Natural dyes are dyes or colorants derived from plants, invertebrates, or minerals. The majority of natural dyes are vegetable dyes from plant sources. Dyeing is the process of imparting colors to a textile material. Different classes of dyes are used for different types of fiber and at different stages of the textile production process, from loose fibers through yarn and cloth to completed garments. There are technologies that manufacture the pigments for plastics, rubber and cosmetics. Therefore; dyes and pigments have a vast area of applications and have a huge demand in industry. Contrary to popular opinion, natural dyes are often neither safer nor more ecologically sound than synthetic dyes. They are less permanent, more difficult to apply, wash out more easily, and often involve the use of highly toxic mordant. Of course, the colour possibilities are far more limited; the color of any natural dye may be easily copied by mixing synthetic dyes, but many other colors are not easily obtained with natural dyes. However, some mordant are not very toxic, and the idea of natural dyestuffs is aesthetically pleasing. Applying natural dyes in your fabric production using enzymes will reduce your production cost and improve control. There are various kind of natural dyes; quinonoid dyes, cyanine dyes, azo dyes, biflvonyl dyes, omochromes, anthraquinone, coprosma gesus etc. The use of natural dyes in cloth making can be seen as a necessary luxury to trigger off a change in habits. Dyes which stand out for their beauty and ecological attributes would never be employed on just any material but on noble fabrics such as wool, silk, linen or cotton, made to last more than one season. Market value will benefit from consumer preferences for environmentally friendly products, which will support consumption of high performance dyes and organic pigments. This book basically deals with the use of carotenoids as food colours , bianthraquinones and related compounds, intermediate degradation products of biflavonyls, dyestuffs containing nuclear sulphonic and carboxylic acid groups, quinonoid dyes, cyanine dyes, optical whitening agents, natural dyes for food, stability of natural colourants in foods effect of additives, pyrimidine pigments, the total synthesis of the polyene pigments, red pigment from geniposidic acid and amino compound, effect of acid and amine on the formation of red pigment from geniposidic acid, effect of the substituted position of amino group and chain length of amino compound etc. Due to pollution problems in synthetic dyes and pigments industry, the whole world is shifting towards the manufacturing of natural dyes and pigments. The present book contains techniques of producing different natural dyes and pigments, which has huge demand in domestic as well as in foreign market. It is hoped that entrepreneurs, technocrats, existing units, institutional libraries will find this book very useful.
Wax and polishes are used for many purposes. Wax has their principal use in waterproofing; they are mainly consumed industrially as components of complex formulations, often for coatings. Waxes confer matting effects and wear resistance to paints. Although most natural waxes are esters, paraffin waxes are hydrocarbons, mixtures of alkanes usually in a homologous series of chain lengths. These materials represent a significant fraction of petroleum. They are refined by vacuum distillation. The degree of branching has an important influence on the properties. Millions of tons of paraffin waxes are produced annually. They are used in adhesives, in foods (such as chewing gum and cheese wrapping), in cosmetics, and as coatings. Paraffin wax is typical of the agents that are coated on a film or sheet, one that really melt. Waxed paper, still the most widely used heat sealing material, was the earliest product to bring the advantages of heat sealing to packaging. Paraffin wax is mostly found as a white, odorless, tasteless, waxy solid, with an average melting point. The FT waxes are purely synthetic polymers of carbon monoxide and hydrogen which can be best be described chemically as mineral waxes. Duroxons of the B group also serve as additives in the manufacture of lubricating greases for the purpose of raising their dropping point and improving the consistency. There are various types of mineral waxes; lignite wax, montan wax, durmont wax, ozocerite wax, utah wax, peat wax etc. Utah waxes are successfully utilized in dance floor wax, linoleum wax, shoe polish etc. Some other important uses of waxes are in candles, polishes, electrical insulation, coatings and carbon paper. There are various types of polishes having industrial and domestic applications; abrasive polish, aluminium polish, motor car polishes, cellulose friction polishes, furniture polishes, leather belt polishes, pine oil metal polish etc. For many years, petroleum wax was considered a byproduct of lubricant base stock production, it has come onto its own over the last decade and is considered by most refiners to be a relatively high margin product and is often an important contributor to the overall profitability of the refinery. Pure paraffin wax is an excellent electrical insulator. There are many refineries in India which have with fuel, lube, wax and petrochemical feed stocks production facilities. Mineral waxes (including petroleum) account for an estimated 85% of this global demand, with synthetic waxes accounting for 10% and animal and vegetable waxes, accounting for 5%. Wax consumption is expected to grow at an average annual growth rate of 1% in this decade. Clearly, different regions and different product applications will enjoy different growth rates. This book basically deals with microcrystalline waxes in floor polishes, properties of braxilian grades of carnauba wax, compatibility of paraffin waxes with other substances, synthetic mineral waxes, miscellaneous synthetic waxes, additives for raising melting point of candles, wax coating for fruits, shribs, and plants, effect of paraffin on esparto montan mixtures, water proofing of kraft papers, production of montan wax, polish, abrasives, metal cleaners, nickel silver castings, cleaning, polishing metals for metallographic analysis, paste for wax calf leather, burnishing polishes for automobile maintenance, etc. The purpose of this book is to present comprehensive information of different types of wax and polishes like their processing, properties and uses. This book is very useful for new entrepreneurs, technocrats, professionals and researchers.
Biodegradable plastics made with plant based materials have been available for many years. The term biodegradable means that a substance is able to be broken down into simpler substances by the activities of living organisms, and therefore is unlikely to persist in the environment. There are many different standards used to measure biodegradability, with each country having its own. The requirements range from 90 per cent to 60 per cent decomposition of the product within 60 to 180 days of being placed in a standard composting environment. They may be composed of either bio plastics, which are plastics whose components are derived from renewable raw materials, or petroleum based plastics which contain additives. Biodegradability of plastics is dependent on the chemical structure of the material and on constitution of the final product, not just on the raw materials used for its production. Polyesters play a predominant role as biodegradable plastics due to their potentially hydrolysable ester bonds. Bio based polymers are divided into three categories based on their origin and production; polymer directly extracted from biomass, polymers produced by classical chemical synthesis using renewable biomass monomer and polymers produces by microorganisms or genetically modified bacteria. In response to public concern about the effects of plastics on the environment and in particular the damaging effects of sea litter on animals and birds, legislation is being enacted or is pending in many countries to ban non degradable packing, finishing nets etc. This book basically deals with biodegradable plastics developments and environmental impacts, hydro biodegradable and photo biodegradable, starch synthetic aliphatic polyester blends, difference between standards for biodegradation, polybutylene succinate (pbs) and polybutylene, recent developments in the biopolymer industry, recent advances in synthesis of biopolymers by traditional methodologies, polymers, environmentally degradable synthetic biodegradable polymers as medical devices, polymers produced from classical chemical synthesis from bio based monomers, potential bio based packaging materials, conventional packaging materials, environmental impact of bio based materials: biodegradability and compostability, etc. Environmentally acceptable degradable polymers have been defined as polymers that degrade in the environment by several mechanisms and culminate in complete biodegradation so that no residue remains in the environment. The present book gives thorough information to biodegradable plastic and polymers. This is an excellent book for scientists engineers, students and industrial researchers in the field of bio based materials.
Rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through a pair of rolls. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. Steelmaking is the second step in producing steel from iron ore. There are three primary steel making processes; open hearth steel making, oxygen steel making and electric furnace steel making. There are two main raw materials used in making of steel; hot metal which is a molten blast furnace iron and scrap which consists of the byproducts of steel fabrication and also of the worn out, broken, or discarded items containing iron or steel. Open hearth process allows high flexibility in regard to a composition of raw material. The most appealing characteristic of the Open hearth furnace is the rapid production of large quantities of basic steel, used for example to construct high rise buildings. Basic oxygen steelmaking also known as the oxygen converter process is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbon rich molten pig iron is made into steel. Hot metal is the principal material used in the BOS (Basic Oxygen Steelmaking) process. Blowing oxygen through molten pig iron lowers the carbon content of the alloy and changes it into low carbon steel. There are three important types of Electric furnace; A.C (alternating current) direct arc electric furnace, D.C. (direct current) direct arc electric furnace and induction electric furnace. The casting process basically involves pouring molten metal into a mold patterned after the part to be manufactured, allowing cooling and removing the metal from the mold. There are various hot mills involved in the production of steel plate mill, hot strip mill, bar and rod mills etc. Techniques of steelmaking have undergone vast changes in scale and new processes have been developed to meet the demands of speed, quantity and quality. The steel industry has had a long history of development, yet, despite all the time that has passed, it still demonstrates all the signs of longevity. Rapid rise in production has resulted in India becoming the 5th largest producer of steel. Some of the fundamentals of the book are fusion welding processes, arc welding processes: consumable electrode, arc welding processes, width change by rolling and pressing, metallurgical defects in cast slabs and hot rolled products, primary steel making processes, open hearth steel making, oxygen steel making, electric furnace steel making, chemical formulas of steel making, optimization of primary steel making process, secondary steel making processes, methods of continuous casting of thick slabs, optimization and control of width, fundamentals of metal casting, steel making technology, basic principles of width change, types of mills used for the rolling of plates, quality assurance, testing, and inspection etc. New ideas continue to revolutionize the steel producing process today as much as they did a hundred years ago. The present book covers latest technology of steel rolling, which will give a new path to entrepreneurs and existing units. It is hoped that this book will be resourceful to researchers, design engineers, technocrats, new entrepreneurs, institutional libraries, training institutes etc.
Baking is a food cooking method that uses prolonged dry heat by convection, rather than by thermal radiation. Heat is gradually transferred "from the surface of cakes, cookies and breads to their centre. As heat travels through it transforms batters and dough into baked goods with a firm dry crust and a softer centre". Bakery products have become essential food items of the vast majority of population. The present day consumer looks for new bakery products, better appeal, taste and convenience from bakery foods. Bakery industry has also an important role in popularizing wheat in non-wheat consuming region of the World. With good planning and access to good staff, raw materials and markets, setting up a bakery can represent an excellent enterprise opportunity. The book is invaluable reading for those starting their own baking business or any baker looking to improve their existing business in order to increase profits. The book covers various aspects related to different bakery products with their manufacturing process and also provides contact details of raw material, plant and machinery suppliers with equipment photographs and their technical specifications. It provides a thorough understanding of the many new developments shaping the industry and offers detailed technical coverage of the manufacturing processes of bakery products. It examines the nature of bakery products, the role of the ingredients in determining their quality, processing methods and their control. Various bakery products covered in the book are wheat ingredients, other grain ingredients, shortenings, emulsifiers, antioxidants, water and salt, different types of breads and biscuits, cakes, buns, icings, production of cookie and cracker, spices, flavours, colors, leavened and unleavened products, air-leavened products, chemically leavened bread and rolls, chemically leavened sweet goods, Yeast-leavened plain bread, rolls, dough, preservation of bakery products, milk and egg ingredients, fruits, vegetables, nuts and many more. Food Mixer, Cookie Extruder, Rotary Oven, Biscuit Sandwiching Machine, Tunnel Gas Oven, Flour Mixer, Cookies Rotary Moulder, Bun Divider Moulder, Planetary Mixer, Spiral Mixer, Pillow Packing Machine, Oil Spray Machine are the various equipments described in the book with their photographs and technical specifications. The book aims to provide comprehensive information on different types of bakery products. The book is aimed for food technologist, scientists, research scholars, as well as for new entrepreneurs and those who are engaged in this industry.
The hot rolling technology is the most widely used method of shaping metals and is particularly important in the manufacture of steel for use in construction and other industries. In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through a pair of rolls. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its re crystallization temperature, then the process is termed as hot rolling. The hot mills using plain rolls were already being employed by the end of the seventeenth century. But the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century saw a new horizon in steel making process, with the considerably expanded markets for rods, rails and structural section, provided further impetus to the development of hot rolling. The basic use of hot rolling mills is to shape up the larger pieces of billets and slabs into narrow and desired forms. These metal pieces are heated over their re crystallization temperature and are then moved between the rollers so as to form thinner cross sections. Hot rolling mill thus helps in reducing the size of a metal thereby molding it into the desired form and shape. Rolling mills perform the function to reform the metal pieces such as billet and ingot whilst maintaining its well equipped micro structure into bar, wire, sheet, strip, and plate. Hot rolled products are frequently categorized into plain carbon, alloy, high strength alloy, dual phase, electrical and stainless steels. This book provides a descriptive illustration of pre treatment of hot metal, the basic principles of heat treatment, types of hot rolled products, principles of measurement of rolling parameters, steel making refractories, performance characteristics of transducers, causes of gauge variation , main factors affecting gauge performance, gauge control sensors and actuators, automatic gauge control systems, strip tension control system in cold mills, flat rolling practice cold rolling, pack rolling, steelmaking refractories, refining of stainless steels, special considerations in refining stainless steels etc. This book is a unique compilation and it draws together in a single source technical principles of steel making by hot rolling process up to the finished product. This handbook will be very helpful to its readers who are just beginners in this field and will also find useful for upcoming entrepreneurs, engineers, personnel responsible for the operation of hot rolling mills, existing industries, technologist, technical institution etc.
Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to colour a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing or writing with a pen, brush, or quill. Thicker inks, in paste form, are used extensively in letterpress and lithographic printing. Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluorescents, and other materials. The components of inks serve many purposes; the ink’s carrier, colorants, and other additives affect the flow and thickness of the ink and its appearance when dry. India is among the fast growing printing & writing ink markets globally spurred by the rapid expansion of the domestic print markets. Backed by a strong demand from key end user segments such as package printing, newsprint, publishing and other commercial printing, the printing ink market in India has registered strong growth over the years. The printing ink industry is fragmented with hundreds of manufacturers and a large number of players in the unorganised sector. Printing ink sector in India witnessed a growth of around 7.5% per annum during the Past years. Printed packaging accounts for around 27% of the demand for printing inks in India followed by newspapers at 20%. Commercial printing/promotional and printed advertising together account for around 19% of the demand. Other key end user segments for printing inks include books and stationery. With the print sector forecast to grow at around 8% per annum, in coming years, printing ink segment is expected to grow strongly. This handbook is designed for use by everyone engaged in the printing & writing ink industry and the associated industries. It provides all the information required by the ink technical for the day-to-day formulation of inks. It supplies the details of the manufacturing methods, including large-scale production, and gives guidance on achieving quality assessment and total quality management specifications. The book also describes properties and uses of the raw materials used in the formulation of printing & writing inks. The major content of the book are the colour and colour matching, raw materials, printing inks, ink formulations, applications problems, writing inks, project profile, how to estimate, order & handle ink, testing of writing & miscellaneous inks, testing of printing inks, rollers, waterborne inkjet inks. The book contains addresses of raw material suppliers, plant & machinery suppliers with their Photographs. This book will be a mile stone for the entrepreneurs, existing units, libraries etc.
Jute & Coir are one of the important fibre crops in India. India is the largest producer of Jute & Coir, contributing more than 60% of the total world production. Besides being the cheapest and the most important material of all textile fibers, Jute & Coir products are bio-degradable eco-friendly with numerous environmental advantages. The Demand of Jute and Coir Products are increasing rapidly because of their environment friendly nature. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses of vegetable fibers. Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin. Jute is the name of the plant or fiber that is used to make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth. Coir is a versatile natural fibre extracted from mesocarp tissue, or husk of the coconut fruit. Generally fibre is of golden color when cleaned after removing from coconut husk; and hence named as “The Golden Fibre". This Book aims at providing a thorough understanding and analysis of the Jute & Coir sector. The book discusses the overview of the Jute & Coir along with their Classification, Structure, Properties and Manufacturing Process of different products. Few major contents of the Book are Jute Cultivation, Coconut Cultivation, Jute Yarn, Sutli & Hessian Cloth, Jute Twine (Jute Rope), Gunny Bags, Jute Garments, Jute Shopping Bags, Gunny Bags (Jute Bags) Manufacturing, Handmade Paper from Jute, Environment Pollution and Effluent Treatment of Jute, Coir Fibre, Coir Pith, Biomass Charcoal Briquetting from Jute and Coir Waste, Rubberized Coir Mattresses, Coir Pith for Absorption and Recovery of Oil from Contaminated Sites, Application of Coir in Agricultural Textiles, Manufacture of Coir Corrugated Roofing Sheet, Coir Machinery Manufacturers, Importers of Coir Products. It also contains the Product and Machinery photographs, Name of Indian Buying Agents of Coir Products with their contact details. The purpose of this book is to provide information to new Entrepreneurs, Technocrats, Students and Professionals.
Livestock and poultry in Indian tropical and subtropics play a critical role in agricultural economy by providing milk, wool, meat, eggs and draft power and provide flexible reserves during period of economic stress and buffer against crop failure. Rabbits are raised up off the ground and are one of the cleanest animals produced as meat and hence do not even need to be wormed. Rabbits are among the most productive of domestic livestock, making them efficient sources of food for an ever increasing population with diminishing resources. Up to 98.7% of the rabbits can be used for meat, fur, in laboratories, as fertilizers, in toys and novelties. The large demand for animal wool seems to be assured. Sheep rearing is the major source of livelihood to small and marginal farmers and landless laborers in hilly areas, arid and semi-arid region of India. Goat is a multi functional animal and plays a significant role in the economy and nutrition of landless, small and marginal farmers in the country. It creates employment to the rural poor besides effectively utilizing unpaid family labor. There is ample scope for establishing cottage industries based on goat meat and milk products and value addition to skin and fiber. Fish is a good source of animal proteins; Man has realized its importance from the very inception of the evolution of the human race. It has been the sole diet for many island nations before the evolution of farming techniques. Poultry is one of the fastest growing segments of the agricultural sector in India today. The production of agricultural crops has been rising at a rate of 1.5 to 2 % per annum that of eggs and broilers has been rising at a rate of 8 to 10 % per annum. From a backyard hobby it has culminated into an industry. Among the various livestock species, piggery is most potential source of meat production and more efficient feed converters after the broiler. Apart from providing meat, it is also a source of bristles and manure. Pig farming will provide employment opportunities to seasonally employed rural farmers and supplementary income to improve their living standards. The contribution of pork products in terms of value works out to 0.80% of total livestock products and 4.32% of the meat and meat products. This book basically deals with rabbit keeping, feeding systems, feed requirements and balanced rations, angora wool utilization in cottage industries, useful information for goat breeding measures of increasing potential of range land nutrients requirements of goats, conversion efficiency of indigenous breeds of goats, sources and functions of the nutrients in sheep, breeds of poultry, inheritance of plumage in turkeys, commercial poultry farming, nutrition of broiler type chickens, how to economise on poultry feed cost, principles of fish culture, culturable fish and shellfish, nutritional requirement and artificial shrimp feed preparation, types of antibiotics for pigs etc. This book provides detailed information on the livestock and poultry farming and rearing technique with described process of feeding systems, feed requirements and balanced rations, harvesting commercial products from them. This book is an invaluable resource for the entrepreneurs, institutions and professionals.
Plastic technology is one of the fields where people can show their ability and performance both theoretically and practically. The Indian plastic and polymer industry has taken great strides. In the last few decades, the industry has grown to the status of a leading sector in the country with a sizable base. The material is gaining notable importance in different spheres of activity and the per capita consumption is increasing at a fast pace. Continuous advancements and developments in polymer technology, processing machineries, expertise and cost effective manufacturing is fast replacing the typical materials in different segments with plastics. Some examples of the specialty plastics are polytetra fluoroethylene (PTFE) , thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU), polysulphones (PSO), polyester sulphone (PES), polyarylates, polyamide imide (PAI), etc. Polyurethane is polymer composed of a chain of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links. Polyurethane polymers are formed by combining two bi or higher functional monomers. Urethane foam is an artificial material with several different uses. The manufacturing process can produce foams of varying densities and flexibilities. This means it can serve functions as diverse as bedding, packaging and footwear. It is important to note that urethane foam is most commonly used to refer to a material made from polyurethane. Furniture, bedding, automotive interiors, energy management, footwear and insulation utilize flexible foam technology due to its wide range of density, cushioning ability and versatility of use. Appliance (refrigeration, water heaters), construction panels, roofing boardstock, and spray applied insulation utilize rigid polyurethane foam due its superior insulating and mechanical properties to reduce energy consumption and enhance structural integrity of the finished product. The versatility of the technology and processability makes rigid polyurethane foam uniquely suited for other applications, like architectural molding, energy absorbing materials in automobiles, entry doors, and even picnic coolers. Polymer Energy system is an award winning, innovative, proprietary process to convert waste plastics into renewable energy. Polymers are the most rapidly growing sector of the materials industry. Some fundamentals of the book are properties and applications of speciality plastics, thermoplastic polyurethanes, formation of urethane foams, flexible foams, variables in the preparation of prepolymers, procedures for the preparation of prepolymers, catalyzed prepolymer preparation, application of flexible foams, applications of rigid foams, one-stage injection stretch blow moulding, pet material and applications, injection and co-injection preform technologies, pet film and sheet, plastics as safe & hygienic medium for packaging food & food products. The book covers processes and other required information for the manufacturing of different specialty plastics, Foams, PET and Pre form PET etc. This is very useful book for new entrepreneurs, technocrats, existing units, institutional libraries etc.