There's a running joke among radiologists: finding a tumor in a mammogram is akin to finding a snowball in a blizzard. A bit of medical gallows humor, this simile illustrates the difficulties of finding signals (the snowball) against a background of noise (the blizzard). Doctors are faced with similar difficulties every day when sifting through piles of data from blood tests to X-rays to endless lists of patient symptoms.
Diagnoses are often just educated guesses, and prognoses less certain still. There is a significant amount of uncertainty in the daily practice of medicine, resulting in confusion and potentially deadly complications. Dr. Steven Hatch argues that instead of ignoring this uncertainty, we should embrace it. By digging deeply into a number of rancorous controversies, from breast cancer screening to blood pressure management, Hatch shows us how medicine can fail—sometimes spectacularly—when patients and doctors alike place too much faith in modern medical technology. The key to good health might lie in the ability to recognize the hype created by so many medical reports, sense when to push a physician for more testing, or resist a physician's enthusiasm when unnecessary tests or treatments are being offered.
Both humbling and empowering, Snowball in a Blizzard lays bare the inescapable murkiness that permeates the theory and practice of modern medicine. Essential reading for physicians and patients alike, this book shows how, by recognizing rather than denying that uncertainty, we can all make better health decisions.
In a clear and engaging style, How to Read a Paper demystifies evidence-based medicine and explains how to critically appraise published research and also put the findings into practice.
An ideal introduction to evidence-based medicine, How to Read a Paper explains what to look for in different types of papers and how best to evaluate the literature and then implement the findings in an evidence-based, patient-centred way. Helpful checklist summaries of the key points in each chapter provide a useful framework for applying the principles of evidence-based medicine in everyday practice.
This fifth edition has been fully updated with new examples and references to reflect recent developments and current practice. It also includes two new chapters on applying evidence-based medicine with patients and on the common criticisms of evidence-based medicine and responses.
How to Read a Paper is a standard text for medical and nursing schools as well as a friendly guide for everyone wanting to teach or learn the basics of evidence-based medicine.
Alfredo Morabia's lucid retelling sheds new light on the historical triumphs of epidemiological research and allows for contemporary readers, patients, and nontechnical audiences to make sense of the immense amount of health information disseminated by the media. By drawing from both historical and contemporary sources, Morabia provides the reader with the tools to differentiate health beliefs from health knowledge. The book covers important topics, including the H1N1 swine flu epidemic, breast cancer, the effects of aspirin, and the link between cigarettes and lung cancer. Enigmas of Health and Disease is a concise narrative helping patients and health providers develop a more informed relationship.
asking clinical questions
searching for answers
discriminating good from poor information and research
using the answers to make clinical decisions.
This attractive, colour workbook provides a clear explanation of EBP skills and concepts. Written by internationally respected authors, this expanded and updated edition has been developed from evidence-based practice workshops run by the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine at the University of Queensland and Oxford, and contains information and exercises to help health professionals learn how to use EBP in their clinical practice.
Get expert advice from Dr. Steven McGee, an internationally respected authority in physical examination and assessment, pain management, and education in general internal medicine.
See exactly which studies document the significance of various findings thanks to thousands of up-to-date references. Apply the latest knowledge on hot topics such as the value of physical examination in taking care of the ICU patient, accurately diagnosing the etiology of systolic murmurs, diagnosing osteoarthritis and acute vertigo in the dizzy patient, diagnosing hemorrhagic stroke, and diagnosing pleural effusions.
Implement the most current evidence-based approaches for evaluating stance and gait, Schamroths sign (for clubbing), dementia, prediction of falls, hepatopulmonary syndrome, atrial fibrillation, relative bradycardia, tourniquet test (for dengue infections), acute stroke, and pleural effusion.
Assess the pretest probability of disease, given particular signs or symptoms, with new at-a-glance tables.
Make effective decisions thanks to updated content throughout, including new EBM boxes covering over 250 recent studies on physical diagnosisensuring that all diagnostic information (i.e., sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios) is up to date.
Comprised of 16 chapters, this book begins with a historical background on bacteriology, followed by a discussion on the biology of bacteria. A classification of bacteria is then presented, and infections caused by bacteria are described. Subsequent chapters focus on body defenses against bacterial infections; killing of bacteria through disinfection and sterilization; antibacterial therapy; and collection of bacteriological specimens as part of bacteriological diagnosis. Infections of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and the nervous system are also analyzed. The final chapter is devoted to elementary parasitology.
This monograph is intended for nurses interested in learning more about microbiology and bacteriology.
Organized into three sections encompassing four parts, this book begins with an overview of the size, extent, and progress of peripheral nerve lesions. This text then discusses the nature of the simple movement pattern seen in muscle function testing. Other chapters consider the conditions for analytical physiotherapy and determination of the work capacity of the part of the body being tested. This book discusses as well the possible errors and mistakes that might occur during testing and might decrease the validity of the assessment. The final chapter deals with the demand for a better and a more rational method to therapeutic exercise.
This book is a valuable resource for physiotherapists, orthopedic surgeons, physiologists, neurologists, and rheumatologists.
The book details the systemic aspects of diseases. The topics discussed include various eye conditions such as conjunctivitis, episcleritis, keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, and cataract. Endocrine, circulatory, rheumatological, neurological, pulmonary, and blood disorders are covered as well.
Physicians and students of medicine and pathology will find the book very useful.
A Concise Guide to Clinical Trials provides a comprehensive yet easy-to-read overview of the design, conduct and analysis of trials. It requires no prior knowledge on the subject as the important concepts are introduced throughout. There are chapters that distinguish between the different types of trials, and an introduction to systematic reviews, health-related quality of life and health economic evaluation. The book also covers the ethical and legal requirements in setting up a clinical trial due to an increase in governance responsibilities and regulations.
This practical guidebook is ideal for busy clinicians and other health professionals who do not have enough time to attend courses or search through extensive textbooks. It will help anyone involved in undertaking clinical research, or those reading about trials. The book is aimed at:Those wishing to learn about clinical trials for the first time, or as a quick reference guide, for example as part of a taught course on clinical trials Health professionals who wish to conduct their own trials, or participate in other people’s studies People who work in pharmaceutical companies, grant funding organisations, or regulatory agencies
The first text of its kind, Translation of Evidence into Nursing and Health Care Practice helps graduate students in Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) courses meet the core competency requirements, content, and knowledge of the DNP curriculum. This revolutionary guide focuses particularly on the challenges of translating evidence into practice, one of the DNP course competencies.
Written by nursing faculty who are currently involved in clinical practice and who translate evidence as part of their practice activities, this textbook presents an interdisciplinary application that provides readers with content for both clinical-based and non-clinical based DNP courses. Divided into three main sections, it discusses theoretical and practical challenges to translation of evidence into practice; methods and translation techniques to employ this translation across settings; and related evaluation strategies to demonstrate improvement in practice and clinical care outcomes.Key Topics:
Integration and application of knowledge into practice Leading and evaluating change Leadership strategies for translation Interdisciplinary application across settings Outcomes management for improvement of direct and indirect care Other important features include case studies, suggested activities for application of the content for learning, and an extensive list of references, current web links, and other applicable resources for enhancing graduate student learning.
Provide the expectant mother with information and guidance regarding the pregnancy, childbirth and care of the newborn.
Offer a wide range of psychosocial support and identify the need of such support; attention should be paid to the life situation and well-being of the parents and the whole family, as well as factors contributing to or possibly decreasing the quality of life the changes in family relations and resources brought about by the baby. Identify any health risks to the foetus or mother so that any problems can be duly attended to, either at the antenatal clinic or by specialist intervention. Provide routine care of various illnesses and complaints. Identify situations which require specialist health care.
Much more than a text describing how to perform a history and physical examination, DeGowin's Diagnostic Examination is unmatched in its ability to help you logically assess symptoms and physical signs to facilitate development of reasonable, testable diagnostic hypotheses.
Part physical examination primer, part differential diagnosis guide, DeGowin's:Describes how to obtain a complete history and perform a thorough physical examination Links symptoms and signs with the pathophysiology of disease Presents a symptom, sign, anatomy, and physiology-based approach to differential diagnosis Facilitates efficient cost-effective diagnostic testing using focused differential diagnoses
Organized as a practical bedside guide to assist diagnosis, DeGowin's is valuable as a quick reference at the point-of-care or as a text to study the principles and practice of history taking and physical examination.
The book is divided into four sections. The first section details the role of neural structures and neurotransmitter signals in communication with the immune system. It documents the extensive neural connections with organs of the immune system; the dynamics of noradrenergic sympathetic innervation of spleen and thymus; and the evidence for immune signaling of the CNS. Part II elaborates the role of hormones in the modulation of immune functions; the basis for bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems; and the potential physiological implications of these neuroendocrine-immune system interactions. The third part addresses behavioral influences on immune response; the effects of conditioning, stress and social interactions in modulating immune responses; and the behavioral consequences of experimentally altered or genetically determined immunologic states. The final section presents the effects of psychosocial factors on immune responses and the potential impact of behavioral interventions in modulating immunity in healthy human subjects and in patients with AIDS.
Neuroscientists, endocrinologists, and immunologists will find the book interesting.
In the DSM-IV, personality disorders are classified into three main clusters. Cluster A: paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders. These persons often appear odd or eccentric. Cluster B: antisocial and narcissistic personality disorders. These persons are often dramatic, impulsive and emotionally unstable. Cluster C: avoidant, dependent and obsessive-compulsive disorders. These persons are often anxious or phobic.
The book first offers information on the nature of parasitism, characteristics of parasites, relationship of parasites to hosts, physiology and ecology of parasites, infection, transmission and dissemination of parasites, and resistance and immunity to parasitic infections. The text then examines protozoology and helminthology. Discussions focus on the nature and classification of parasitic worms, biology of parasitic worms, pathogenic effects of parasitic worms, and nature and classification of Protozoa.
The manuscript ponders on entomology, malacology, and diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Topics include classification of mollusks, bionomics and control, nature and classification of Arthropoda of medical and veterinary importance, mosquitoes, bugs, fleas, and mites and ticks.
The publication is a vital reference for researchers interested in parasitology.
The opening chapter traces the short developmental history and describes the current professional environment of the cognitive-behavioral movement. The chapters that follow represent major contributions by the leading investigators across a number of areas of intervention. Each chapter describes a summary of research in the respective area, a description of the actual intervention procedures with supporting empirical data, and a consideration of the theoretical foundations and potential implications associated with the intervention. The chapter contents vary across three dimensions. First, the interventions range from those that focus on the acquisition of new capacities to those that deal with the control and modification of existing processes. Second, several chapters focus on adult populations, several on child populations, and some on both. Finally, whereas a number of the chapters deal with problems that have been areas of traditional clinical concern, several others explore new and interesting applications for cognitive-behavioral interventions.
Some of the topics covered in the book are the ethanol-related liver problem; definition of hyperprolactinaemia; explanation of abnormal plasma magnesium presence in the blood; enzyme defect in acute intermittent porphyria; causes of elevated ketones in a patient’s blood and urine; and description of androgen insensitivity syndrome. The classification and clinical diagnoses of hypercalcaemia are fully covered. The definition and symptoms of Conn’s syndrome are discussed in detail. The text describes in depth the causes of euthyroid hyperthyroxinaemia. The causes of hypermagnesaemia are completely presented. A chapter is devoted to the origins of respiratory alkalosis and hyponatraemia.
The book can provide useful information to doctors, students, and researchers.
Expanding on the first edition the book now covers approaches to evidence synthesis that combine economics and systematic review methods in the applied fields of social welfare, education and criminal justice, as well as health care. Written by economists and health services researchers closely involved in developing evidence-based policy and practice it showcases current state-of-the-art methodology and will be an invaluable read for all policy-makers and practitioners using evidence to inform decisions, analysts conducting research to support decisions and students discovering the need for evidence-based decisions to incorporate economic perspectives and evidence.
Organized into six chapters, this book begins with an overview of the emotional impact made through scopophilic–exhibitionistic modalities. This text then explains that the social, fighting, and mating rituals of many species involve looking and showing. Other chapters consider the typical connection between the screen function of a memory or remembered fantasy and the screen function of compulsive scopophilic–exhibitionistic reenactment in reducing current anxiety. This book discusses as well the partial instincts of scopophilia and exhibitionism that are present in everyone. The final chapter deals with the concept of psychic masochism that predominates in scopophilic–exhibitionistic suffering.
This book is a valuable resource for psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, and behavioral scientists.
Receiving a cancer diagnosis can be terrifying, and the first thing you probably want to know is: How am I going to survive this? Cancer care requires decisions from numerous professionals, delivering treatments that are potentially life-saving, but also potentially dangerous and life-threatening. The chances of cure and survival for any given patient depend on the expertise of the cancer team, and whether procedures are in place to ensure that cancer care is delivered properly. So, how can you make sure you choose the right treatment team and ensure the best chances of survival and long-term health after being diagnosed with cancer?
Taking Charge of Cancer is a different type of book for cancer patients—one that goes beyond the cancer information that is currently available, allowing you to truly take control of your cancer treatment. You’ll learn how to obtain and understand medical records, and why these records are critical to your care. You’ll also find the tools you’ll need to determine if the recommendations made by doctors are in keeping with accepted treatment guidelines. You’ll discover how doctors use evidence to decide which treatments are best, as well as how doctors can become biased in their recommendations. And, most importantly, you’ll be able to evaluate whether surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy make the most sense in your specific case—and whether or not these serious treatments are being delivered effectively and safely according to the highest standards.
Now that you’ve received a cancer diagnosis, it’s time to set a plan in motion for your recovery. This book will help you do just that—every step of the way.
The book first offers information on the nature of cancer and cancer spread, including degenerative changes, harmful effects, origin of tumors, direct and lymphatic spread, and non-vascular implantation spread. The text then takes a look at the general considerations and gastric cancer; geographical pathology of cancer in Africa; and geographical and occupational pathology of skin cancer.
The publication ponders on religious customs, traditional practices, and social habits and occupational tumors of the urinary passages. Topics include clinical features, sites of tumors, link with spontaneous bladder cancer, carcinoma of the base of the tongue and the tonsils, and cancer of the penis. The manuscript also examines the cancer of the lungs, latency and cocarcinogenesis, and hormones and mammary cancer.
The text is a dependable reference for readers interested in the study of cancer.
This book is composed of 12 chapters, and begins with a description of the primary and negative features of the condition. The subsequent chapters are concerned with the methods of disposal of a psychopath under English law, the safeguards available both to the individual and to society within and without the Mental Health Act, and the extent to which this disposal mechanism was used. These topics are followed by discussions on the causation of psychopathic disorder; the electroencephalographic and psychological techniques for the disorder evaluation; and various methods of patient care. The last chapters consider the law and practice relating to psychopathic disorder and British facilities for the treatment of psychopaths.
This book is of value to psychologists and psychiatrists.