheelock’s Latin 7th Edition retains its signature core of authentic Latin readings—curated from the works of Cicero, Vergil, and other major Roman authors of classical literature, drama, and poetry, as well as inscriptions, artifacts, and even authentic graffiti—that demonstrate the ancient Romans’ everyday use of Latin: Latin as a living language.
With expanded English-Latin/Latin-English vocabulary sections, tightly retooled comprehension and discussion questions, self-tutorial exercises, translation tips, etymological aids, maps, and dozens of photos and illustrations that capture aspects of classical culture and mythology, Wheelock’s Latin 7th Edition is the essential resource for students beginning their journey into the heart of the classical world.
These topics are presented in such a way that students can examine the inherent diversity of the communicative systems used in the United States as both a form of cultural enrichment and as the basis for socio-political conflict. The author team outlines the different viewpoints on contemporary issues surrounding language in the US and contextualizes these issues within linguistic facts, to help students think critically and formulate logical discussions. To provide opportunities for further examination and debate, chapters are organized around key misconceptions or questions ("I don't have an accent" or "Immigrants don't want to learn English"), bringing them to the forefront for readers to address directly.
Language and Linguistic Diversity in the US is a fresh and unique take on a widely taught topic. It is ideal for students from a variety of disciplines or with no prior knowledge of the field, and a useful text for introductory courses on language in the US, American English, language variation, language ideology, and sociolinguistics.
Do you wake up feeling rough? Then you’re philogrobolized. Pretending to work? That’s fudgelling, which may lead to rizzling if you feel sleepy after lunch, though by dinner time you will have become a sparkling deipnosophist.
From Mark Forsyth, author of the bestselling The Etymologicon, this is a book of weird words for familiar situations. From ante-jentacular to snudge by way of quafftide and wamblecropt, at last you can say, with utter accuracy, exactly what you mean.
• Integrates extensive participant observation with sociolinguistic data collection
• Reveals the political and social dynamics of a national language (Italian) and a local dialect (Bergamasco) struggling for survival
• Introduces the original concept of the “social aesthetics of language”: the interweaving of culturally-shaped and emotionally felt dimensions of language-choice
• Written to be accessible to students and specialists alike
• Part of the Blackwell Studies in Discourse and Culture Series
With The Story of English in 100 Words, David Crystal took us on a tour through the history of our language. Now, with Spell It Out, he takes on the task of answering all the questions about how we spell: "Why is English spelling so difficult?" Or "Why are good spellers so proud of their achievement that when they see a misspelling they condemn the writer as sloppy, lazy, or uneducated?" In thirty-seven short, engaging and informative chapters, Crystal takes readers on a history of English spelling, starting with the Roman missionaries' sixth century introduction of the Roman alphabet and ending with where the language might be going. He looks individually at each letter in the alphabet and its origins. He considers the question of vowels and how people developed a way to tell whether or not it was long or short. He looks at influences from other cultures, and explains how English speakers understood that the "o" in "hopping" was a short vowel, rather than the long vowel of "hoping". If you've ever asked yourself questions like "Why do the words "their", "there" and "they're" sound alike, but mean very different things?" or "How can we tell the difference between "charge" the verb and "charge" the noun?" David Crystal's Spell It Out will spell it all out for you.
Linguistics has long shied away from claiming any link between a language and the culture of its speakers: too much simplistic (even bigoted) chatter about the romance of Italian and the goose-stepping orderliness of German has made serious thinkers wary of the entire subject. But now, acclaimed linguist Guy Deutscher has dared to reopen the issue. Can culture influence language—and vice versa? Can different languages lead their speakers to different thoughts? Could our experience of the world depend on whether our language has a word for "blue"?
Challenging the consensus that the fundaments of language are hard-wired in our genes and thus universal, Deutscher argues that the answer to all these questions is—yes. In thrilling fashion, he takes us from Homer to Darwin, from Yale to the Amazon, from how to name the rainbow to why Russian water—a "she"—becomes a "he" once you dip a tea bag into her, demonstrating that language does in fact reflect culture in ways that are anything but trivial. Audacious, delightful, and field-changing, Through the Language Glass is a classic of intellectual discovery.
This is an encyclopedic dictionary of close to 400 important philosophical, literary, and political terms and concepts that defy easy--or any--translation from one language and culture to another. Drawn from more than a dozen languages, terms such as Dasein (German), pravda (Russian), saudade (Portuguese), and stato (Italian) are thoroughly examined in all their cross-linguistic and cross-cultural complexities. Spanning the classical, medieval, early modern, modern, and contemporary periods, these are terms that influence thinking across the humanities. The entries, written by more than 150 distinguished scholars, describe the origins and meanings of each term, the history and context of its usage, its translations into other languages, and its use in notable texts. The dictionary also includes essays on the special characteristics of particular languages--English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish.
Originally published in French, this one-of-a-kind reference work is now available in English for the first time, with new contributions from Judith Butler, Daniel Heller-Roazen, Ben Kafka, Kevin McLaughlin, Kenneth Reinhard, Stella Sandford, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Jane Tylus, Anthony Vidler, Susan Wolfson, Robert J. C. Young, and many more.The result is an invaluable reference for students, scholars, and general readers interested in the multilingual lives of some of our most influential words and ideas.Covers close to 400 important philosophical, literary, and political terms that defy easy translation between languages and cultures Includes terms from more than a dozen languages Entries written by more than 150 distinguished thinkers Available in English for the first time, with new contributions by Judith Butler, Daniel Heller-Roazen, Ben Kafka, Kevin McLaughlin, Kenneth Reinhard, Stella Sandford, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Jane Tylus, Anthony Vidler, Susan Wolfson, Robert J. C. Young, and many more Contains extensive cross-references and bibliographies An invaluable resource for students and scholars across the humanities
In Qumran Hebrew, Reymond examines the orthography, phonology, and morphology of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Short sections treat specific linguistic phenomena and present a synopsis and critique of previous research. Reymond’s approach emphasizes problems posed by scribal errors and argues that guttural letters had not all “weakened” but instead were “weak” in specific linguistic environments, texts, or dialects. Reymond illustrates that certain phonetic shifts (such as the shift of yodh > aleph and the opposite shift of aleph > yodh) occur in discernible linguistic contexts that suggest this was a real phonetic phenomenon.
Features:Summary and critique of previous research Discussion of the most recently published scrolls Examination of scribal errors, guttural letters, and phonetic shifts
1) Words likely to be met in literary reading. Chaucer, Spenser, Shakespeare, the Tudor pamphlets and translations, are richly represented in words and illustrative quotations. The late 18th and early 19th century revival has been culled: Chatterton, Ossian; Percy’s Reliques and Child’s Ballads; Scott, in his effort to bring picturesque words back into use. In addition, anthologies, for the general reader or the student, have been examined, and works they include combed for forgotten words.
2) Words that belong to the history of early England, describing or illuminating social conditions, political (e.g. feudal) divisions or distinctions, and all the ways of living, of thinking and feeling, in earlier times. Anxiety, for example, is indicated, not in the 99 phobias listed in a psychiatric glossary of the 1950s but in the 120 methods (see areomancy) of determining the future.
3) Words that in various ways have special interest, as in meaning, background, or associated folklore. Included in this group are various imaginary beings, and a number of magic or medicinal plants.
4) Words that are not in the general vocabulary today, but might be usefully and pleasantly revived.
This book will show how the Egyptians had various modes of writings for various purposes , and how the Egyptian modes were falsely designated as "separate languages" belonging to others. ;the falsehood of having different languages on the Rosetta (and numerous other like) Stone; evaluation of the "hieratic' and "demotic" forms of writing. The book will also highlight how the Egyptian Alphabetical language is the MOTHER and origin of all languages (as confirmed by all writers of antiquities); and how this one original language came to be called Greek, Hebrew, Arabic and other 'languages' throughout the world—through deterioration of sound values via 'sound shifts', as well as foreign degradation of the original Egyptian writing forms.
The book is divided into seven parts with a total of 24 chapters, as follows:
Part I. Denial, Distortion and Diversion has 3 chapters—Chapters 1 to 3:
Chapter 1: The Archetypal Primacy of The Egyptian Alphabet will show the role and remote history of alphabetical letter-forms writing in Ancient Egypt prior to any other place on earth.
Chapter 2: The Concealment of The Supreme Egyptian Alphabet will show the incredible western academia scheme to conceal the Ancient Egyptian alphabetical letter-forms from its prominent position in the history of writing.
Chapter 3: The Diversion of A Proto-Sinaitic "Phoenician Connection" will uncover all the facts about having "Phoenicians" as the inventor of alphabets on an Egyptian soil!
Part II. Formation and Forms of Egyptian Alphabetic Writings has 6 chapters—Chapters 4 to 9:
Chapter 4: Genesis of Egyptian Alphabetic Letters/Writing will refute the unfounded obsession that alphabetical letter-forms were derived from pictures; and the differences between ideograms, signs and alphabetical writing.
Chapter 5: The Egyptian Sound Organization of Letters will cover the primary three vowels as the originators of all vowel sounds and associated consonants.
Chapter 6: The Egyptian Alphabetic Writing Styles will sort out present common confusion of Ancient Egyptian styles of writing and set the two primary styles as uncials and cursive.
Chapter 7: The Profession of Egyptian Scribes will cover the range of Egyptian writings; the profession of scribes; writing surfaces & instruments; and documentations of official missions by Egyptian scribes.
Chapter 8: Multiple Writing Forms of a Single Document will cover the commonality of have several styles of same language on a single document; and examples of multiple writing forms on Egyptian magical divination papyri as well as on Egyptian stelae.
Chapter 9: Multiple Writing Forms of The Rosetta Stone will expose the total misrepresentation of the three Egyptian writing forms on the Rosetta Stone as incorrectly being Egyptian and "Greek"!
Part III. How The One World Language Became The Many has five chapters—Chapters 10 to 14:
Chapter 10: The Beacon of the Ancient World will cover Egyptian settlements throughout the world; Ancient Egypt and The Seven Seas; Ancient Egypt as the World economic engine; the dominant Egyptian language; and the Egyptian Mother language of all language families.
Chapter 11: Common Characteristics of Ancient Egyptian Alphabetic Writing System will detail such characteristics.
Chapter 12: Letter-forms Divergence of World Alphabets From Its Egyptian Origin will cover the apparent variations of alphabetical letter-forms in world alphabets from its Egyptian origin; as well as an overview of the archetypal 28 Egyptian alphabetical letter-forms and their divergence into other regions of the world.
Chapter 13: Sound Divergence of World Alphabets From Its Egyptian Origin will cover the systematic sound variations; as well as causes and effects of sound divergence from its Egyptian origin into other world alphabets.
Chapter 14: Cavalier Designations of New Languages will cover how a new language has been awarded as a symbol of identity for winners of wars and new religions; as well as how "new" languages were fabricated from Egyptian scripts.
Part IV. The Primary Linguistic Characteristics of The Egyptian Language has one chapter—Chapter 15:
Chapter 15: The Primary Linguistic Characteristics of The Egyptian Language will cover the four pillars of a language; as well as an overview of the Egyptian prototypal interconnected lexicon, grammar and syntax.
Part V. Out of Egypt—Diffusion Patterns To Asia and Africa has 5 chapters—Chapters 16 to 20:
Chapter 16: Hebrew and Moses of Egypt will show the Egyptian origin of Hebrew and the absence of any linguistic distinction between Hebrew and the Ancient Egyptian language.
Chapter 17: The Ancient Egyptian Hegemony of Asiatic Neighbors will discuss the found scripts in North and South Arabia; and clear up all apparent differences between them and the Ancient Egyptian writing system.
Chapter 18: The African Connections will discuss the history and details of the Ethiopic language(s) and clear up all apparent differences between them and the Ancient Egyptian writing system.
Chapter 19: From Egypt To India and Beyond will cover the two primary inscription styles in the Indian Sub-Continent; and clear up all apparent differences between them and the Ancient Egyptian writing system.
Chapter 20: From Egypt to The Black Sea Basin [Georgia & Armenia] will cover affinities of languages from Central Asia To the Black Sea Basin; Ancient Egyptian settlements in the Black Sea Basin; Pre-existence of "Armenian/Georgian" alphabets in Ancient Egypt; and sameness of Ancient Egyptian alphabetical writing system in later "Georgian & Armenian Languages".
Part VI. Out of Egypt—Diffusion Patterns To Europe has two chapters—Chapters 21 & 22:
Chapter 21: Greek: A Shameless Linguistic Heist will cover role of Greeks in Ancient Egypt as hired security guards; pre-existence of the proclaimed "Greek" alphabetical letter-forms in the Ancient Egyptian system; robbing and postdating Egyptian scripts to rename them as "Greek"; and the absence of any linguistic distinction between Greek and the Ancient Egyptian language.
Chapter 22: The European Languages will cover Etruscan, Latin and Hispanic languages; and the absence of any linguistic distinction between them and the Ancient Egyptian language.
Part VII. The Ancient Future of The Universal Language has two chapters—Chapters 23 & 24:
Chapter 23: Egyptian Alphabetical Vocalic Language [Past, Present & Future] will cover the state of the vocalic and written language in Egypt and the minor changes that occurred over thousands of years.
Chapter 24: Renaissance & Seeking the Universal Language—The Ancient Future will cover an overview of the English language's inconsistent phonetic writing system; Renaissance search for a Universal Language; and how such a language, by all accounts is the [Ancient] Egyptian Language.
The ideal replacement or complement to that tatty old copy of Brewer's Phrase and Fable most of us have about the house, A Word in Your Shell-Like is an entertaining look at both familiar and unfamiliar phrases by one of the key world authorities in English language reference. The articles also contain discussion of meaning, origin and usage.
Who was originally 'sold down the river'? Have you been told to 'Naff off'? Find out of whom it was said 'he couldn't chew gum and fart at the same time', who the 'catcher in the rye' was, and what it means to be 'caught between wind and water'. Few other word reference books are likely to increase your store of knowledge with such fun.
He says bath, while she says bahth.
You say potayto. I say potahto
-wait a second, no one says potahto. No one's ever said potahto.
From reconstructing Shakespeare's accent to the rise and fall of Received Pronunciation, actor Ben Crystal and his linguist father David travel the world in search of the stories of spoken English.
Everyone has an accent, though many of us think we don't. We all have our likes and dislikes about the way other people speak, and everyone has something to say about 'correct' pronunciation. But how did all these accents come about, and why do people feel so strongly about them? Are regional accents dying out as English becomes a global language? And most importantly of all: what went wrong in Birmingham?
Witty, authoritative and jam-packed full of fascinating facts, You Say Potato is a celebration of the myriad ways in which the English language is spoken - and how our accents, in so many ways, speak louder than words.
Scholarly yet nontechnical, The Making of English explains in simple terms the relationships between English and other tongues--Greek, Latin, German, Spanish, and French. Topics include the similarities and differences between English and German, characteristics of Old English, and the composition, derivation, and root-creation involved in the process of the making of words. The author also discusses changes in meaning that occur over time, and profiles some historical figures who were influential in shaping the English language.
"Paul Dickson is a national treasure who deserves a wide audience," declared Library Journal. The author of more than 50 books, Dickson has written extensively on language. This expanded edition of War Slang features new material by journalist Ben Lando, Iraq Bureau Chief for Iraq Oil Report and a regular contributor to The Wall Street Journal and Time. It serves language lovers and military historians alike by adding an eloquent new dimension to our understanding of war.
The story of the world in the last five thousand years is above all the story of its languages. Some shared language is what binds any community together, and makes possible both the living of a common history and the telling of it.
Yet the history of the world’s great languages has rarely been examined. ‘Empires of the Word’ is the first to bring together the tales in all their glorious variety: the amazing innovations – in education, culture and diplomacy – devised by speakers in the Middle East; the uncanny resilience of Chinese throughout twenty centuries of invasions; the progress of Sanskrit from north India to Java and Japan; the struggle that gave birth to the languages of modern Europe; and the global spread of English.
Besides these epic achievements, language failures are equally fascinating: why did Germany get left behind? Why did Egyptian, which had survived foreign takeovers for three millennia, succumb to Mohammed’s Arabic? Why is Dutch unknown in modern Indonesia, given that the Netherlands had ruled the East Indies for as long as the British ruled India?
As this book engagingly reveals, the language history of the world shows eloquently the real characters of peoples; it also shows that the language of the future will, like the languages of the past, be full of surprises.
Outline of Classical Chinese Grammar starts with a brief historical overview and a discussion of the relation between the writing system and the phonology. This is followed by an outline of overall principles of word order and sentence structure. The next sections deal with the main sentence types � nominal predicates, verbal predicates, and numberical expressions, which constitute a special type of quasiverbal predication. The final sections cover such topics as subordinate constitutents of sentences, nondeclarative sentence types, and complex sentences.
In The Story of English in 100 Words, an entertaining history of the world's most ubiquitous language, David Crystal draws on one hundred words that best illustrate the huge variety of sources, influences and events that have helped to shape our vernacular since the first definitively English word—‘roe'—was written down on the femur of a roe deer in the fifth century. Featuring ancient words (‘loaf'), cutting edge terms that relfect our world (‘twittersphere'), indispensible words that shape our tongue (‘and', ‘what'), fanciful words (‘fopdoodle') and even obscene expressions (the "c word"...), David Crystal takes readers on a tour of the winding byways of our language via the rude, the obscure and the downright surprising.
The pun is commonly dismissed as the lowest form of wit, and punsters are often unpopular for their obsessive wordplay. But such attitudes are relatively recent developments. In The Pun Also Rises, John Pollack-a former World Pun Champion and presidential speechwriter for Bill Clinton-explains why such wordplay is significant: It both revolutionized language and played a pivotal role in making the modern world possible. Skillfully weaving together stories and evidence from history, brain science, pop culture, literature, anthropology, and humor, The Pun Also Rises is an authoritative yet playful exploration of a practice that is common, in one form or another, to virtually every language on earth.
At once entertaining and educational, this engaging book answers fundamental questions: Just what is a pun, and why do people make them? How did punning impact the development of human language, and how did that drive creativity and progress? And why, after centuries of decline, does the pun still matter?
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It first introduces in detail the overall logic underlying quantitative studies: exploration, hypothesis formulation and operationalization, and the notion and meaning of significance tests. It then introduces some basics of the software R relevant to statistical data analysis. A chapter on descriptive statistics explains how summary statistics for frequencies, averages, and correlations are generated with R and how they are graphically represented best. A chapter on analytical statistics explains how statistical tests are performed in R on the basis of many different linguistic case studies: For nearly every single example, it is explained what the structure of the test looks like, how hypotheses are formulated, explored, and tested for statistical significance, how the results are graphically represented, and how one would summarize them in a paper/article. A chapter on selected multifactorial methods introduces how more complex research designs can be studied: methods for the study of multifactorial frequency data, correlations, tests for means, and binary response data are discussed and exemplified step-by-step. Also, the exploratory approach of hierarchical cluster analysis is illustrated in detail.
The book comes with many exercises, boxes with short think breaks and warnings, recommendations for further study, and answer keys as well as a statistics for linguists newsgroup on the companion website.
Just like the first edition, it is aimed at students, faculty, and researchers with little or no statistical background in statistics or the open source programming language R. It avoids mathematical jargon and discusses the logic and structure of quantitative studies and introduces descriptive statistics as well as a range of monofactorial statistical tests for frequencies, distributions, means, dispersions, and correlations. The comprehensive revision includes new small sections on programming topics that facilitate statistical analysis, the addition of a variety of statistical functions readers can apply to their own data, a revision of overview sections on statistical tests and regression modeling, a complete rewrite of the chapter on multifactorial approaches, which now contains sections on linear regression, binary and ordinal logistic regression, multinomial and Poisson regression, and repeated-measures ANOVA, and a new visual tool to identify the right statistical test for a given problem and data set. The amount of code available from the companion website has doubled in size, providing much supplementary material on statistical tests and advanced plotting.
Since its debut in The New York World on December 21, 1913, the crossword puzzle has enjoyed a rich and surprisingly lively existence. Alan Connor, a comic writer known for his exploration of all things crossword in The Guardian, covers every twist and turn: from the 1920s, when crosswords were considered a menace to productive society; to World War II, when they were used to recruit code breakers; to their starring role in a 2008 episode of The Simpsons.
He also profiles the colorful characters who make up the interesting and bizarre subculture of crossword constructors and competitive solvers, including Will Shortz, the iconic New York Times puzzle editor who created a crafty crossword that appeared to predict the outcome of a presidential election, and the legions of competitive puzzle solvers who descend on a Connecticut hotel each year in an attempt to be crowned the American puzzle-solving champion.
At a time when the printed word is in decline, Connor marvels at the crossword’s seamless transition onto Kindles and iPads, keeping the puzzle one of America’s favorite pastimes. He also explores the way the human brain processes crosswords versus computers that are largely stumped by clues that require wordplay or a simple grasp of humor.
A fascinating examination of our most beloved linguistic amusement—and filled with tantalizing crosswords and clues embedded in the text—The Crossword Century is sure to attract the attention of the readers who made Word Freak and Just My Type bestsellers.
From the meatpacking plants that inspired Henry Ford’s first moving assembly line to the "domino theory" that led America into Vietnam to the "bicycle for the mind" that Steve Jobs envisioned as the Macintosh computer, analogies have played a dynamic role in shaping the world around us—and still do today.
Analogies are far more complex than their SAT stereotype and lie at the very core of human cognition and creativity. Once we become aware of this, we start seeing them everywhere—in ads, apps, political debates, legal arguments, logos, and euphemisms, to name just a few. At their very best, analogies inspire new ways of thinking, enable invention, and motivate people to action. Unfortunately, not every analogy that rings true is true. That’s why, at their worst, analogies can deceive, manipulate, or mislead us into disaster. The challenge? Spotting the difference before it’s too late.
Rich with engaging stories, surprising examples, and a practical method to evaluate the truth or effectiveness of any analogy, Shortcut will improve critical thinking, enhance creativity, and offer readers a fresh approach to resolving some of today’s most intractable challenges.