Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2012 in the subject Law - European and International Law, Intellectual Properties, grade: A, , course: LAW, language: English, abstract: We must spare no effort to free all of humanity, and above all our children and grandchildren, from the threat of living on a planet irredeemably spoilt by human activities, and whose resources would no longer be sufficient for their needs (United Nations Millennium Declaration, GA Res. 55/2). Since the increasing pressure on ‘’ fair trade’’ emphasized by massive street demonstrations at the 1999 Ministerial Conference in Seattle, the World Trade Organization( WTO) has had to face new objectives raised by political, religious and ideological interests, labor, animal and women’s right. The environmental issue has moved beyond local and even national boundaries into the foreign policy debate, since actions in one country have had adverse environmental effects on another. As a consequence, public interests has intensified, in the light of high profile trade and environmental concerns that extends into some of these new sensitive areas such as the role of science in risk assessment, the conservation of endangered species, the cross border movement of genetically modified organisms( GMOs) and measures to protect public health. Economists, lawyers and environmentalists have called for international agreements, which abrogate national sovereignty and delegate foreign policy to international agreements. Trade and environmental issues have come to the forefront of foreign policy, challenging and reshaping traditional interactions between trade and environment. Varieties of demands on the growing lists of trade and environmental issues have driven international treaties and agreements, which seem to have high costs with low benefits or ‘’ a chilling effect’’ (Conca, 2000). Due to new problems and demands, the density of international institutions has risen in the new world order. With increasing numbers of international treaties and organizations, different international norms have become more intrusive on each other. This proposal seeks to study’’ international law and its relationship to trade, environment and sovereignty, with focus on Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety’’ as a case study to ‘’evaluate a principle research question: what are the contradictions between different approaches towards the environment of the WTO and multilateral environmental agreement (MEAs)? The aim of the case study is to find general contradictions between the WTO and MEAs and to analyze the overlap issues between different sets of multilateral agreements. [...]
Doktorarbeit / Dissertation aus dem Jahr 2012 im Fachbereich Jura - Europarecht, Völkerrecht, Internationales Privatrecht, , Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: The dissertation investigated the interrelationship among three variables: International law, environment and sovereignty. The environmental issue has move beyond local and even national boundaries into the foreign policy debate, since actions in one country have an adverse environmental effects on the others. As a consequence, public interests has intensified, in the light of high profile trade and environmental concerns that extends into some of those new sensitive areas such as the role of science in risk management, the conservation of endangered species, the cross border movement of Genetically Modified Organisms and measures to protect public health. The study aimed at searching for the common contradictions among the three variables in the dissertation, with focus on the Cartagena Protocol. The study was undertaken by using the integration of two stages of approaches: employing a multiple empirical study as topics of an interview oriented method; and applying theoretical devices to guide the dimensions of the conceptual framework and the interpretive findings. The data were collected from sources that included books, journals, official documents, Internet websites and interviews. From all these generated ideas, analysis of the dynamics of trade and environmental issues between regimes and member states were carried out. The findings from the study showed that liberalization and expansion of the trade regime have resulted in a unique organizational structure and developed various non-trade related issues; MEAs’ trade measures have been negotiated by different aims and desires from the WTO’s environment related rules. In the case of Biosafety Protocol, there were dilemmas during negotiations on conditions that aimed to make strong rules possible. The study found out that the WTO and the Cartagena Protocol on Diversity will impose slightly different regulations as against the sovereign laws on biosafety. Hence, the relationship between the WTO and the Biosafety Protocol Agreements has led to debates over their extremes; and constitutionalism of regimes has also raised judicial power over bureaucratic power. It is recommended that the complexity of international negotiations and disputes from potential tensions can also be prevented by encouraging an exchange of experts between MEAs and the WTO.
Scientific Essay from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, , language: English, abstract: Article 2, paragraph 3 of the UN Charter requires that: "All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security and justice are not endangered. The UN General Assembly, in adopting its 1982 Manila Declaration on the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes, emphasized the need to exert utmost efforts in order to settlement any conflicts and disputes between States exclusively by peaceful means’’ and that’’ the question of the peaceful settlement of disputes should represent one of the concerns for States and for the United Nations". In age of nuclear weapons, the importance of the principle of peaceful settlement of international disputes is apparent.
Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - Political Theory and the History of Ideas Journal, , language: English, abstract: Constitutionalism form the core of good government in the modern democratic world to check on the powers of the different organs of government and the protection of liberty and fundamental rights of individuals within that sovereign territory. All efforts are made by the developed and the developing countries in upholding the rule of law, which are quaranteed through the constitution, to promote democracy for a just and fair society. However, good the notion of the constitution is, there are different definitions applied by different stakeholders on the notion of what forms a good democratic polity and good constitution and constitutionalism. It is against this background that an elaborate research has been conducted by the author of the subject matter as part of the requirement in the award of Doctor of Juridical Science
Document from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - Miscellaneous, St. Lawrence University (SCHOOL OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES), language: English, abstract: Legal divisions and the laws have a significant impact on the creation of public policy. Discover the relationship between law and public policy and even vital knowledge available to public policy practitioners gain a solid background in legal concepts, cases, and current trends that will give you a head that if you decide to pursue a law degree, if you encounter legal questions in your work plan.
Document from the year 2012 in the subject Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance, St. Lawrence University (POSTGRADUATE STUDIES), course: MBA/JD, language: English, abstract: This course is one of the fundamental in the field of Business Management. It core and paramount in the modern world business and learning and we expect the student to gain a lot from this book, written by a rare species of a human being
Document from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - Miscellaneous, St. Lawrence University (SCHOOL OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES), language: English, abstract: The basic nature of any economy lies in the scarcity of its productive resources in relation to its want. Our wants are ever increasing and recurring while availability of resources for satisfying them lags behind. An economy is constantly engaged in the solution of this eternal problem of scarcity. It therefore, undertakes various activities where by the available supply of resources is augmented, existing supplies are utilized more effectively, and some additional objectives like stability, growth, and distribution etc are met with as fully as possible. The division of economic activities between public and private sectors of the economy should not be a haphazard one, but should be based upon relevant economic and socio-political objectives and within the constraints of the country’s institutional framework. Accordingly, in a capitalist economy the main task of providing goods and services is assigned to the private sector in which individual economic units are motivated by economic rationality and guided by the market mechanism in their decision making. The owners of factors of production are guided by the income which they earn in alternative employments, the investors are guided by the profitability of alternative investments; the consumers try to maximize their consumer surplus and so on. In a pure market economy, virtually all goods and services are supplied by the private firms for profit and all exchanges of goods and services takes place through markets, with prices determined by free interplay of supply and demand. Individuals would be able to purchase goods and services freely, according to their tastes and economic capacity( their income and wealth), given market determined prices.
Document from the year 2012 in the subject Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance, St. Lawrence University (POSTGRADUATE STUDIES), course: MBA/JD, language: English, abstract: It is an interesting book to read to for introducing one to the gist of management. [...] In today's tough and uncertain economy, a company needs strong managers to lead its staff toward accomplishing business goals. But managers are more than just leaders — they're problem solvers, cheerleaders, and planners as well. And managers don't come in one-size-fits-all shapes or forms. Managers fulfill many roles and have many different responsibilities at each level of management within an organization. [...]
Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2012 in the subject Law - Miscellaneous, grade: A, , course: LLM INTERNATIONAL LAW, language: English, abstract: The monopoly of the use of force granted to modern States by its citizens is a relatively new phenomenon. Private armies have been operating in European States till the XIX century. The use of mercenaries has been historically a constant phenomenon till almost the end of the XX century, when their activities were criminalized by the international community. Parallel to that phenomenon during the European colonial expansion over all continents, governments had authorized two other forms of similar violence by non-state actors: the corsairs and the colonial merchant companies.
Document from the year 2013 in the subject Law - Miscellaneous, grade: A, St. Lawrence University (SCHOOL OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES), language: English, abstract: Rights and duties are correlative conceptions, that is to say, every right carries with it a corresponding obligation. They are like the two sides of a coin. Rights depend upon duties. “It is only in a world of duties that rights have significance”. Also, every right requires social recognition, without such recognition, rights are empty claims. Rights do not exist in a vacuum. They require the sanction of society. A right is likewise not a selfish claim. It is a disinterested desire; it is something which is capable of universal application. In asserting my right, I am really rendering a public service and when I fight for the rights of others, I may do so at great personal loss or inconvenience to myself. Older societies as a rule did not recognize rights to any great extent. They had only petitions and charities. Modern societies on the other hand give a very important place to rights. The French Revolution did not ask for charity; it demanded the rights of men. Some, if not all, of our present day constitution’s guarantee certain fundamental rights for their citizens. Rights have a tendency to grow. New rights frequently come into being, e.g. the right to work, the right to strike, and the right to retain one’s job when one is on strike etc.