Every American war has brought heated debate over the extent to which national security can permit protesters to exercise their constitutional guarantee of freedom of expression. The most famous and controversial Civil War case was that of Clement L. Vallandigham, the passionate critic of Lincoln's policies. In the great crisis of his time, he insisted that no circumstance, even war, could deprive a citizen of his right to oppose governmental policy freely and openly. The consequence was a furor that shook the nation's legislative halls and filled the press with vituperation. The ultimate fate for Vallandigham was arrest, imprisonment, and exile. However, the burning issues raised by his case remain largely unresolved today. In this book, the first full-length study of Vallandigham's Civil War career, Frank L. Klement reassesses the man and history's judgment of him.