Have the lives of the world's poorest, neediest people improved over the past few decades? What policies have lifted some people out of the worst forms of poverty, and what conditions keep others mired within it? The Poorest and Hungry: Assessment, Analyses, and Actions answers such questions, bringing together studies of both what causes and what reduces severe poverty from a diverse group of development specialists. The book focuses on the poorest and hungry in society and identifies areas for action. Stable economic growth; targeted social programs and insurance that invest in and protect nutrition, health, and education; and political and social inclusion of previously marginalized groups emerge as the essential requirements for poverty reduction, and this book's contributors identify strategies for promoting all three. The Poorest and Hungry is an important resource for policymakers, development specialists, and others concerned with helping the world's poorest people.
Employment for poverty reduction and food security: concept, research issues, and overview. Challenges and scope for an employment-intensive growth strategy. Bangladesh's food-work program and alternatives to improve food security. "Yigong-Daizhen" in China: a new experience with labor-intensive public works in poor areas. India's (Maharashtra) employment guarantee scheme: lessons from long experience. Labor-intensive public works: the experience of Botswana and Tanzania. Employment programs for food security in rural and urban Africa: experiences in Niger and Zimbabwe. Food cash for work in Ethiopia: experiences during famine and macroeconomic reform. Social investment funds and programs in Latin America: their effects on employment and income. Future directions for development and relief with food aid. Implementation of employment programs: key issues and options. Employment for food security: synthesis and policy conclusions.
This work represents IFPRI's first comprehensive analysis of the longitudinal data on 800 households collected between 1986 and 1989 in Pakistan. This unique data set enables researchers to examine the temporal dimensions of food security, income and labor dynamics, consumption and savings dynamics, nutrition and health processes, and many other issues that cannot be adequately addressed using cross-sectional data.
In addressing the pervasive problem of hunger in the developing world, reliable information on food insecurity is essential for effectively targeting assistance, developing interventions, and evaluating progress. Yet arriving at an accurate and comparable measure of food insecurity remains a challenge. This report introduces new estimates of food insecurity based on food acquisition data collected as part of national household expenditure surveys (HESs). The report explores the extent and location of food insecurity, the scientific merit of estimates derived from HES food data, the differences between HES-based estimates and those reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and-ultimately-how HES data can be used to improve the accuracy of the FAO estimates currently used to monitor progress toward reducing hunger
Malnutrition is associated with an inadequate diet, poor health and sanitation services, and insufficient care for young children. A combination of income growth and nutrition interventions are therefore suggested to adequately tackle this issue, yet evidence to support this claim is often not available, especially for African settings. The authors evaluate the joint contribution of income growth and nutrition interventions toward the reduction of malnutrition. Using a four-round panel data set from northwestern Tanzania they estimate the determinants of a child's nutritional status, including household income and the presence of nutrition interventions in the community. The results show that better nutrition is associated with higher income, and that nutrition interventions have a substantial beneficial effect. Policy simulations make clear that if one intends to halve malnutrition rates by 2015 (the Millennium Development Goals objective), income growth will have to be complemented by large-scale program interventions.
Introduction; Food subsidy measures and their nutritional impact: a conceptual overview; Typology of nutrition interventions; Targeting; Cost and administrative concerns of food transfer programs; Other issues related to food subsidies; Comparative analysis of selected nutrition interventions; Conclusions.
Scope of the study and conceptual framework; The study area and its commercialization through agricultural programs; Production effects of commercialization and technological change in rice; Effects on marketed surplus, storage, and income; Food and nonfood consumption effects; Nutritional effects; Conclusions for programs and policy.
Famine debate, conceptual framework, and study approach; Record of drought and household-level consequences in western Sudan; Drought-production relationships; Prices and market disconnections during famines; Implications of drought and famine for consumption and nutrition; Past policies and programs for coping with drought and famine; Policy conclusions.
The integration of traditional agriculture into local, national, and international markets is part of a development strategy oriented toward growth. Crop specialization and market integration are seen to hold the promise of wider employment opportunities, larger incomes, and improved consumption and nutrition for the rural poor. Such agricultural development also leads to the emergence of a rural service sector that provides additional employment. But whether the poor obtain a fair share, directly or indirectly, of the gains from commercialization of agriculture is largely determined by the policies and programs adopted. In Commercialization of Agriculture Under Population Pressure: Effects on Production, Consumption, and Nutrition in Rwanda, Research Report 85, Joachim von Braun, Hartwig de Haen, and Juergen Blanken examine the driving forces and the effects of commercialization in a study site in Rwanda, one of the most densely populated areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. This study represents part of IFPRI's continuing research on ensuring food security and alleviating poverty through agricultural commercialization. The present study assesses the interaction of increased commercialization with population growth and the results for production, household real income, family food consumption, expenditures for nonfood goods and services, and the nutritional status of the sample population. It also develops a long-term perspective for agricultural, employment, and nutrition policies.
Malnutrition can best be addressed by a combination of nutrition specific interventions and nutrition sensitive programs, including social protection. This study reviews mechanisms of transfer program in order to better design nutrition sensitive social protection. Social protection programs typically increase income as well as influence the timing and, to a degree, control of this income. Additionally, social protection programs may achieve further impact on nutrition by fostering linkages with health services or with sanitation programs, and specifically through activities that are related to nutrition education or micronutrient supplementation. This paper discusses what might be expected from such programs and reviews some of the evidence from specific transfer programs.