Contents include: Sets and Relations — Cantor's concept of a set, etc.
Natural Number Sequence — Zorn's Lemma, etc.
Extension of Natural Numbers to Real Numbers
Logic — the Statement and Predicate Calculus, etc.
Informal Axiomatic Mathematics
Boolean AlgebraInformal Axiomatic Set TheorySeveral Algebraic Theories — Rings, Integral Domains, Fields, etc.
First-Order Theories — Metamathematics, etc.
Symbolic logic does not figure significantly until the final chapter. The main theme of the book is mathematics as a system seen through the elaboration of real numbers; set theory and logic are seen s efficient tools in constructing axioms necessary to the system.
Mathematics students at the undergraduate level, and those who seek a rigorous but not unnecessarily technical introduction to mathematical concepts, will welcome the return to print of this most lucid work.
"Professor Stoll . . . has given us one of the best introductory texts we have seen." — Cosmos.
"In the reviewer's opinion, this is an excellent book, and in addition to its use as a textbook (it contains a wealth of exercises and examples) can be recommended to all who wish an introduction to mathematical logic less technical than standard treatises (to which it can also serve as preliminary reading)." — Mathematical Reviews.
The opening chapter covers the basic paradoxes and the history of set theory and provides a motivation for the study. The second and third chapters cover the basic definitions and axioms and the theory of relations and functions. Beginning with the fourth chapter, equipollence, finite sets and cardinal numbers are dealt with. Chapter five continues the development with finite ordinals and denumerable sets. Chapter six, on rational numbers and real numbers, has been arranged so that it can be omitted without loss of continuity. In chapter seven, transfinite induction and ordinal arithmetic are introduced and the system of axioms is revised. The final chapter deals with the axiom of choice. Throughout, emphasis is on axioms and theorems; proofs are informal. Exercises supplement the text. Much coverage is given to intuitive ideas as well as to comparative development of other systems of set theory. Although a degree of mathematical sophistication is necessary, especially for the final two chapters, no previous work in mathematical logic or set theory is required.
For the student of mathematics, set theory is necessary for the proper understanding of the foundations of mathematics. Professor Suppes in Axiomatic Set Theory provides a very clear and well-developed approach. For those with more than a classroom interest in set theory, the historical references and the coverage of the rationale behind the axioms will provide a strong background to the major developments in the field. 1960 edition.
New to the Fourth EditionTwo new chapters that serve as an introduction to abstract algebra via the theory of groups, covering abstract reasoning as well as many examples and applications New material on inequalities, counting methods, the inclusion-exclusion principle, and Euler’s phi function Numerous new exercises, with solutions to the odd-numbered ones
Through careful explanations and examples, this popular textbook illustrates the power and beauty of basic mathematical concepts in number theory, discrete mathematics, analysis, and abstract algebra. Written in a rigorous yet accessible style, it continues to provide a robust bridge between high school and higher-level mathematics, enabling students to study more advanced courses in abstract algebra and analysis.
In this volume, the distinguished mathematician offers an exposition of set theory and the continuum hypothesis that employs intuitive explanations as well as detailed proofs. The self-contained treatment includes background material in logic and axiomatic set theory as well as an account of Kurt Gödel's proof of the consistency of the continuum hypothesis. An invaluable reference book for mathematicians and mathematical theorists, this text is suitable for graduate and postgraduate students and is rich with hints and ideas that will lead readers to further work in mathematical logic.
"This book is a very specialized but broadly useful introduction to set theory. It is aimed at 'the beginning student of advanced mathematics' … who wants to understand the set-theoretic underpinnings of the mathematics he already knows or will learn soon. It is also useful to the professional mathematician who knew these underpinnings at one time but has now forgotten exactly how they go. … A good reference for how set theory is used in other parts of mathematics." — Allen Stenger, The Mathematical Association of America, September 2011.
The book's first five chapters give an exposition of the theory of infinity-categories that emphasizes their role as a generalization of ordinary categories. Many of the fundamental ideas from classical category theory are generalized to the infinity-categorical setting, such as limits and colimits, adjoint functors, ind-objects and pro-objects, locally accessible and presentable categories, Grothendieck fibrations, presheaves, and Yoneda's lemma. A sixth chapter presents an infinity-categorical version of the theory of Grothendieck topoi, introducing the notion of an infinity-topos, an infinity-category that resembles the infinity-category of topological spaces in the sense that it satisfies certain axioms that codify some of the basic principles of algebraic topology. A seventh and final chapter presents applications that illustrate connections between the theory of higher topoi and ideas from classical topology.
An exciting new direction for combinatorics, this book will interest graduate students and researchers working in mathematical subdisciplines requiring the mastery and practice of high-dimensional Ramsey theory.
The book is divided between introductory and advanced lectures. The introductory lectures address Kähler manifolds, variations of Hodge structure, mixed Hodge structures, the Hodge theory of maps, period domains and period mappings, algebraic cycles (up to and including the Bloch-Beilinson conjecture) and Chow groups, sheaf cohomology, and a new treatment of Grothendieck’s algebraic de Rham theorem. The advanced lectures address a Hodge-theoretic perspective on Shimura varieties, the spread philosophy in the study of algebraic cycles, absolute Hodge classes (including a new, self-contained proof of Deligne’s theorem on absolute Hodge cycles), and variation of mixed Hodge structures.
The contributors include Patrick Brosnan, James Carlson, Eduardo Cattani, François Charles, Mark Andrea de Cataldo, Fouad El Zein, Mark L. Green, Phillip A. Griffiths, Matt Kerr, Lê Dũng Tráng, Luca Migliorini, Jacob P. Murre, Christian Schnell, and Loring W. Tu.
Although set theory begins in the intuitive and the concrete, it ascends to a very high degree of abstraction. All that is necessary to its grasp, declares author Joseph Breuer, is patience. Breuer illustrates the grounding of finite sets in arithmetic, permutations, and combinations, which provides the terminology and symbolism for further study. Discussions of general theory lead to a study of ordered sets, concluding with a look at the paradoxes of set theory and the nature of formalism and intuitionalism. Answers to exercises incorporated throughout the text appear at the end, along with an appendix featuring glossaries and other helpful information.
A historical introduction presents a brief account of the growth of set theory, with special emphasis on problems that led to the development of the various systems of axiomatic set theory. Subsequent chapters explore classes and sets, functions, relations, partially ordered classes, and the axiom of choice. Other subjects include natural and cardinal numbers, finite and infinite sets, the arithmetic of ordinal numbers, transfinite recursion, and selected topics in the theory of ordinals and cardinals. This updated edition features new material by author Charles C. Pinter.
Written in an engaging and straightforward style, and assuming little background in mathematics, the book is rigorous but accessible to non-mathematicians. Using databases as an entry to category theory, it begins with sets and functions, then introduces the reader to notions that are fundamental in mathematics: monoids, groups, orders, and graphs -- categories in disguise. After explaining the "big three" concepts of category theory -- categories, functors, and natural transformations -- the book covers other topics, including limits, colimits, functor categories, sheaves, monads, and operads. The book explains category theory by examples and exercises rather than focusing on theorems and proofs. It includes more than 300 exercises, with solutions.
Category Theory for the Sciences is intended to create a bridge between the vast array of mathematical concepts used by mathematicians and the models and frameworks of such scientific disciplines as computation, neuroscience, and physics.
As Cantor's sometime collaborator, David Hilbert, remarked, "No one will drive us from the paradise that Cantor has created." This volume offers a guided tour of modern mathematics' Garden of Eden, beginning with perspectives on the finite universe and classes and Aristotelian logic. Author Mary Tiles further examines permutations, combinations, and infinite cardinalities; numbering the continuum; Cantor's transfinite paradise; axiomatic set theory; logical objects and logical types; and independence results and the universe of sets. She concludes with views of the constructs and reality of mathematical structure.
Philosophers with only a basic grounding in mathematics, as well as mathematicians who have taken only an introductory course in philosophy, will find an abundance of intriguing topics in this text, which is appropriate for undergraduate-and graduate-level courses.
The story begins with Leibniz in the 17th century and then focuses on Boole, Frege, Cantor, Hilbert, and Gödel, before turning to Turing. Turing’s analysis of algorithmic processes led to a single, all-purpose machine that could be programmed to carry out such processes—the computer. Davis describes how this incredible group, with lives as extraordinary as their accomplishments, grappled with logical reasoning and its mechanization. By investigating their achievements and failures, he shows how these pioneers paved the way for modern computing.
Bringing the material up to date, in this revised edition Davis discusses the success of the IBM Watson on Jeopardy, reorganizes the information on incompleteness, and adds information on Konrad Zuse. A distinguished prize-winning logician, Martin Davis has had a career of more than six decades devoted to the important interface between logic and computer science. His expertise, combined with his genuine love of the subject and excellent storytelling, make him the perfect person to tell this story.
Unlike similar textbooks, this one begins with logic since it is the underlying language of mathematics and the basis of reasoned arguments. The text then discusses deductive mathematical systems and the systems of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers, and real numbers.
It also covers elementary topics in set theory, explores various properties of relations and functions, and proves several theorems using induction. The final chapters introduce the concept of cardinalities of sets and the concepts and proofs of real analysis and group theory. In the appendix, the author includes some basic guidelines to follow when writing proofs.
This new edition includes more than 125 new exercises in sections titled More Challenging Exercises. Also, numerous examples illustrate in detail how to write proofs and show how to solve problems. These examples can serve as models for students to emulate when solving exercises.
Several biographical sketches and historical comments have been included to enrich and enliven the text. Written in a conversational style, yet maintaining the proper level of mathematical rigor, this accessible book teaches students to reason logically, read proofs critically, and write valid mathematical proofs. It prepares them to succeed in more advanced mathematics courses, such as abstract algebra and analysis.
Exploring an active area of mathematics that studies the complexity of equivalence relations and classification problems, Invariant Descriptive Set Theory presents an introduction to the basic concepts, methods, and results of this theory. It brings together techniques from various areas of mathematics, such as algebra, topology, and logic, which have diverse applications to other fields.
After reviewing classical and effective descriptive set theory, the text studies Polish groups and their actions. It then covers Borel reducibility results on Borel, orbit, and general definable equivalence relations. The author also provides proofs for numerous fundamental results, such as the Glimm–Effros dichotomy, the Burgess trichotomy theorem, and the Hjorth turbulence theorem. The next part describes connections with the countable model theory of infinitary logic, along with Scott analysis and the isomorphism relation on natural classes of countable models, such as graphs, trees, and groups. The book concludes with applications to classification problems and many benchmark equivalence relations.
By illustrating the relevance of invariant descriptive set theory to other fields of mathematics, this self-contained book encourages readers to further explore this very active area of research.
Starting with an explanation of all the basic logical terms and related operations, the text progresses through a stage-by-stage elaboration that proves the fundamental theorems of finite sets. It focuses on the Bernays theory of finite classes and finite sets, exploring the system's basis and development, including Stage I and Stage II theorems, the theory of finite ordinals, and the theory of finite classes and finite sets. This volume represents an excellent text for undergraduates studying intermediate or advanced logic as well as a fine reference for professional mathematicians.
Starting with a survey of questions on weight, the text discusses the primes, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, rationals and irrationals, tiling, tiling and electricity, probability, infinite sets, and many other topics. Each subject illustrates a significant idea and lends itself easily to experiments and problems. Useful appendices offer an overview of the basic ideas of arithmetic, the rudiments of algebra, suggestions on teaching mathematics, and much more, including answers and comments for selected exercises.
Clearly written and frequently cited in the mathematical literature, this book is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students of mathematics with some aptitude for mathematical reasoning and prior exposure to symbolic logic. Suitable as a source of supplementary readings in a course on set theory, it also functions as a primary text in a course on the philosophy of mathematics.
The first part of the book focuses on core components, including subalgebras, congruences, lattices, direct and subdirect products, isomorphism theorems, a clone of operations, terms, free algebras, Birkhoff’s theorem, and standard Maltsev conditions. The second part covers topics that demonstrate the power and breadth of the subject. The author discusses the consequences of Jónsson’s lemma, finitely and nonfinitely based algebras, definable principal congruences, and the work of Foster and Pixley on primal and quasiprimal algebras. He also includes a proof of Murskiĭ’s theorem on primal algebras and presents McKenzie’s characterization of directly representable varieties, which clearly shows the power of the universal algebraic toolbox. The last chapter covers the rudiments of tame congruence theory.
Throughout the text, a series of examples illustrates concepts as they are introduced and helps students understand how universal algebra sheds light on topics they have already studied, such as Abelian groups and commutative rings. Suitable for newcomers to the field, the book also includes carefully selected exercises that reinforce the concepts and push students to a deeper understanding of the theorems and techniques.
The book enables readers to understand:What does it mean for a problem to be unsolvable or to be NP-complete? What is meant by a computation and what is a general model of a computer? What does it mean for an algorithm to exist and what kinds of problems have no algorithm? What problems have algorithms but the algorithm may take centuries to finish?
Developed from the authors’ course on computational complexity theory, the text is suitable for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students without a strong background in theoretical computer science. Each chapter presents the fundamentals, examples, complete proofs of theorems, and a wide range of exercises.
In this book, the authors present an overview of important concepts and results in calculus and real analysis by considering false statements, which may appear to be true at first glance. The book covers topics concerning the functions of real variables, starting with elementary properties, moving to limits and continuity, and then to differentiation and integration. The first part of the book describes single-variable functions, while the second part covers the functions of two variables.
The many examples presented throughout the book typically start at a very basic level and become more complex during the development of exposition. At the end of each chapter, supplementary exercises of different levels of complexity are provided, the most difficult of them with a hint to the solution.
This book is intended for students who are interested in developing a deeper understanding of the topics of calculus. The gathered counterexamples may also be used by calculus instructors in their classes.
The only way to understand mathematics is by doing mathematics. The reader will learn the language of axioms and theorems and will write convincing and cogent proofs using quantifiers. Students will solve many puzzles and encounter some mysteries and challenging problems.
The emphasis is on proof. To progress towards mathematical maturity, it is necessary to be trained in two aspects: the ability to read and understand a proof and the ability to write a proof.
The journey begins with elements of logic and techniques of proof, then with elementary set theory, relations and functions. Peano axioms for positive integers and for natural numbers follow, in particular mathematical and other forms of induction. Next is the construction of integers including some elementary number theory. The notions of finite and infinite sets, cardinality of counting techniques and combinatorics illustrate more techniques of proof.
For more advanced readers, the text concludes with sets of rational numbers, the set of reals and the set of complex numbers. Topics, like Zorn’s lemma and the axiom of choice are included. More challenging problems are marked with a star.
All these materials are optional, depending on the instructor and the goals of the course.
Understanding Mathematical Proof describes the nature of mathematical proof, explores the various techniques that mathematicians adopt to prove their results, and offers advice and strategies for constructing proofs. It will improve students’ ability to understand proofs and construct correct proofs of their own.
The first chapter of the text introduces the kind of reasoning that mathematicians use when writing their proofs and gives some example proofs to set the scene. The book then describes basic logic to enable an understanding of the structure of both individual mathematical statements and whole mathematical proofs. It also explains the notions of sets and functions and dissects several proofs with a view to exposing some of the underlying features common to most mathematical proofs. The remainder of the book delves further into different types of proof, including direct proof, proof using contrapositive, proof by contradiction, and mathematical induction. The authors also discuss existence and uniqueness proofs and the role of counter examples.
New to the Third Edition
The third edition of this popular text contains three new chapters that provide an introduction to mathematical analysis. These new chapters introduce the ideas of limits of sequences and continuous functions as well as several interesting applications, such as the use of the intermediate value theorem to prove the existence of nth roots. This edition also includes solutions to all of the odd-numbered exercises.
By carefully explaining various topics in analysis, geometry, number theory, and combinatorics, this textbook illustrates the power and beauty of basic mathematical concepts. Written in a rigorous yet accessible style, it continues to provide a robust bridge between high school and higher level mathematics, enabling students to study further courses in abstract algebra and analysis.
This book offers an introduction to modern ideas about infinity and their implications for mathematics. It unifies ideas from set theory and mathematical logic, and traces their effects on mainstream mathematical topics of today, such as number theory and combinatorics. The treatment is historical and partly informal, but with due attention to the subtleties of the subject.
Ideas are shown to evolve from natural mathematical questions about the nature of infinity and the nature of proof, set against a background of broader questions and developments in mathematics. A particular aim of the book is to acknowledge some important but neglected figures in the history of infinity, such as Post and Gentzen, alongside the recognized giants Cantor and Gödel.
New to the Fifth Edition
A new section covering basic ideas and results about nonstandard models of number theory A second appendix that introduces modal propositional logic An expanded bibliography Additional exercises and selected answers
This long-established text continues to expose students to natural proofs and set-theoretic methods. Only requiring some experience in abstract mathematical thinking, it offers enough material for either a one- or two-semester course on mathematical logic.
An Introduction to Random Sets provides a friendly but solid initiation into the theory of random sets. It builds the foundation for studying random set data, which, viewed as imprecise or incomplete observations, are ubiquitous in today's technological society. The author, widely known for his best-selling A First Course in Fuzzy Logic text as well as his pioneering work in random sets, explores motivations, such as coarse data analysis and uncertainty analysis in intelligent systems, for studying random sets as stochastic models. Other topics include random closed sets, related uncertainty measures, the Choquet integral, the convergence of capacity functionals, and the statistical framework for set-valued observations. An abundance of examples and exercises reinforce the concepts discussed.
Designed as a textbook for a course at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level, this book will serve equally well for self-study and as a reference for researchers in fields such as statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science.
Originally invented in 1974 by Marsha Falco and officially released in 1991, SET has gained a widespread, loyal following. SET's eighty-one cards consist of one, two, or three symbols of different shapes (diamond, oval, squiggle), shadings (solid, striped, open), and colors (green, purple, red). In order to win, players must identify “sets” of three cards for which each characteristic is the same—or different—on all the cards. SET’s strategic and unique design opens connections to a plethora of mathematical disciplines, including geometry, modular arithmetic, combinatorics, probability, linear algebra, and computer simulations. The Joy of SET looks at these areas as well as avenues for further mathematical exploration. As the authors show, the relationship between SET and mathematics runs in both directions—playing this game has generated new mathematics, and the math has led to new questions about the game itself.
The first book devoted to the mathematics of one of today’s most popular card games, The Joy of SET will entertain and enlighten the game enthusiast in all of us.
Describing a historically oriented, agent-based philosophy of mathematics, Ferreirós shows how the mathematical tradition evolved from Euclidean geometry to the real numbers and set-theoretic structures. He argues for the need to take into account a whole web of mathematical and other practices that are learned and linked by agents, and whose interplay acts as a constraint. Ferreirós demonstrates how advanced mathematics, far from being a priori, is based on hypotheses, in contrast to elementary math, which has strong cognitive and practical roots and therefore enjoys certainty.
Offering a wealth of philosophical and historical insights, Mathematical Knowledge and the Interplay of Practices challenges us to rethink some of our most basic assumptions about mathematics, its objectivity, and its relationship to culture and science.
Algebraic and categorical realizability is staged on several levels, addressing new computability questions with omitting types realizably. Further applications to computing with ultrafilters on sets and Turing degree computability are examined. Functorial models computability is presented with algebraic trees realizing intuitionistic types of models. New homotopy techniques are applied to Marin Lof types of computations with model categories. Functorial computability, induction, and recursion are examined in view of the above, presenting new computability techniques with monad transformations and projective sets.
This informative volume will give readers a complete new feel for models, computability, recursion sets, complexity, and realizability. This book pulls together functorial thoughts, models, computability, sets, recursion, arithmetic hierarchy, filters, with real tree computing areas, presented in a very intuitive manner for university teaching, with exercises for every chapter. The book will also prove valuable for faculty in computer science and mathematics.