Essay from the year 2006 in the subject Business economics - Supply, Production, Logistics, grade: 5,0 (excellent), University of Pécs (Faculty of Business and Economics), 14 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Each business or organization is involved in a supply chain - it is hard to imagine any process in production or service providing that is not affected by a supply chain. Supply chains must be managed to coordinate the inputs with the outputs in a company to achieve the appropriate competitive priorities of the firm’s enterprise process. To reach this strategic goal, SCM controls and optimises the key processes that are involved in the value-adding process. Parts of the process are all activities, that are involved in material or information flow. In this context, the management has to decide about several circumstances, where current practice should be critical proved: kind, place and capacity of buffer storage species, number and capacity of means of transport production logistics’ general principles identification and enhancement of interfaces between involved companies determination of production- and transportation lot size in the face of logistics way of organisation of logistic-oriented positions in the firm9
Essay from the year 2006 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, grade: 5,0 (sehr gut), University of Pécs (Faculty of Business and Economics), course: Public Policy I, 23 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: This essay includes a general overview of competition policy in the European Union. Special attention is spent on the development of Competition Policy of the Republic of Slovenia.
Essay from the year 2007 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, grade: 5,0 (sehr gut), University of Pécs (Faculty of Business and Economics), course: Public Policy II, 24 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: As first approach to the topic it seems helpful to me to define which factors make a region. In general the literature mentions three ways how regions could be differentiated: • Definition through enumeration, i.e. with examples • Definition in the negative through enumeration of “non-regions” • Definition on basis if constructive criteria Most common in literature is the last approach, meanwhile the European Union in particular also follows the first possibility for defining the regions within the E.U. As a workable definition of a region the following definition on basis of constructive criteria is suggested: Regions A region is a geographical part of a whole economy that could be identified by means of political and administrative institutions. As constructive criteria a region is defined through free trade between certain regions, mobility of production factors, consistent currency, fiscal and macro-economic policy and shared (superior) institutions. The wider a nations’ area is and the more regions a nation contains, the bigger the chance that the regions have different levels of economic development and economic power. The overall development of an economy is the sum of the development of the individual regions, more exactly the sum of individual economies. From this follows that the economic power of the certain regions must be bettered should the macroeconomic development be improved. This cognition lead to the development of a special field of public policy: regional (economic) policies. Regional policy should achieve two major goals: • maximise economic growth and • minimise social costs As I would show in the next chapter, regional (economic) policy includes a number of instruments. From this the definition of regional policy is as follows: Regional policy Regional policy is the sum of law, strategies and measures for setting and influencing a framework and processes in particular areas of a nation through the government. With special regional policy government seeks to reduce spatial disparities in economic.
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2001 im Fachbereich BWL - Personal und Organisation, Note: ohne Benotung, Hochschule Heilbronn, ehem. Fachhochschule Heilbronn (Fachbereich Betriebswirtschaft), Veranstaltung: Personalführung, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Einleitung Am 13.April dieses Jahres fällte das Thüringer Landgericht eine bis dato einmalige Musterentscheidung. Einen 54-jährigen leitenden Bankangestellten wollte man aus wirtschaftlichen Gründen zur Aufgabe seiner Arbeit bringen und bediente sich dazu systematischen Mobbings. Das Urteil: Die Methoden der beteiligten Bankangestellten grenzte an strafbare Körperverletzung, für den Fall einer Wiederholung setzte das Gericht ein Ordnungsgeld von 50 000 DM fest. Der Mann bekam seine ursprüngliche Position wieder, aus der er zuvor verdrängt wurde. Der Fall aus Thüringen war bestimmt kein Einzelfall, die Dunkelziffer schätzen Experten als sehr hoch ein. Immer häufiger beklagen sich Angestellte über die Tatsache, daß Kollegen und Vorgesetzte ihnen das Arbeitsleben sehr schwer machen. Die Opfer leiden deswegen u.a. an psychischen und physischen Krankheiten. Was heißt "Mobbing" und wie kann dieser unangenehmen Verhaltensform vorgebeugt, vermieden und seitens der Personalführung entgegengewirkt werden? Die folgende Seminararbeit soll darüber Klarheit schaffen. [...]
Essay from the year 2006 in the subject Business economics - Supply, Production, Logistics, grade: 5,0 (sehr gut), University of Pécs (Faculty of Business and Economics), course: Marketing III, 13 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: No innovation or invention in the last decades had a stronger impact on our daily live than the development of the World Wide Web (www, also called “Internet”). Personal computers appeared in offices at the beginning of the 1980es in greater quantities. However, each workstation could used only for its own or within limited networks (for instance within one division of a company). On the other hand, like so often, U.S. military researcher, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) initiated in 1973 a research program to investigate techniques and technologies for interlinking packet networks of various kinds. The objective of this research programme was to develop communication protocols that are essential for the communication between computers and that should allow transparent communication across multiple, linked packet networks. In 1986, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) initiated the development of the NSFNET which, today, provides a major backbone communication service for the internet. Later, the networks began becoming public and emerged. By the end of 1991, the Internet has grown to include about 5’000 networks in over three dozen countries, serving over 700’000 host computers used by over 4’000’000 people. But this was only starting the incredible growth of the web community. Growth rates in Internet access and use of more than 150 per cent per year are still possible ( i.e.: in 2003 the growth in using Internet was 123.8% in Hungary and 166.7% in Malta). So it is not a surprise, that in developed Western European countries about 50% of the whole population in surveys mention the use of the web. As the table in the appendix shows, the share of Internet user is going to align nearly the number of landline telephone extensions.
Essay from the year 2006 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, grade: 4,0 (gut), University of Pécs (Faculty of Business and Economics), course: Business Economics, 13 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: “Almost all market competitors are firms – business organizations (social groupings) that are, for the most part, internally cooperative, not competitive. Firms are the principal suppliers and buyers of most products and services, while consumers (households) generally buy only final goods (...). Typical market transactions involve competition among firms. Many of these firms, including subtypes such as labour unions, can legally own and exchange property and differentiate and isolate their legal liability as a group from the inability of their members.” The competitive-cooperative market system is controlled by formal social regulations we call competition policy. This term refers to the body of laws of a state which govern the extent, and ability, to which bodies can economically compete. They hence to restrict practises that can pull down market competition such as monopoly or cartel. Most nations have an own legal competition framework, and there is a general agreement on what is and what is not acceptable behaviour. “In general, liberalization refers to a relaxation of previous government restrictions, usually in areas of social or economic policy. (...) Most often, the term is used to refer to economic liberalization, especially trade liberalization or capital market liberalization, policies often referred to as neoliberalism. One of the world’s most open trade ad investment regime is the one of the United States. However, a liberalized and deregulated market has to be supported by rules of the game to ensure competition. But although economic liberalization often is associated with privatization, the two can be quite separate processes. As an example, in the European Union the gas and electricity markets were liberalized a few years ago, instituting a system of competition; but some of the leading European energy companies (such as EDF or Vattenfall) remain partially or complete in public ownership. “Liberalized and privatized public services may be dominated by just a big few big companies, particularly in sectors with high capital costs, or high sunk cost, such as water, gas and electricity. In some cases they may remain legal monopolies, at least for some part of the market” (i.e. parts of postal service in Germany a few years ago).
Essay from the year 2007 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, grade: 4,0 (gut), University of Pécs (Faculty of Business and Economics), course: Corporate Finance, 26 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Two fields of policy have a strong impact on a national economy and its development. The first of the two policies that are designed to supplement each other, falls into governments responsibility, more exactly it is formulated by the minister of finance. This one is fiscal policy. The second one, monetary policy, is designed by the national bank. For making clear the difference between both I would like to explain both policies as an introduction to the topic of this paper. “The government’s choice of tax and spending programs, which influences the amount and maturity of government debt as well as the level, composition, and distribution of national output and income. Many summary indicators of fiscal policy exist. Some, such as the budget surplus or deficit, are narrowly budgetary. Others attempt to reflect aspects of how fiscal policy affects the economy. For example, a decrease in the standarized-budget surplus (or increase in the standarized-budget deficit) measures the short-term stimulus of demand that results from higher spending or lower taxes. The fiscal gap measures whether current fiscal policy implies a budget that is close enough to balance to be sustainable over the long term. The fiscal gap represents the amount by which taxes would have to be raised, or spending cut, to keep the ratio of debt to GDP from rising forever. Other important measures of fiscal policy include the ratios of total taxes and total spending to GDP.” In the way of deciding about the amount of expenditures and premises for spending, fiscal policy is an important tool for government for setting macroeconomic conditions.