“A book that makes familiar drinks seem new again . . . Through this horticultural lens, a mixed drink becomes a cornucopia of plants.”—NPR's Morning Edition
“Amy Stewart has a way of making gardening seem exciting, even a little dangerous.” —The New York Times
Sake began with a grain of rice. Scotch emerged from barley, tequila from agave, rum from sugarcane, bourbon from corn. Thirsty yet? In The Drunken Botanist, Amy Stewart explores the dizzying array of herbs, flowers, trees, fruits, and fungi that humans have, through ingenuity, inspiration, and sheer desperation, contrived to transform into alcohol over the centuries.
Of all the extraordinary and obscure plants that have been fermented and distilled, a few are dangerous, some are downright bizarre, and one is as ancient as dinosaurs—but each represents a unique cultural contribution to our global drinking traditions and our history.
This fascinating concoction of biology, chemistry, history, etymology, and mixology—with more than fifty drink recipes and growing tips for gardeners—will make you the most popular guest at any cocktail party.
In 1637, one Dutchman paid as much for a single tulip bulb as the going price of a town house in Amsterdam. Three and a half centuries later, Amsterdam is once again the mecca for people who care passionately about one particular plant—though this time the obsessions revolves around the intoxicating effects of marijuana rather than the visual beauty of the tulip. How could flowers, of all things, become such objects of desire that they can drive men to financial ruin?
In The Botany of Desire, Michael Pollan argues that the answer lies at the heart of the intimately reciprocal relationship between people and plants. In telling the stories of four familiar plant species that are deeply woven into the fabric of our lives, Pollan illustrates how they evolved to satisfy humankinds’s most basic yearnings—and by doing so made themselves indispensable. For, just as we’ve benefited from these plants, the plants, in the grand co-evolutionary scheme that Pollan evokes so brilliantly, have done well by us. The sweetness of apples, for example, induced the early Americans to spread the species, giving the tree a whole new continent in which to blossom. So who is really domesticating whom?
Weaving fascinating anecdotes and accessible science into gorgeous prose, Pollan takes us on an absorbing journey that will change the way we think about our place in nature.
From the Hardcover edition.
Are trees social beings? In this international bestseller, forester and author Peter Wohlleben convincingly makes the case that, yes, the forest is a social network. He draws on groundbreaking scientific discoveries to describe how trees are like human families: tree parents live together with their children, communicate with them, support them as they grow, share nutrients with those who are sick or struggling, and even warn each other of impending dangers. Wohlleben also shares his deep love of woods and forests, explaining the amazing processes of life, death, and regeneration he has observed in his woodland.
After learning about the complex life of trees, a walk in the woods will never be the same again.
Includes a Note From a Forest Scientist, by Dr.Suzanne Simard
Published in partnership with the David Suzuki Institute.
Just as he demystified the soil food web in his ground-breaking book Teaming with Microbes, in this new work Jeff Lowenfels explains the basics of plant nutrition from an organic gardener’s perspective. Most gardeners realize that plants need to be fed but know little or nothing about the nature of the nutrients and the mechanisms involved. In his trademark down-to-earth, style, Lowenfels explains the role of both macronutrients and micronutrients and shows gardeners how to provide these essentials through organic, easy-to-follow techniques. Along the way, Lowenfels gives the reader easy-to-grasp lessons in the biology, chemistry, and botany needed to understand how nutrients get into the plant and what they do once they’re inside.
Read an Interview with Dr. Resh here
With Dr. Howard Resh’s help, you’ll learn:
Background information on how hydroponics evolved The nutritional and environmental demands of plants and how to control these factors How to provide formulations of nutrients optimal to the plants you wish to grow The many different hydroponic systems you can purchase or build for yourself Designs for different types of greenhouses with components to fit your personal taste and budget Crop selection and step-by-step procedures, including seeding, transplanting, training, pest and disease control, and harvesting—along with when to plant and when to change crops How you can grow microgreens on your kitchen counter
The book includes an appendix with sources of seeds and other supplies, along with helpful websites and lists of books, articles, and conferences on growing hydroponically and caring for your crops. By following the guidelines in this book, you’ll understand everything you need to know to get your home-growing operation up and running in no time.
Plants are capable of interesting and unexpected things. Why do container plants wilt when they’ve been regularly watered? Why did the hydrangea that thrived last year never bloom this year? Why do slugs wipe out the vegetable garden instead of eating the weeds? Plant physiology—the study of how living things function—can solve these and most other problems gardeners regularly encounter.
In How Plants Work, horticulture expert and contributor to the popular blog The Garden Professors, Linda Chalker-Scott brings the stranger-than-fiction science of the plant world to vivid life. She uncovers the mysteries of how and why plants do the things they do, and arms the home gardener with fascinating knowledge that will change the way they garden.
Employment of biological scientists is projected to grow 21%over the next decade, much faster than the average for alloccupations, as biotechnological research and development continuesto drive job growth.
Botany For Dummies gives you a thorough, easy-to-followoverview of the fundamentals of botany, helping you to improve yourgrades, supplement your learning, or review before a test.Covers evolution by natural selectionOffers plain-English explanations of the structure and functionof plantsIncludes plant identification and botanical phenomenon
Tracking a typical course in botany, this hands-on, friendlyguide is your ticket to acing this required course for your majorin biology, microbiology, zoology, or elementary education.
Practical Botany for Gardeners provides an elegant and accessible introduction to the world of botany. It presents the essentials that every gardener needs to know, connecting explanations of scientific facts with useful gardening tips. Flip to the roots section and you’ll not only learn how different types of roots support a plant but also find that adding fungi to soil aids growth. The pruning section both defines “lateral buds” and explains how far back on a shoot to cut in order to propagate them.
The book breaks down key areas and terminology with easy-to-navigate chapters arranged by theme, such as plant types, plant parts, inner workings, and external factors. “Great Botanists” and “Botany in Action” boxes delve deeper into the fascinating byways of plant science. This multifaceted book also includes two hundred botanical illustrations and basic diagrams that hearken to the classic roots of botany.
Part handbook, part reference, Practical Botany for Gardeners is a beautifully captivating read. It’s a must for garden lovers and backyard botanists who want to grow and nurture their own plant knowledge.
Unlike other introductory forestry texts, which focus largely on forest ecology rather than practical forestry concepts, Introduction to Forestry and Natural Resources encompasses economic, ecological, and social aspects providing a uniquely balanced text. The wide range of experience of the contributing authors equips them especially well to identify missing content from other texts in the area and address topics currently covered in corresponding college courses.300 original illustrations including line art, graphs, tables and mapsSyllabus-planning assistance for adopting professors so that they can add the content to their course materials via the companion website's question-and-answer material for each chapterContributors are experienced textbook authors with diverse professional backgrounds in forestry
Plant Factory: An Indoor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Productionprovides information on a field that is helping to offset the threats that unusual weather and shortages of land and natural resources bring to the food supply.
As alternative options are needed to ensure adequate and efficient production of food, this book represents the only available resource to take a practical approach to the planning, design, and implementation of plant factory (PF) practices to yield food crops. The PF systems described in this book are based on a plant production system with artificial (electric) lights and include case studies providing lessons learned and best practices from both industrial and crop specific programs.
With insights into the economics as well as the science of PF programs, this book is ideal for those in academic as well as industrial settings.Provides full-scope insight on plant farm, from economics and planning to life-cycle assessmentPresents state-of-the-art plant farm science, written by global leaders in plant farm advancementsIncludes case-study examples to provide real-world insights
In this second edition, the author includes greatly expanded treatments of families of lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, and flowering plants (all with full-color plates), a new chapter on species concepts and the role of systematics in conservation biology, and a new appendix summarizing basic statistical and morphometric techniques used in plant systematics studies. An explanation of maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference algorithms is included in methods of phylogenetic inference, and chapters on morphology and plant nomenclature have been augmented with new material.
The second edition of Plant Systematics has been expanded to include:
* Fifteen fern families, 9 gymnosperm families, and an increase of angiosperm family treatments from 100 to 129. Each family description includes a plate of full color photographs, illustrating exemplars of the group along with dissected and labeled material to show diagnostic features.
* A new chapter on species concepts and the role and impact of plant systematics in conservation biology.
* A new appendix on statistical and morphometric techniques in plant systematics.
* In addition, the second edition contains more detailed explanations of maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogeny inference methods, an expanded coverage and glossary of morphological terms, and an updated chapter on botanical nomenclature.
In Land and Wine, Frankel takes readers on a tour of the French winemaking regions to illustrate how the soil, underlying bedrock, relief, and microclimate shape the personality of a wine. The book’s twelve chapters each focus in depth on a different region, including the Loire Valley, Alsace, Burgundy, Champagne, Provence, the Rhône valley, and Bordeaux, to explore the full meaning of terroir. In this approachable guide, Frankel describes how Cabernet Franc takes on a completely different character depending on whether it is grown on gravel or limestone; how Sauvignon yields three different products in the hills of Sancerre when rooted in limestone, marl, or flint; how Pinot Noir will give radically different wines on a single hill in Burgundy as the vines progress upslope; and how the soil of each château in Bordeaux has a say in the blend ratios of Merlot and Cabernet-Sauvignon. Land and Wine provides a detailed understanding of the variety of French wine as well as a look at the geological history of France, complete with volcanic eruptions, a parade of dinosaurs, and a menagerie of evolution that has left its fossils flavoring the vineyards.
Both the uninitiated wine drinker and the confirmed oenophile will find much to savor in this fun guide that Frankel has spiked with anecdotes about winemakers and historic wine enthusiasts—revealing which kings, poets, and philosophers liked which wines best—while offering travel tips and itineraries for visiting the wineries today.
Invasive plants are a growing threat to ecosystems everywhere. Often originating in distant climes, they spread to woodlands, wetlands, prairies, roadsides, and backyards that lack the biological controls which kept these plant populations in check in their homelands.
Invasive Plants of the Upper Midwest includes more than 250 color photos that will help anyone identify problem trees, shrubs, vines, grasses, sedges, and herbaceous plants (including aquatic invaders). The text offers further details of plant identification; manual, mechanical, biological, and chemical control techniques; information and advice about herbicides; and suggestions for related ecological restoration and community education efforts. Also included are literature references, a glossary, a matrix of existing and potential invasive species in the Upper Midwest, an index with both scientific and common plant names, advice on state agencies to contact with invasive plant questions, and other helpful resources.
The information in this book has been carefully reviewed by staffs of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Bureau of Endangered Resources and the University of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum and other invasive plant experts.
This fifth edition has been restructured to bring it in to line with the most recent RHS syllabus, adding new material on the basis of science for horticulturists. The book contains beginning of chapter summaries, highlighted definitions and key points, and end of chapter test your learning questions. Each chapter ends with references for further reading.
Structured to meet the needs of a wide variety of courses in horticulture at levels 2 and 3, this book is particularly suitable for the RHS Certificate, Advanced Certificate and Diploma in Horticulture, BTEC National and the City and Guilds/NPTC National and Advanced National Certificate and Diploma courses. It also supports those studying plant science and related modules for 'A' Level Biology and the Diploma in Environmental and Land-based studies.
Charles Adams BSc (Agric) Hons, Dip Applied Educ., Fellow Inst Horticulture, is a lecturer at Capel Manor College and University of Hertfordshire, an external examiner in horticulture, and also a member of the Royal Horticultural Society Qualifications Advisory Committee.
Katherine Bamford BSc (Agric Sci) Hons, Cert Ed., formerly lecturer in horticulture science at Oaklands College, St. Albans, works in the commercial sector with herbs, organic vegetables and hardy plants.
Mike Early MSc, BSc Hons, DTA, Cert Ed., formerly a lecturer in horticulture science at Oaklands College, St. Albans, now works as a landscape gardner.
Plant Pathology, Fifth Edition, is the most comprehensive resource and textbook that professionals, faculty and students can consult for well-organized, essential information. This thoroughly revised edition is 45% larger, covering new discoveries and developments in plant pathology and enhanced by hundreds of new color photographs and illustrations.The latest information on molecular techniques and biological control in plant diseasesComprehensive in coverageNumerous excellent diagrams and photographsA large variety of disease examples for instructors to choose for their course
This book is meticulously organised and richly illustrated, having over 1,000 full-colour illustrations and 500 photographs. It is divided into five parts covering: Compartments, Cell Reproduction, Energy Flow, Metabolic and Developmental Integration, and Plant Environment and Agriculture. Specific changes to this edition include:Completely revised with over half of the chapters having a major rewrite.Includes two new chapters on signal transduction and responses to pathogens.Restructuring of section on cell reproduction for improved presentation.Dedicated website to include all illustrative material.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants holds a unique place in the plant sciences literature as it provides the only comprehensive, authoritative, integrated single volume book in this essential field of study.
The second edition begins with the concepts of how plants grow and then describes the requirements necessary to be successful when using various hydroponic and soilless growing methods. The major focus is on the nutritional requirements of plants and how best to prepare and use nutrient solutions for different plants using various growing systems under a wide range of environmental conditions. Supported by a wealth of tables, figures, and nutrient formulas the book provides clear explanations of the advantages and disadvantages of each hydroponic growth system. Appropriate for a wide audience, this edition is a practical guide, overview, and handy reference for advanced hobbyists, commercial growers, and researchers.
"There are few more iconic texts in botany than Esau’sPlant Anatomy… this 3rd edition is a very worthysuccessor to previous editions…" ANNALS OF BOTANY, June2007
This second edition of the Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants is created to assist the clinician in the initial response to the needs of a child or adult exposed to a poisonous or injurious plant. It lists common plants that might lead to the development of the symptom complex and describes the mechanisms of action of the implicated toxin, additional clinical manifestations, and specific therapeutics for each presentation. It has methodically enhanced the previous edition’s botanical rigor with insights from both pharmacognosy and clinical medicine to make it a truly comprehensive source.
With its thorough references and full-color photos of hundreds of potentially toxic and injurious plants inside the home, anyone who has an interest in plants will find this book useful outside in the garden or out in the wild.
This book will fascinate botanists, horticulturists, and naturalists as well as hikers, gardeners, and all those who simply enjoy the wonders of nature and the great outdoors!
With Foreword by Lewis R. Goldfrank, MD and Introduction by Andrew Weil, MD
· Number of species included is increased from 6300 to over 8700, about 85% of the world’s birds
· Better data for many of the species included in the first edition — an exhaustive compilation of new data published from 1992 through 2007
· More comprehensive coverage of Latin America, Japan, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, and more coverage of research published in non-English language journals
In 1992 the CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses broke new ground by providing a compilation of body masses for 6300 species, about two-thirds of the world’s species. The handbook instantly became the gold standard, cited in hundreds of scientific studies and a prominent fixture on the shelves of many ornithologists. Keeping the format that made the first edition so popular, the second edition features dramatic changes both in species coverage and the data quality.
The new edition compiles the results of new samples that have been published for many of the birds included in the first edition, and data found for about 2400 new species, increasing the coverage to over 8700 species, about 85% of the world’s birds. The order of species and families has been revised in the text to fit with the latest publications in avian taxonomy and systematics. The second edition includes an accompanying CD-ROM with a searchable electronic database.
Beginning with the evolution of the first seed plant from fernlike ancestors more than 360 million years ago, Silvertown carries his tale through epochs and around the globe. In a clear and engaging style, he delves into the science of seeds: How and why do some lie dormant for years on end? How did seeds evolve? The wide variety of uses that humans have developed for seeds of all sorts also receives a fascinating look, studded with examples, including foods, oils, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals. An able guide with an eye for the unusual, Silvertown is happy to take readers on unexpected—but always interesting—tangents, from Lyme disease to human color vision to the Salem witch trials. But he never lets us forget that the driving force behind the story of seeds—its theme, even—is evolution, with its irrepressible habit of stumbling upon new solutions to the challenges of life.
"I have great faith in a seed," Thoreau wrote. "Convince me that you have a seed there, and I am prepared to expect wonders." Written with a scientist’s knowledge and a gardener’s delight, An Orchard Invisible offers those wonders in a package that will be irresistible to science buffs and green thumbs alike.
Part of a new generation of natural history guides, Trees is packed full of stunning images that reveal intricate details and unique characteristics of the specimens featured. Expertly written and including examples from across the globe, these guides will give you knowledge of the natural world at your fingertips.
With a detailed introduction on the evolution of trees, tree classification and the types of forests and habitats that can be found across the world, Nature Guide Trees is the ideal tree identification guide.
This book provides an extensive reference on the biology of marijuana and the role of molecular techniques in elucidating neuropharmacological aspects of cannabinoid receptors and the endogenous compounds that act upon them. Contributions from experts from around the world describe the interaction of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids on a wide range of biological functions including movement, memory and learning, pain, emotions, endocrine functions and many more. The Biology of Marijuana: From Gene to Behavior will be of interest to all scientists and clinicians interested in the biological effects and pharmacology of this drug.
* Major revision of a 1993 classic reference
* Lavishly illustrated with 1,800 images and user friendly for use by paleobotanists, biologists, geologists and other related scientists
* Includes an expanded glossary with an extensive up-to-date bibliography and a comprehensive index
* Provides extensive coverage of fungi and other microbes, and major groups of land plants both living and extinct
Each illustration has been enhanced with labels pointing to key characteristics to facilitate the identification of unknown plants. Each plant description includes plant characteristics, an illustration of the plant with enlarged parts, and a general distribution map for North America. Each species description includes nomenclature; life span; origin; season of growth; inflorescence, flower or spikelet, or other reproductive parts; vegetative parts; and growth characteristics. Brief notes are included on habitat; livestock losses; and historic, food, and medicinal uses. This third edition contains additional refinements in the nomenclature, distribution, illustrations, and descriptions of plants.
The first comprehensive survey of the aquatic and wetland plants of the Southeast, the Godfrey and Wooten volumes will prove invaluable to botanists, ecologists, college students, government agencies involved in land-use management, and nonspecialists interested in the plant life and ecology of the region.
Fire on Earth puts fire in its rightful place as anintegral part of the study of geology, biology, human history,physics, and global chemistry. Fire is ubiquitous in various formsthroughout Earth, and belongs as part of formal inquiries about ourworld. In recent years fire literature has multipliedexponentially; dedicated journals exist and half a dozeninternational conferences are held annually. A host of formalsciences, or programs announcing interdisciplinary intentions, arewilling to consider fire. Wildfire also appears routinely in mediareporting.
This full-colour text, containing over 250 illustrations of firein all contexts, is designed to provide a synthesis of contemporarythinking; bringing together the most powerful concepts anddisciplinary voices to examine, in an international setting, whyplanetary fire exists, how it works, and why it looks the way itdoes today. Students, lecturers, researchers and professionalsinterested in the physical, ecological and historicalcharacteristics of fire will find this book, and accompanyingweb-based material, essential reading for undergraduate andpostgraduate courses in all related disciplines, for generalinterest and for providing an interdisciplinary foundation forfurther study.A comprehensive approach to the history, behaviour andecological effects of fire on earthTimely introduction to this important subject, with relevancefor global climate change, biodiversity loss and the evolution ofhuman culture.Provides a foundation for the interdisciplinary field of FireResearchAuthored by an international team of leading experts in thefieldAssociated website provides additional resources
Conceived as part of the author's wider interest in plant and tree lore and ethnobotanical studies, this fully revised edition of Elsevier's Dictionary of Plant Names and Their Origins contains over 30,000 vernacular and literary English names of plants. Wild and cultivated plants alike are identified by the botanical name. Further detail provides a brief account of the meaning of the name and detailed commentary on common usage.
* Includes color images
* Inclusive of all Latin terms with vernacular derivatives
* The most comprehensive guide for plant scientists, linguists, botanists, and historians
Focusing on widely grown trees, this captivating book describes the rewards of careful and regular tree viewing, outlines strategies for improving your observations, and describes some of the most visually interesting tree structures, including leaves, flowers, buds, leaf scars, twigs, and bark. In-depth profiles of ten familiar species—including such beloved trees as white oak, southern magnolia, white pine, and tulip poplar—show you how to recognize and understand many of their most compelling (but usually overlooked) physical features.
In Brilliant Green, Stefano Mancuso, a leading scientist and founder of the field of plant neurobiology, presents a new paradigm in our understanding of the vegetal world. Combining a historical perspective with the latest in plant science, Mancuso argues that, due to cultural prejudices and human arrogance, we continue to underestimate plants. In fact, they process information, sleep, remember, and signal to one another -- showing that, far from passive machines, plants are intelligent and aware. Through a survey of plant capabilities from sight and touch to communication, Mancuso challenges our notion of intelligence, presenting a vision of plant life that is more sophisticated than most imagine.
Plants have much to teach us, from network building to innovations in robotics and man-made materials -- but only if we understand more about how they live. Part botany lesson, part manifesto, Brilliant Green is an engaging and passionate examination of the inner workings of the plant kingdom.
Financial support for the translation of this book has been provided by SEPS: Segretariato Europeo Per Le Pubblicazioni Scientifiche.
In April 1982, ethnobotanist Wade Davis arrived in Haiti to investigate two documented cases of zombis—people who had reappeared in Haitian society years after they had been officially declared dead and had been buried. Drawn into a netherworld of rituals and celebrations, Davis penetrated the vodoun mystique deeply enough to place zombification in its proper context within vodoun culture. In the course of his investigation, Davis came to realize that the story of vodoun is the history of Haiti—from the African origins of its people to the successful Haitian independence movement, down to the present day, where vodoun culture is, in effect, the government of Haiti’s countryside.
The Serpent and the Rainbow combines anthropological investigation with a remarkable personal adventure to illuminate and finally explain a phenomenon that has long fascinated Americans.
All the machines are described in sufficient detail, sometimes with the help of models to enable the conditioner to get good results. The book also details the operating sequence used to properly prepare seed before going into each machine.
Organized in a logical sequence, it catalogs all the entire field of seed conditioning, to help seed managers, specialists, and conditioning operators reduce loss of good seed while improving seed quality and honing the efficiency of their operations.
Plant Image Analysis: Fundamentals and Applicationsintroduces the basic concepts of image analysis and discusses various techniques in plant imaging, their applications, and future potential. Several types of imaging techniques are discussed including RGB, hyperspectral, thermal, PRI, chlorophyll fluorescence, ROS, and chromosome imaging. The book also covers the use of these techniques in assessing plant growth, early detection of disease and stress, fruit crop yield, plant chromosome analysis, plant phenotyping, and nutrient status both in vivo and in vitro.
The book is an authoritative guide for researchers and those teaching in the fields of stress physiology, precision agriculture, agricultural biotechnology, and cell and developmental biology. Graduate students and professionals using machine vision in plant science will also benefit from this comprehensive resource.
In this volume, the authors provide an authoritative account of the taxoids. it covers their production and biosynthesis - from commercial cultivation to plant tissue culture methods - describes taxoid chemistry, the analytical methods for identifying their structure and the pharmacological and pre-clinical aspects important in investigating their therapeutic actions.
It presents a thorough review of the scientific literature, including data from scientists currently engaged in taxoid research, and will be of significant value to researchers and others who wish to gain a practical perspective on taxoid research and development.
The database for the world biogeography of seed dormancy has been expanded from 3,580 to about 13,600 species. New insights are presented on seed dormancy and germination ecology of species with specialized life cycles or habitat requirements such as orchids, parasitic, aquatics and halophytes. Information from various fields of science has been combined with seed dormancy data to increase our understanding of the evolutionary/phylogenetic origins and relationships of the various kinds of seed dormancy (and nondormancy) and the conditions under which each may have evolved. This comprehensive synthesis of information on the ecology, biogeography and evolution of seeds provides a thorough overview of whole-seed biology that will facilitate and help focus research efforts.Most wide-ranging and thorough account of whole-seed dormancy availableContains information on dormancy and germination of more than 14,000 species from all the continents – even the two angiosperm species native to the Antarctica continent Includes a taxonomic index so researchers can quickly find information on their study organism(s) andProvides a dichotomous key for the kinds of seed dormancyTopics range from fossil evidence of seed dormancy to molecular biology of seed dormancyMuch attention is given to the evolution of kinds of seed dormancyIncludes chapters on the basics of how to do seed dormancy studies; on special groups of plants, for example orchids, parasites, aquatics, halophytes; and one chapter devoted to soil seed banksContains a revised, up-dated classification scheme of seed dormancy, including a formula for each kind of dormancyDetailed attention is given to physiological dormancy, the most common kind of dormancy on earth
Polyphenols play key roles in the growth, regulation and structure of plants and vary widely within different plants. Stress, growth conditions and plant species modify polyphenol structure and content. This book describes techniques to identify, isolate and characterize polyphenols, taking mammalian toxicology into account as well.Defines conditions of growth affecting the polyphenol levelsDescribes assay and instrumentation techniques critical to identifying and defining polyphenols, critical to researchers and business developmentDocuments how some polyphenols are dangerous to consume, important to dietary supplement industry, government regulators and lay public users