The present book discusses the prizes in physiology or medicine 1963–65. The 1963 prize recognized milestone discoveries in the field of neurosciences, the way electrical impulses are generated and spread in nerves. The impressive developments of insights into tantalizing brain functions, like consciousness and memory, is discussed in the perspective of prizes both before and after the 1963 prize. The prize in 1964 marked the advanced biochemical venture that led to a full understanding of the synthesis of cholesterol, a central molecule for providing flexibility of the membranes of the trillions of cell in our body. The importance of this molecule for the appearance of cardiovascular diseases and the possibilities to prevent them is presented in the light of other prizes earlier and later in this field. The 1965 prize recognized three impressive French intellectuals, Lwoff, Monod and Jacob. Their contributions allowed the full maturation of the initial phase of the emerging field of molecular biology. The comprehension of the information flow from DNA via RNA to proteins was the source of a revolution of life sciences and of medicine.
Some of the topics covered in the book are the symmetrical arrangements of viruses; introduction to different families of animal viruses; biochemistry of virus particles; the immunological properties and biological activities of viral gene products; description of enzymatic activities of viruses; and haemagglutination, cell fusion, and haemolysis of viruses. The description and characteristics of viral antigens are covered. The identification and propagation of viruses in tissue and cell cultures are discussed. An in-depth analysis of the principles of virus replication is provided. A study of the morphogenesis of virions is also presented. A chapter is devoted to virus-induced changes of cell structures and functions.
The book can provide useful information to virologists, microbiologists, students, and researchers.
From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.”
One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us?
Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas.
Dr. Harari also compels us to look ahead, because over the last few decades humans have begun to bend laws of natural selection that have governed life for the past four billion years. We are acquiring the ability to design not only the world around us, but also ourselves. Where is this leading us, and what do we want to become?
Featuring 27 photographs, 6 maps, and 25 illustrations/diagrams, this provocative and insightful work is sure to spark debate and is essential reading for aficionados of Jared Diamond, James Gleick, Matt Ridley, Robert Wright, and Sharon Moalem.
In the first book of its kind, journalist Donna Jackson Nakazawa examines nearly 100 debilitating autoimmune diseases—such as multiple sclerosis, lupus, Crohn’s disease, type 1 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis—that cause the body to destroy itself, mistakenly attacking healthy cells as the immune system fights off bacteria, viruses, and other invaders. As Nakazawa share the vivid, heartbreaking stories, including her own, of people living with these mysterious, chronic, and often hard-to-diagnose illnesses, she explores the alarming and unexpected connection between this deadly crisis and the countless environmental triggers we’re exposed to every day: heavy metals, toxins, pesticides, viruses, chemicals in the foods we eat, and more.
With the help of leading experts, Nakazawa explores revolutionary preventions, treatments, and cures emerging around the world and offers practical advice for protecting your immune system and reducing your risk of autoimmune disease in the future.
In fifteen easy-to-read chapters, featuring the humorous style and engaging analogies developed by Dr. Sompayrac, How the Immune System Works explains how the immune system players work together to protect us from disease – and, most importantly, why they do it this way.
Rigorously updated for this fifth edition, How the Immune System Works includes the latest information on subjects such as vaccines, the immunology of AIDS, and cancer. A highlight of this edition is a new chapter on the intestinal immune system – currently one of the hottest topics in immunology.
Whether you are completely new to immunology, or require a refresher, How the Immune System Works will provide you with a clear and engaging overview of this fascinating subject. But don’t take our word for it! Read what students have been saying about this classic book:
"What an exceptional book! It's clear you are in the hands of an expert."
"Possibly the Best Small Text of All Time!"
"This is a FUN book, and Lauren Sompayrac does a fantastic job of explaining the immune system using words that normal people can understand."
"Hands down the best immunology book I have read... a very enjoyable read."
"This is simply one of the best medical textbooks that I have ever read. Clear diagrams coupled with highly readable text make this whole subject easily understandable and engaging."
Now with a brand new website at www.wiley.com/go/sompayrac featuring Powerpoint files of the images from the book
Develop a thorough, clinically relevant understanding of immunologythrough a clear overview of immunology with a distinct focus on the management of human disease.
Visualize immunologic processes more effectively.Meticulously developed and updated illustrations, 3-dimensional art, and all-new animations provide a detailed, visual description of the key immunologic and molecular processes.
Grasp the details of experimental observationsthat form the basis for the science of immunology at the molecular, cellular, and whole-organism levels and draw the appropriate conclusions.
Find information more quickly and easilythrough an organized chapter structure and a more logical flow of material.
Glean all essential, up-to-date, need-to-know information about immunology and molecular biology through extensive updates that cover cytokines, innate immunity, leukocyte-endothelial interactions, signaling, costimulation, and more.
Benefit from numerous new figures and tablesthat facilitate easier retention of the material; quick summaries of each chapter; and nearly 400 illustrations that clarify key concepts.
A must-read for any cat lover, Cat Sense challenges our most basic assumptions about cats and promises to dramatically improve their lives—and ours.
Grasp the details of experimental observations that form the basis for the science of immunology at the molecular, cellular, and whole-organism levels and draw the appropriate conclusions.Stay abreast of the latest advances in immunology and molecular biology through extensive updates that cover cytokines, innate immunity, leukocyte-endothelial interactions, signaling, costimulation, and more.
Visualize immunologic processes more effectively through a completely revised art program with redrawn figures, a brighter color palette, and more 3-dimensional art.
Find information more quickly and easily through a reorganized chapter structure and a more logical flow of material.
There is a cure for all disease.
It is 100% Natural and costs only a few dollars each month.
Your body heals you by giving it what it needs and making sure you avoid the poisons that cause all disease.
Water is the very Essence of Life.
Without water there would no Life on this planet.
This is why I believe the quality of your health is equal to the quality of your water.
There are no cures with doctors and the medical profession.
They turned their backs on all cures and all real medicine once drug corporations began manufacturing synthetic man-made chemical "medicines” starting in 1939.
Cures ended with Dr. Jonas Salk's polio vaccine which he gave to mankind for free in 1954.
Poisons cause all disease. Without poisons, even germs and viruses could not make you sick.
All disease requires an acidic body to exist in. Your body becomes acidic by habitual consumption of poisons in your food, drinks and water; such as white flour, white sugar, high fructose corn syrup, red meats and the chlorine and fluoride in your water.
This book teaches you how to reverse the acidity of your body, correct your diet deficiencies and to value Water, the very Essence of Life.
There are also some quick cures for some major diseases like migraines, kidney stones, heartburn and others. These cures may seem like "miracle cures”, but they are just science that has been around since man began living on this Earth.
The thing that the Author adds to those centuries of proven healing science is how to recognize and avoid the saturation of poisons that have inundated our food, drinks and water supplies, as well as personal hygiene items.
The Author teaches you how to clean up your current diet and also gives you details on other things you can do to improve your health and speed you on to freedom from disease.
This book was written by a man who cured himself of 10 diseases doctors REFUSE to cure. And did so after doctors said he would be on dialysis or dead by 2009.
Before then, the Author did not know that doctors cure no one.
YOU must decide whether to remain without hope as you have with all doctors - OR...
Learn how to use Natural Science to restore your Natural body to health to rid it of all disease.
For those who choose Life and freedom from sickness, this book was written for YOU!
...A short and to the point book to get you cured of all disease as quickly as possible -
The Cure For All Disease
Visually grasp and retain difficult concepts easilythanks to a user-friendly color-coded format, key concept boxes, explanatory diagrams, and over 190 photos to help you visualize tissues and diseases.
Put concepts into practice. "Critical Thinking Boxes" and 25 online cases encourage you to "think immunologically" while anchoring your understanding of immunology through clinical application.
Gauge your mastery of the materialand build confidence with high-yield style chapter-opening summaries and case-based and USMLE-style questions that provide effective chapter review and quick practice for your exams.
Access the full contents online at www.studentconsult.comwhere you'll find the complete text and illustrations, USMLE-style questions, clinical cases, and much more! Get the depth of coverage you need in a smaller, more manageably sized book. Through meticulous editing and reorganization, primary material remains in the book while more specialized and clinical material has been moved online.
Master the most cutting-edge concepts in immunology.Thorough updates throughout provide the timely knowledge you need ace your exams.
Grasp and retain vital concepts easilythanks to a user-friendly color-coded format, succinct text, key concept boxes, and dynamic illustrations.
Effectively review for problem-based courseswith the help of chapter introductions and "Lessons in Microbiology" text boxes that highlight the clinical relevance of the material, offer easy access to key concepts, and provide valuable review tools.
Approach microbiology by body system or by pathogenthrough an extensively cross-referenced "Pathogen Review" section.
Access the complete contents online at studentconsult.com, along with downloadable illustrations...150 multiple choice review questions... "Pathogen Parade"...and many other features to enhance learning and retention. Enhance your learning and absorb complex information in an interactive, dynamic way with Pathogen Parade – a quickly searchable online glossary of viruses, bacteria, and fungi.
Deepen your understanding of epidemiology and the important role it plays in providing evidence-based identification of key risk factors for disease and targets for preventive medicine.A completely re-written chapter on this topic keeps abreast of the very latest findings.
This new edition of Immunology: A Short Course:
• Has been fully revised and updated, with a brand new art program to help reinforce learning
• Includes a new chapter on Innate Immunity to reflect the growth in knowledge in this area
• Highlights important therapeutic successes resulting from targeted antibody therapies
• Includes end of chapter summaries and review questions, a companion website at www.wileyimmunology.com/coico featuring interactive flashcards, USMLE-style interactive MCQs, figures as PowerPoint slides, and case-based material to help understand clinical applications
New to this Edition: • Features expanded coverage of the evolution of parasitism and an extensive update to immunology of parasite–host interactions • Offers an enhanced art program featuring life-cycle illustrations and additional SEM and TEM micrographs • New Host Immune Response section for each organismPresents various parasites and examines how they interact with their hosts and respond to new treatmentsEasy to read with photographs, diagrams, and clinical case pictures throughout
This book is written in the same engaging conversational style as the published reference book The Immune Response: Basic and Clinical Principles and conveys the same fascinating appeal of immunology. The authors bring clarity, readability and continuity of voice to an audience that requires only a brief survey of the most fundamental concepts in basic and clinical immunology. Primer to The Immune Response is beautifully illustrated with over 200 superb figures and 36 full-color plates, and further enhanced by the inclusion of 60 tables and 6 Appendices. Included with purchase of the book is website access to a captivating “Immunomovie" that truly brings the immune response to pathogens to life. This new and unique immunology textbook compactly but elegantly covers both basic and clinical principles.
Over 200 elegant 2-4 color illustrations36 full-color plates of basic and clinical items of interestTake-home message and “Did You Get It? self-test quiz at the end of each chapter6 Appendices that provide topic enrichment60-minute "Immunomovie" illustrating the immune response to bacterial, viral and parasitic infections
* Contributions from leading international authorities in the field
* Well-illustrated, informative figures present the interactions between immunopotentiators and the host immune system
* Each chapter lists advantages and potential hurdles for achieving a practical application for the specific immunopentiator
The immune system has incredible power to protect us from the ravages of infection by killing disease-causing microbes or eliminating them from the body. Boosted by vaccines, it can protect us individually and as a "herd" from diseases such as measles. As Dr. Paul explains, however, the power of the immune system is a double-edged sword: an overactive immune system can wreak havoc, destroying normal tissue and causing diseases such as type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. The consequences of an impaired immune system, on the other hand, are all too evident in the clinical agonies of AIDS and other immunodeficiency diseases.
Packed with illustrations, stories from Dr. Paul’s distinguished career, and compelling narratives of scientific discovery, Immunity presents the three laws of the human immune system—universality, tolerance, and appropriateness—and explains how the system protects and harms us. From the tale of how smallpox was overcome to the lessons of the Ebola epidemic to the utility of vaccines and the hope that the immune system can be used to treat or prevent cancer, Dr. Paul argues that we must position ourselves to take advantage of cutting-edge technologies and promising new tools in immunological research, including big data and the microbiome.-- Daniel M. Davis, University of Manchester, author of The Compatibility Gene: How Our Bodies Fight Disease, Attract Others, and Define Our Selves
Antibodies represent the correlate of protection for numerous vaccines and are the most rapidly growing class of drugs, with applications ranging from cancer and infectious disease to autoimmunity. Researchers have long understood the variable domain of antibodies, which are responsible for antigen recognition, and can provide protection by blocking the function of their target antigen. However, recent developments in our understanding of the protection mediated by antibodies have highlighted the critical nature of the antibody constant, or Fc domain, in the biological activity of antibodies. The Fc domain allows antibodies to link the adaptive and innate immune systems, providing specificity to a wide range of innate effector cells. In addition, they provide a feedback loop to regulate the character of the immune response via interactions with B cells and antigen-presenting cells.Clarifies the different mechanisms of IgG activity at the level of the different model systems used, including human genetic, mouse, and in vitroCovers the role of antibodies in cancer, infectious disease, and autoimmunity and in the setting of monoclonal antibody therapy as well as naturally raised antibodiesColor illustrations enhance explanations of the immune system
Understand the care and treatment of pediatric patients thanks to clinical pearls discussing the best approaches.
Easily refer to appendices that list common food allergies and autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases.Apply the newest diagnostic tests available—for asthma, upper respiratory allergy, and more—and know their benefits and contraindications.
Treat the allergy at its source rather than the resulting reactions through an understanding of the immune mechanisms underlying allergic diseases.
Get coverage of new research that affects methods of patient treatment and discusses potential reasons for increased allergies in some individuals.
Better manage potential anaphylaxis cases through analysis of contributing facts and progression of allergic disease.
Effectively control asthma and monitor its progression using the new step-by-step approach.
Eliminate difficulty in prescribing antibiotics thanks to coverage of drug allergies and cross-reactivity.
Visually Enhances Definitions in the Language of Immunology
Now with more than 1300 illustrations, Atlas of Immunology, Third Edition is the most thorough and up-to-date treatment of essentially all concepts needed to comprehend the complex science of immunology.
Completely revised and expanded, this third edition features:
Hundreds of new illustrations Two new chapters – Immunophenotyping of Hematopoietic Malignances and Immunomodulators An expanded chapter on the history of immunology Additional human CD markers
Written in a highly readable, two-column format, this complete reference covers a wide array of subjects, with content ranging from photographs of field pioneers to illustrations of molecular structures of recently characterized cell receptors, chemokines, and cytokines. The atlas also addresses the major histocompatability complex molecules, immunoglobulins, hematopoietic cells in leukemia, and molecules of related interest to immunologists. You won’t find another publication anywhere that matches the breadth or detail of illustrated immunological concepts.
the selectionist theory of antibody formation
kinetics of primary and secondary antibody response
quantitative methods of measurement of antigens and antibody
demonstration of passive transfer of immunity from mother to foetus
Allogeneic HSCT is a medical procedure in which a patient receives blood-forming stem cells from a genetically similar but not identical donor. This procedure is commonly performed for people with diseases of the blood, bone marrow, or certain cancers, but it remains risky with many possible complications. As such, experimental practice is reserved for preclinical animal models including the mouse and dog.
These animal models have been essential in developing transplant protocols, including preclinical testing of conditioning regimens, treatment of GVHD, and understanding the pathology of GVHD as well as the immunological mechanisms of GVHD and GVL effect. However, recent research has revealed significant species differences between humans and animal models that must be considered when relating animal model studies to clinical allogeneic HSCT scenarios.Brings together perspectives leading laboratories and clinical research groups to highlight advances from bench to the bedsideGuides readers through the caveats that must be considered when drawing conclusions from studies with animal models before correlating to clinical allogeneic HSCT scenariosCategorizes the published advances in various aspects of immune biology of allegeneic HSCT to illustrate opportunities for clinical applications
The Earth teems with life: in its oceans, forests, skies and cities. Yet there’s a black hole at the heart of biology. We do not know why complex life is the way it is, or, for that matter, how life first began. In The Vital Question, award-winning author and biochemist Nick Lane radically reframes evolutionary history, putting forward a solution to conundrums that have puzzled generations of scientists.
For two and a half billion years, from the very origins of life, single-celled organisms such as bacteria evolved without changing their basic form. Then, on just one occasion in four billion years, they made the jump to complexity. All complex life, from mushrooms to man, shares puzzling features, such as sex, which are unknown in bacteria. How and why did this radical transformation happen?
The answer, Lane argues, lies in energy: all life on Earth lives off a voltage with the strength of a lightning bolt. Building on the pillars of evolutionary theory, Lane’s hypothesis draws on cutting-edge research into the link between energy and cell biology, in order to deliver a compelling account of evolution from the very origins of life to the emergence of multicellular organisms, while offering deep insights into our own lives and deaths.
Both rigorous and enchanting, The Vital Question provides a solution to life’s vital question: why are we as we are, and indeed, why are we here at all?
The content of this new edition has been completely updated to include current information on all aspects of basic and clinical immunology. The superbly drawn figures are now in full color, complemented by full color plates throughout the book. The text is further enhanced by the inclusion of numerous tables, special topic boxes and brief notes that provide interesting insights. At the end of each chapter, a self-test quiz allows students to monitor their mastery of major concepts, while a set of conceptual questions prompts them to extrapolate further and extend their critical thinking. Moreover, as part of the Academic Cell line of textbooks, Primer to The Immune Response, 2nd Edition contains research passages that shine a spotlight on current experimental work reported in Cell Press articles. These articles also form the basis of case studies that are found in the associated online study guide and are designed to reinforce clinical connections.Complete yet concise coverage of the basic and clinical principles of immunologyEngaging conversational writing style that is to the point and very readableOver 200 clear, elegant color illustrationsComprehensive glossary and list of abbreviations
This book specifically addresses the clinical presentations borne out of exposure to a variety of chemicals. It begins with an overview of skin biology to provide toxicologists with a basic understanding of its anatomy and physiology. Next it presents a variety of dermatotoxicological effects, as well at the toxic agents that cause them, with color photographs to illustrate these effects.
Applied Dermatotoxicology: Clinical Aspects is an essential reference for toxicologists in industry, and for those medical professionals who encounter cases of dermal exposure to toxic agents.A concise, yet inclusive review of effects of chemical exposureIncludes background on basic skin biologyProvides vital clinical reference for toxicologists in non-clinical settings
The infection, known as Zika fever, often causes no or only mild symptoms, similar to a very mild form of dengue fever. It is treated by rest. Since the 1950s, it has been known to occur within a narrow equatorial belt from Africa to Asia. The virus spread eastward across the Pacific Ocean 2013–2014 Zika virus outbreaks in Oceania to French Polynesia, New Caledonia, the Cook Islands, and Easter Island, and in 2015 to Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America, where the Zika outbreak has reached pandemic levels. As of 2016, the illness cannot be prevented by medications or vaccines. Zika may spread from a pregnant woman to the baby. This may result in microcephaly and other severe brain problems. Zika infections in adults can, rarely, result in Guillain-Barré syndrome.
In January 2016, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued travel guidance on affected countries, including the use of enhanced precautions, and guidelines for pregnant women including considering postponing travel. Other governments or health agencies also issued similar travel warnings, while Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Jamaica advised women to postpone getting pregnant until more is known about the risks. This book will introduce the virus and also describe steps to tackle this problem.
About the Author
Dr Dawn Lim is a paediatrician whose focus is on managing children with allergic conditions, including food allergies and asthma. After graduating from Trinity College (Dublin) with first class honours in Paediatrics, Dr. Lim finished her post-graduate Paediatric training in at KKH and the Children’s Medical Institute at NUH, and later obtained membership to the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (London) and a Masters of Medicine (Paediatrics) from NUS. Previously an Assistant Professor at the National University of Singapore, Dr Lim is currently a member of various allergy associations and a medical advisor to the Food Allergy Support Group of Singapore.
Ever wondered how the food you eat becomes the energy your body needs to keep going? The theory of evolution says that humans and chimps descended from a common ancestor, but does it tell us how and why? We humans are insatiably curious creatures who can't help wondering how things work — starting with our own bodies. Wouldn't it be great to have a single source of quick answers to all our questions about how living things work? Now there is.
From molecules to animals, cells to ecosystems, Biology For Dummies, 2nd Edition answers all your questions about how living things work.Written in plain English and packed with dozens of illustrations, quick-reference Cheat Sheets, and helpful tables and diagrams, it cuts right to the chase with fast-paced, easy-to-absorb explanations of the life processes common to all organisms. More than 20% new and updated content, including a substantial overhaul to the organization of topics to make it a friendly classroom supplement Coverage of the most recent developments and discoveries in evolutionary, reproductive, and ecological biology Includes practical, up-to-date examples
Whether you're currently enrolled in a biology class or just want to know more about this fascinating and ever-evolving field of study, this engaging guide will give you a grip on complex biology concepts and unlock the mysteries of how life works in no time.
Immunotherapy of Cancerprovides information on cancer research related to inflammation and immunity, containing outstanding reviews by experts in the field. It is suitable for researchers and students who have an interest in cancer immunobiology.Provides information on cancer research, including outstanding and original reviewsCovers the current progress and emerging concepts in cancer inflammation, immunology, and immunotherapy Suitable for researchers and students studying, and interested in, the field of immunotherapy for cancerIdeal for those studying cancer inflammation, tumor immunology, cancer immunotherapy, dendritic cell, antigen presentation, immune checkpoint, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, macrophages, and tumor environments
This comprehensive, up-to-date volume aims to define issues and potential solutions to the challenges of antimicrobial resistance. The chapter authors are leading international experts on antimicrobial resistance among a variety of bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, enteroccoci, staphylococci, gram-negative bacilli, mycobacteria species) viruses (HIV, herpesviruses), and fungi (Candida species, fusarium etc.). The chapters will explore the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance, the immunology and epidemiology of resistance strains, clinical implications and implications on research and lack thereof, and prevention and future directions. This volume will also describe the steps that researchers are taking to develop molecular methods for detecting resistance; develop drugs and other means to deal with newly-resistant organisms. A special chapter to address the issues on strategies to limit antimicrobial resistance propagation will be included in this volume.
The New Public Health will help students and practitioners understand factors affecting the reform process of health care organization and delivery. It links the classic public health issues such as environmental sanitation, health education, and epidemiology with the new issues of universal health care, economics, and management of health systems for the new century.Provides a comprehensive overview of public health from a global perspectiveAssesses health systems models of the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Scandinavian countries, and developing countries including China, Nigeria, and ColombiaAnalyzes critical issues of health economics, including forces associated with escalating costs and the strategies to control those costsDiscusses strategies for dealing with the many ramifications of managed careLinks medicine with the social sciences, technology, and health management issues as they evolve
Early studies of the human brain used a simple method: wait for misfortune to strike -- strokes, seizures, infectious diseases, horrendous accidents -- and see how victims coped. In many cases their survival was miraculous, if puzzling. Observers were amazed by the transformations that took place when different parts of the brain were destroyed, altering victims' personalities. Parents suddenly couldn't recognize their own children. Pillars of the community became pathological liars. Some people couldn't speak but could still sing.
In The Tale of the Dueling Neurosurgeons, Sam Kean travels through time with stories of neurological curiosities: phantom limbs, Siamese twin brains, viruses that eat patients' memories, blind people who see through their tongues. He weaves these narratives together with prose that makes the pages fly by, to create a story of discovery that reaches back to the 1500s and the high-profile jousting accident that inspired this book's title.* With the lucid, masterful explanations and razor-sharp wit his fans have come to expect, Kean explores the brain's secret passageways and recounts the forgotten tales of the ordinary people whose struggles, resilience, and deep humanity made neuroscience possible.
*"The Tale of the Dueling Neurosurgeons" refers to the case of French king Henri II, who in 1559 was lanced through the skull during a joust, resulting in one of the most significant cases in neuroscience history. For hundreds of years scientists have gained important lessons from traumatic accidents and illnesses, and such misfortunes still represent their greatest resource for discovery.
In biomedical research, because of a dramatic increase in productivity, immunocytochemistry has emerged as a major technique. The proposed book will provide the first practical guide to planning, performing, and evaluating immunocytochemical experiments.
In today’s graduate education the emphasis is on doing research and not on formal class work. Graduate students therefore lack the background in many essential techniques necessary to perform research in fields in which they were not trained. As director of a university core microscopy facility which sees students and faculty from dozens of laboratories each year, Dr. Burry has surmised the vast majority of these novice microscope users need considerable help. In an attempt to educate users, Dr. Burry has initiated immunocytochemistry seminars and workshops which serve to train people in this powerful research tool. The proposed book is an outgrowth of these presentations and conversations with, by now, hundreds of people who have asked for help.
The philosophy which separates this book from other books in this field is that it is practical, rather than academic. In looking at other important immunocytochemistry titles, the predominant orientation is academic, with the author attempting to comprehensively discuss the topic. For example, one book with sample preparation lists ten fixatives which can be used; however, only two such fixatives are commonly used today. In this particular title, the detailed discussion of old methods might be seen as important in establishing the author as an expert. By contrast, the approach for Burry’s book would be to discuss methods based on what works in animal research laboratories today, and focus only on the most productive methods.
An additional distinction with this proposed book is the focus on animal research and not human pathology. There is a certification program for pathology technicians which requires them to learn a set body of material based on processing human tissue for examination by a pathologist. Many of the books on immunocytochemistry aim at this large pathology user base. Due to historical reasons, pathology laboratories process human tissues in a specific way and embed the tissue in paraffin, as has been done for over a century. In the last ten years, the power of immunocytochemistry in clinical diagnosis has become clear and has accordingly been adapted to pathology. However, the extensive processing needed for paraffin sections is not needed if the tissues are from research animals. Processing for animal-based tissues takes about a third of the time and results in higher quality images. The focus of this book is on processing these animal research tissues for immunocytochemistry. Today, there are no technique books which are aimed at this user base.
As a subject matter expert in the area of the proposed book, Dr. Burry will make recommendations and offer opinions. Because this field is new and is emerging, there are numerous advantages of specific methods over other, more generalized methods. The purpose of this book is to show a novice how to do immunocytochemistry without engaging in a discussion of possible advanced methods. For the advanced user, there are several good books which discuss the unusual methods, yet for the novice there are currently none.
Main Author :
Richard W. Burry, The Ohio State University (United States).
The Outline of the Book :
Each chapter supplies a set of important principals and steps necessary for good immunocytochemistry. The information is distilled down to include only the most important points and does not attempt to cover infrequently used procedures or reagents. At the end of most chapters is a section on trouble-shooting many of the common problems using the Sherlock Holmes method. Each chapter also includes specific protocols which can be used. The goal of each chapter is to present the reader with enough information to successfully design experiments and solve many of the problems one may encounter. Using immunocytochemical protocols without the understanding of their workings is not advised, as the user will need to evaluate his or her results to determine whether the results are reliable. Such evaluation is extremely important for users who need reliable images which will clearly answer important scientific questions.
Definitions (immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry)
Scope: animal research and not human pathology, paraffin sections, epitope retrieval, or immunohistochemistry
Focus: fluorescence and enzyme detection
Why do immunocytochemistry?
Immunocytochemistry "individual study" rather than "population study"
Example of a two-label experiment
What is included in these chapters?
Overview of the theory
Background with enough information to help solve common problems.
Advantages and disadvantages of different options
Opinions and suggestions
2. Fixation and Sectioning
Chemistry of fixation
Denaturing vs cross-linking fixatives
Application of fixative
Perfusion, drop-in, cultures, fresh-frozen
Selection of sample section type
Rapid freezing, cryostat, freezing microtome, vibratome
Storage of tissue
Isoforms, structure, reactivity
Polyclonal vs monoclonal
Antibodies as reagents
Antibody specificity and sources
Storage and handling
4. Labels for antibodies
Fluorescence, enzymes and particulates
Fluorescent labels - four generations
Selecting enzymes vs. fluorescence
Selecting a label- advantages and disadvantages
5. Methods of applying antibodies
Antibody amplification methods
6. Blocking and Permeability
Theory of blocking
Theory of detergents
7. Procedure- Single primary antibody
Sample, fixation, sectioning
8. Multiple primary antibodies - primary antibodies of different species
9. Multiple primary antibodies-primary antibodies of same species
Wide-field fluorescence microscope
Bright field—enzyme chromogen
Size, intensity, and pixels
Manipulation—what is ethical?
11. Planning and Troubleshooting
Scheme for discussion-making in planning experiments
Case studies with Sherlock Holmes detective work
12. So you want to do electron microscopic ICC?
Criteria in decision-making
Summary of the two techniques