In concise, high-def videos, various skills and techniques are demonstrated and explained. These cover topics for the novice, such as mounting and cleaning of optics, as well as for the more advanced learner, such as balanced detection, and lock-in amplifiers.
Various interactive widgets let you simulate the experience of aligning a laser beam to an optical system, aligning an interferometer to get fringes, or adjust a Fabry-Perot cavity while observing the mode spectrum. Other tools help you quickly find the Gaussian beam parameters of your laser from measured beam radii, and to calculate the position of a lens or pair of lenses to mode match a laser to a cavity.
Millions of students trust Schaum's Outlines to help them succeed in the classroom and on exams. Schaum's is the key to faster learning and higher grades in every subject. Each Outline presents all the essential course information in an easy-to-follow, topic-by-topic format. You also get hundreds of examples, solved problems, and practice exercises to test your skills.
Use Schaum's Outlines to:Brush up before tests Find answers fast Study quickly and more effectively Get the big picture without spending hours poring over lengthy textbooks
Fully compatible with your classroom text, Schaum's highlights all the important facts you need to know. Use Schaum's to shorten your study time--and get your best test scores!
This Schaum's Outline gives you:A concise guide to the standard college course in fluid dynamics 480 problems with answers or worked-out solutions Practice problems in multiple-choice format like those on the Fundamentals of Engineering Exam
The book begins at the simplest level, develops the basics, and reinforces fundamentals, ensuring a solid foundation in the principles and methods of physics. It provides an ideal introduction for college-level students of physics, chemistry, and engineering; for motivated AP Physics students; and for general readers interested in advances in the sciences.
Dr. Kock's lucid introduction to lasers and holography has now been revised and updated for a second edition. It begins with a clear discussion of wave patterns and coherence. Then the development of lasers is summarized, along with the phenomenon of wave diffraction. Finally, the important subjects of zone plates and the properties of holograms are skillfully described. A new, concluding chapter brings the story up to the present, with a survey of recent advances in such areas as viewing holograms, hologram computer memories, liquid surface holography, synthetic-aperture radar and sonar, large new lasers, fiber optics, etc.
Using language that can be readily understood by high school and junior high school students, Dr. Kock has written a brief, yet authoritative volume that should satisfy anyone's curiosity about this burgeoning field. The remarkable discoveries that have already occurred are only a prelude to an even more remarkable future. 84 illustrations, including 8 new to this edition. New preface. Suggested (1981) additional reading. Index.
This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications. The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced in the second edition, including:Analysis of the Vander Pol oscillator model of laser light Coverage on coherence tomography and coherence multiplexing of fiber sensors An expansion of the chapter on imaging with partially coherent light, including several new examples An expanded section on speckle and its properties New sections on the cross-spectrum and bispectrum techniques for obtaining images free from atmospheric distortions A new section on imaging through atmospheric turbulence using coherent light The addition of the effects of “read noise” to the discussions of limitations encountered in detecting very weak optical signals A number of new problems and many new references have been added Statistical Optics, Second Edition is written for researchers and engineering students interested in optics, physicists and chemists, as well as graduate level courses in a University Engineering or Physics Department.
Divided into four sections, the book covers fundaments of IR detection, IR thermal detectors, IR photon detectors, and focal plane arrays. It begins with a tutorial introduction to essential of different types of IR detectors and systems. The author explores the theory and technology of different thermal detectors and then moves on to the theory and technology of photon detectors. He concludes his treatment with a discussion of IR focal plane arrays where relations between performance of detector array and infrared system quality are considered.
New to the Second Edition:
Fundamentals of IR detection, radiometry, and flux-transfer issues needed for IR detector and system analysis Major achievements and trends in the development of IR detectors Novel uncooled detectors such as cantilever, antenna, and optically coupled detectors Type II superlattice detectors Quantum dot IR detectors Terahertz (THz) arrays and new generation of IR detectors, so-called third generation detectors
The author accomplishes the difficult task of making the information accessible to a wide readership. A comprehensive analysis of the latest developments in IR detector technology and basic insight into the fundamental processes important to evolving detection techniques, the book provides the most complete and up-to-date resource of its kind, including a summary of useful data, guide to the literature, and overview of applications.
Helping you overcome these hurdles, Hydraulic Power System Analysis demonstrates modern computer-aided analytical techniques used to model nonlinear, dynamic fluid power systems. Following an overview of fluid power, the authors examine various relevant fluid properties, energy calculations, and steady state and dynamic analysis along with a review of automatic control theory. Turning to modeling, the next few chapters address valves and motors and then apply dynamic modeling to examples relating to pumps, hydrostatic transmissions, and valves. The book includes a unique chapter showing how to combine flow resistance equations with the differential equations governing dynamic system performance. The final chapter translates electrical circuit theory concepts to noise attenuation in fluid power systems.
Illustrated with many equations, practical computer modeling examples, and exercises, Hydraulic Power System Analysis provides a much-needed modernization of dynamic modeling for fluid power systems using powerful computational tools.
What’s New in This Edition:
Includes more than 150 full-color images which significantly improve the reader’s ability to understand pump drawings and curves
Introduces a new chapter on pump case studies in a format that provides case study background, analysis, solutions, and lessons learned
Presents important new updates and additions to other chapters
Includes a ten-step procedure for determining total pump head
Discusses allowable and preferred operating ranges for centrifugal pumps
Provides charts covering maximum and normally attainable pump efficiencies, performance corrections for slurry pumps, and mechanical seal flush plans
Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition is appropriate for readers with all levels of technical experience, including engineering and pump industry professionals, pump operators and maintenance technicians, upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering, and students in engineering technology programs.
Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of present applications and past experience. This book also examines the relevance of design and feed-stock parameters to the operation of a CFB boiler; designs of mechanical components, including cyclones, air distributor grids, and solid recycle systems; and special problems CVB boilers present with construction materials.
What if you had to take an art class in which you were only taught how to paint a fence? What if you were never shown the paintings of van Gogh and Picasso, weren't even told they existed? Alas, this is how math is taught, and so for most of us it becomes the intellectual equivalent of watching paint dry.
In Love and Math, renowned mathematician Edward Frenkel reveals a side of math we've never seen, suffused with all the beauty and elegance of a work of art. In this heartfelt and passionate book, Frenkel shows that mathematics, far from occupying a specialist niche, goes to the heart of all matter, uniting us across cultures, time, and space.
Love and Math tells two intertwined stories: of the wonders of mathematics and of one young man's journey learning and living it. Having braved a discriminatory educational system to become one of the twenty-first century's leading mathematicians, Frenkel now works on one of the biggest ideas to come out of math in the last 50 years: the Langlands Program. Considered by many to be a Grand Unified Theory of mathematics, the Langlands Program enables researchers to translate findings from one field to another so that they can solve problems, such as Fermat's last theorem, that had seemed intractable before.
At its core, Love and Math is a story about accessing a new way of thinking, which can enrich our lives and empower us to better understand the world and our place in it. It is an invitation to discover the magic hidden universe of mathematics.
Amateur astronomers are always contemplating the "next telescope up" and this will point the way to the most suitable instrument to which they should aspire. Similarly, those who are buying their first telescope – and these days not necessarily a low-cost one – will be able to compare and contrast different types and makes.
Jim Mullaney is an astronomy writer, lecturer and consultant who has published more than 500 articles and five books: he has also been an editor for Sky & Telescope, Astronomy, and Star & Sky magazines. One of the contributors to Carl Sagan’s award-winning Cosmos PBS-Television series, his work has received recognition from such notables as Sir Arthur Clarke, Johnny Carson, Ray Bradbury, Dr. Wernher von Braun, and one of his former students – NASA scientist/astronaut Dr. Jay Apt. He is probably the ideal person to write this book, containing as it does a directory of instruments offered by all the major manufacturers.
This exciting, upbeat new guide provides an extensive overview of binoculars and telescopes. It includes detailed up-to-date information on sources, selection and use of virtually every major type, brand and model of such instruments on today’s market – truly an invaluable treasure-trove of information and helpful advice for all amateur astronomers. Also includes details on the the latest released telescope lines, e.g., the 10-, 12-, 14- and 16-inch aperture models of the Meade LX-R series.
Written by experts from around the world, the handbook covers all major classes of hydraulic fluids in detail, delving into chemistry, design, fluid maintenance and selection, and other key concepts. It also offers a rigorous overview of hydraulic fluid technology and evaluates the ecological benefits of water and its use as an important alternative technology. This complete overview discusses pumps and motors, valves, and reservoir design, as well as fluid properties and associated topics. These include air entrainment, modulus, lubrication and wear assessment by bench and pump testing, biodegradability, and fire resistance. Contributors also present particularly important material on biodegradable fluids and the use of water as a hydraulic fluid.
As the foremost resource on the design, selection, and testing of hydraulic systems and fluids used in engineering applications, this book contains new illustrations, data tables, and practical examples, all updated with essential information on the latest methods. To streamline presentation, relevant content from the first edition has been integrated into this new version, where appropriate. The result is a reference that helps readers develop an unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including essential hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants.
This book provides an introduction into the wide range of activities that are possible in aqueous mixtures. It is organized to facilitate understanding of the main features, outlines the main applications, and gives access to further informationSummarizes fundamental properties of water for engineering applicationsCompares process and reactor designsEvaluates processes from thermodynamic, economic, and social impact viewpoints
This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of the fundamentals of holography, with particular reference to spatial and temporal coherence, diffraction at finite and infinite distances, and filtering of spatial frequencies. The reader is then introduced to the principles and applications of holography, focusing on the geometric optics and aberrations of holograms as well as interferometry and microscopy. The following chapters explore how images are produced and reconstructed using a hologram and explain how to detect the differences between two images. Three main types of synthetic holograms are also considered: binary holograms, holograms with several intensity levels, and the holograms called kinoforms. The last chapter is devoted to optical filtering and pattern recognition.
This monograph will be of value to physicists and researchers as well as to those interested in how holography works.
This book will be mandatory reading for anyone working on the foundations of modern devices such as free electron lasers, plasma accelerators, synchroton sources and other modern sources of bright, coherent radiation with high spectral density.
One of the nineteenth century's most significant papers, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field," appears here, along with similarly influential expositions of Maxwell's dynamical theory of gases. The author's extensive range of interests is well represented, from his discussions of color blindness and the composition of Saturn's rings to his essays on geometrical optics, ether, and protecting buildings from lightning. His less technical writings are featured as well, including items written for the Encyclopedia Britannica and Nature magazine, book reviews, and popular lectures. Striking in their originality, these papers offer a wealth of stimulating and inspiring reading to modern students of mathematics and physics.
Each topic is carefully introduced at three levels to aid student understanding. First, theoretical ideas and background information are discussed, then explanations of mathematical solutions follow and finally practical solutions are presented using MATLAB. The content includes:A compendium of equations and numerical data required by the modern colour and imaging scientist. Numerous examples of solutions and algorithms for a wide-range of computational problems in colour science. Example scripts using the MATLAB programming language.
This 2nd edition contains substantial new and revised material, including three innovative chapters on colour imaging, psychophysical methods, and physiological colour spaces; the MATLAB toolbox has been extended with a professional, optimized, toolbox to go alongside the current teaching toolbox; and a java toolbox has been added which will interest users who are writing web applications and/or applets or mobile phone applications.
Computational Colour Science Using MATLAB 2nd Edition is an invaluable resource for students taking courses in colour science, colour chemistry and colour physics as well as technicians and researchers working in the area. In addition, it acts a useful reference for professionals and researchers working in colour dependent industries such as textiles, paints, print & electronic imaging.
Review from First Edition:
“…highly recommended as a concise introduction to the practicalities of colour science…” (Color Technology, 2004)
Within this context, readers will find valuable information that explores refrigeration and heat pump systems using natural refrigerants, polygeneration systems, the energy efficiency of thermal systems, the utilization of low temperature waste heat, and cleaner production.
The book also examines the technical, economic, and environmental reasons of R718 refrigeration/heat pump systems and how they are competitive with traditional systems, serving as a valuable reference for engineers who work in the design and construction of thermal plants and systems, and those who wish to specialize in the use of R718 as a refrigerant in these systems.Describes existing novel R718 turbo compressor and ejector refrigeration/heat pump systems and technologiesProvides procedures calculating and optimizing cycles, system components, and system structuresEstimates the performance characteristics of the thermal systemsExposes the possibilities for wider applications of R718 systems in the field of refrigeration and heat pumps
Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter on supercontinuum generation in optical fibers.Continues to be industry bestseller providing unique source of comprehensive coverage on the subject of nonlinear fiber optics Updated coverage of intrapulse Raman scattering, four-wave mixing, and Harmonic GenerationIncludes a new chapter excusively devoted to supercontinuum generation in optical fibers
An adaptive lens is a lens whose shape has been changed to a different focal length by an external stimulus such as pressure, electric field, magnetic field, or temperature. Introduction to Adaptive Lenses is the first book ever to address all of the fundamental operation principles, device characteristics, and potential applications of various types of adaptive lenses.
This comprehensive book covers basic material properties, device structures and performance, image processing and zooming, optical communications, and biomedical imaging. Readers will find homework problems and solutions included at the end of each chapter—and based on the described device structures, they will have the knowledge to fabricate adaptive lenses for practical applications or develop new adaptive devices or concepts for advanced investigation.
Introduction to Adaptive Lenses includes chapters on:
Elastomeric membrane lenses
Liquid crystal lenses
This is an important reference for optical engineers, research scientists, graduate students, and undergraduate seniors.
Nonlinear optics is essentially the study of the interaction of strong laser light with matter. It lies at the basis of the field of photonics, the use of light fields to control other light fields and to perform logical operations. Some of the topics of this book include the fundamentals and applications of optical systems based on the nonlinear interaction of light with matter. Topics to be treated include: mechanisms of optical nonlinearity, second-harmonic and sum- and difference-frequency generation, photonics and optical logic, optical self-action effects including self-focusing and optical soliton formation, optical phase conjugation, stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattering, and selection criteria of nonlinear optical materials.
· Covers all the latest topics and technology in this ever-evolving area of study that forms the backbone of the major applications of optical technology
· Offers first-rate instructive style making it ideal for self-study
· Emphasizes the fundamentals of non-linear optics rather than focus on particular applications that are constantly changing
Features include:Comprehensive and authoritative treatments of the latest research in this area of nanophotonics, written by the leading researchersAccounts of numerous microfluidics, nanofabrication, quantum informatics and optical manipulation applicationsCoverage that fully spans the subject area, from fundamental theory and simulations to experimental methods and results
Graduate students and established researchers in academia, national laboratories and industry will find this book an invaluable guide to the latest technologies in this rapidly developing field.Comprehensive and definitive source of the latest research in nanotechnology written by the leading people in the fieldFrom theory to applications - all is presented in detailEditor is Chair of the SPIE Nanotechnology Technical Group and is leading the way in generation and manipulation of complex beams
The book covers topics such as Fourier spectrometry and field-widened interferometers; the applications of Fourier transform spectrometry; transmission studies on the different phases of matter; asymmetric interferometry; and the measurement of complex indices of refraction. Also included in the book are the areas of cryogenic instrumentation; Hadamard-Transform spectrometry and its related theory; measurement of infrared transient phenomena; and calibration techniques.
The text is applicable for both novices and practitioners in the field of spectrometry, as it can serve as a guide and handbook for the former and reference for the latter.
The book begins with a brief history of the effort to enable the device that generates light through modern organic LEDs and reviews the fundamentals and principles of light prior to a detailed explanation of how LEDs generate different colors. After forming this basic foundation, the book examines the key LEDs in lighting and communications. It then discusses the latest opportunities and advancements in high brightness (HB) LED technology, solid state lighting, and handheld electronic applications.
As we approach a new decade the role of LEDs is literally set to explode, with organic light emitting diodes emerging as a leading next generation technology for electronic displays and lighting. Challenges still exist, including light extraction, luminosity, and white light generation, not to mention non-technical obstacles such as IP disputes and the lack of standards. This book provides a foundation for resolving these issues and developing new applications for LEDs in the promising general illumination market.
This comprehensive book is an earnest endeavour to apprise the readers with a thorough understanding of all important basic concepts and methods of fluid mechanics and hydraulic machines. The text is organised into sixteen chapters, out of which the first twelve chapters are more inclined towards imparting the conceptual aspects of fluids mechanics, while the remaining four chapters accentuate more on the details of hydraulic machines. The book is supplemented with solutions manual for instructors containing detailed solutions of all chapter-end unsolved problems. Primarily intended as a text for the undergraduate students of civil, mechanical, chemical and aeronautical engineering, this book will be of immense use to the postgraduate students of hydraulics engineering, water resources engineering, and fluids engineering.
• The book describes all concepts in easy-to-grasp language with diagrammatic representation and practical examples.
• A variety of worked-out examples are included within the text, illustrating the wide applications of fluid mechanics.
• Every chapter comprises summary that presents the main idea and relevant details of the topics discussed.
• Almost all chapters incorporate objective type questions of previous years’ GATE examinations, along with their answers and in-depth explanations.
• Previous years’ IES conventional questions are provided at the end of most of the chapters.
• A set of theoretical questions and numerous unsolved numerical problems are provided at the chapter-end to help the students from practice pointof-view.
• Every chapter consists of a section Suggested Reading comprising a list of publications that the students may refer for more detailed information.
This comprehensive reference provides up-to-date information on component and subsystem technologies, fundamental limitations, and approaches to reach those limits. It covers basic concepts and state-of-the-art technologies, emphasizing device technology, implementation techniques, and system trades. The authors discuss hardware technologies and their applications, and also explore ongoing research activities and those planned for the near future.
The analytical aspects of laser communication have been covered to a great extent in several books. However, a detailed approach to system design and development, including trades on subsystem choices and implications of the hardware selection for satellite and aircraft telecommunications, is missing. Highlighting key design variations and critical differences between them, this book distills decades’ worth of experience into a practical resource on hardware technologies.
The book is based on the materials taught by S. Fujita for several courses in Quantum Theory of Solids, Advanced Topics in Modern Physics, and Quantum Statistical Mechanics.
The material added to this new edition will provide insights gathered over 45 years of studying fluid mechanics. Many of these insights, such as universal dimensionless similarity scaling for the laminar boundary layer equations, are available nowhere else. Likewise for the generalized vector field derivatives. Other material, such as the generalized stream function treatment, shows how stream functions may be used in three-dimensional flows. The CFD chapter enables computations of some simple flows and provides entrée to more advanced literature.
*New and generalized treatment of similar laminar boundary layers.
*Generalized treatment of streamfunctions for
three-dimensional flow .
*Generalized treatment of vector field derivatives.
*Expanded coverage of gas dynamics.
*New introduction to computational fluid dynamics.
*New generalized treatment of boundary conditions in fluid mechanics.
*Expanded treatment of viscous flow with more examples.
If you sit as still as you can in a quiet room, you might be able to convince yourself that nothing is moving. But air currents are still wafting around you. Blood rushes through your veins. The atoms in your chair jiggle furiously. In fact, the planet you are sitting on is whizzing through space thirty-five times faster than the speed of sound.
Natural motion dominates our lives and the intricate mechanics of the world around us. In ZOOM, Bob Berman explores how motion shapes every aspect of the universe, literally from the ground up. With an entertaining style and a gift for distilling the wondrous, Berman spans astronomy, geology, biology, meteorology, and the history of science, uncovering how clouds stay aloft, how the Earth's rotation curves a home run's flight, and why a mosquito's familiar whine resembles a telephone's dial tone.
For readers who love to get smarter without realizing it, ZOOM bursts with science writing at its best.
Gas-Liquid And Liquid-Liquid Separators is divided into six parts: Part one and two covers fundamentals such as: physical properties, phase behaviour and calculations. Part three through five is dedicated to topics such as: separator construction, factors affecting separation, vessel operation, and separator operation considerations. Part six is devoted to the ASME codes governing wall thickness determination of vessel weight fabrication, inspection, alteration and repair of separators500 illustrationsEasy to understand calculations methodsGuide for protecting downstream equipmentHelps reduce the loss of expensive intermediate endsHelps increase product purity