This second expanded edition adds new material published during the last decade, with nearly 200 new references. More material has been added on infinitely-dimensional multitype processes, including the infinitely-dimensional linear-fractional case. Hypergeometric function treatment of the special case of the Griffiths-Pakes infinite allele branching process has also been added. There are additional applications of recent molecular processes and connections with systems biology are explored, and a new chapter on genealogies of branching processes and their applications.
Reviews of First Edition:
"This is a significant book on applications of branching processes in biology, and it is highly recommended for those readers who are interested in the application and development of stochastic models, particularly those with interests in cellular and molecular biology." (Siam Review, Vol. 45 (2), 2003)
“This book will be very interesting and useful for mathematicians, statisticians and biologists as well, and especially for researchers developing mathematical methods in biology, medicine and other natural sciences.” (Short Book Reviews of the ISI, Vol. 23 (2), 2003)
Too little salt in the diet can shift the body into semi-starvation mode and cause insulin resistance, and may even cause you to absorb twice as much fat for every gram you consume. Too little salt in certain populations can actually increase blood pressure, as well as resting heart rate. We need salt in order to hydrate and nourish our cells, transmit nerve signals, contract our muscles, ensure proper digestion and breathing, and maintain proper heart function. The Salt Fix will show how we wrongly demonized this essential micronutrient as well as explain what the current science really says about this misunderstood mineral and how to maximize its effect so you can enjoy ideal health and longevity.
Prolactin is a peptide hormone that is best known for its role in lactation. Prolactin also has an influence on hematopoiesis and angiogenesis, and is involved in the regulation of blood clotting through several pathways. Although PRL was discovered more than 80 years ago, the understanding of PRL signaling and its relationship to various pathologies is still very incomplete. PRL is not only a pituitary hormone with an important role in reproduction, but PRL also acts as a cytokine, modulating a wide variety of physiological processes. For example, data gathered during the last decade have demonstrated that locally produced PRL acts as the autocrine/paracrine factor and plays a contributory role during breast oncogenesis. In fact, the scientific and clinical communities have suggested that the manipulation of the PRL axis may lead to the successful treatment of breast cancer. However, recent work has demonstrated that the role of the PRL axis is much more complex than first envisaged.
Tricky concepts are illustrated and explained with clarity and precision, as The Human Brain Book looks at how the brain sends messages to the rest of the body, how we think and feel, how we perform unconscious actions (for example, breathing), explores the nature of genius, asks why we behave the way we do, explains how we see and hear things, and how and why we dream. Physical and psychological disorders affecting the brain and nervous system are clearly illustrated and summarized in easy-to-understand terms.
Mutation and drift are two of the main genetic forces, which act on genes of individuals in populations. Their effects are influenced by population dynamics. This book covers the application to two mutation models: single step mutation for microsatellite loci and single-base substitutions. The effects of demographic change to the asymptotic of the distribution are also covered. The target audience primarily covers researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
With research gleaned from the National Institutes of Health, T.S. Wiley and Bent Formby deliver staggering findings: Americans really are sick from being tired. Diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and depression are rising in our population. We’re literally dying for a good night’s sleep.
Our lifestyle wasn’t always this way. It began with the invention of the lightbulb.
When we don’t get enough sleep in sync with seasonal light exposure, we fundamentally alter a balance of nature that has been programmed into our physiology since day one. This delicate biological rhythm rules the hormones and neurotransmitters that determine appetite, fertility, and mental and physical health. When we rely on artificial light to extend our day until 11 p.m., midnight, and beyond, we fool our bodies into living in a perpetual state of summer. Anticipating the scarce food supply and forced inactivity of winter, our bodies begin storing fat and slowing metabolism to sustain us through the months of hibernation and hunger that never arrive. Our own survival instinct, honed over millennia, is now killing us.
Wiley and Formby also reveal:
-That studies from our own government research prove the role of sleeplessness in diabetes, heart disease, cancer, infertility, mental illness, and premature aging
-Why the carbohydrate-rich diets recommended by many health professionals are not only ridiculously ineffective but deadly
-Why the lifesaving information that can turn things around is one of the best-kept secrets of our day.
Lights Out is one wake-up call none of us can afford to miss.
In this comprehensive textbook, Polanski and Kimmel present mathematical models in bioinformatics and they describe the biological problems that inspire the computer science tools used to handle the enormous data sets involved. The first part of the book covers the mathematical and computational methods, while the practical applications are presented in the second part. The mathematical presentation is descriptive and avoids unnecessary formalism, and yet remains clear and precise. Emphasis is laid on motivation through biological problems and cross applications. Each of the four chapters in the first part is accompanied by exercises and problems to support an understanding of the techniques presented. Each of the six chapters of the second part is devoted to some specific application domain: sequence alignment, molecular phylogenetics and coalescence theory, genomics, proteomics, RNA, and DNA microarrays. Each chapter concludes with a problems and projects section, to deepen the reader's understanding and to allow for the design of derived methods. Many of the projects involve publicly available software and/or Web-based bioinformatics depositories. Finally, the book closes with a thorough bibliography, reaching from classic research results to very recent findings, providing many pointers for future research.Overall, this volume is ideally suited for a senior undergraduate or graduate course on bioinformatics, with a strong focus on its mathematical and computer science background.
Science is on the cusp of a revolutionary breakthrough. We now understand more about aging—and how to prevent and reverse it—than ever before.
In recent years, our understanding of the nature of aging has grown exponentially, and dramatic life extension—even age reversal—has moved from science fiction to real possibility.
Dr. Michael Fossel has been in the forefront of aging research for decades and is the author of the definitive textbook on human aging. In The Telomerase Revolution, he takes us on a detailed but highly accessible scientific journey, providing startling insights into the nature of human aging.
Twenty years ago, there was still considerable debate of the nature of human aging, with a variety of competing theories in play. But scientific consensus is forming around the telomere theory of aging. The essence of this theory is that human aging is the result of cellular aging. Every time a cell reproduces, its telomeres (the tips of the chromosomes) shorten. With every shortening of the telomeres, the cell’s ability to repair its molecules decreases. It ages. Human aging is the result of the aging of the body’s trillions of cells.
But some of our cells don’t age. Sex cells and stem cells can reproduce indefinitely, without aging, because they create telomerase. Telomerase re-lengthens the telomeres, keeping these cells young.
The Telomerase Revolution describes how telomerase will soon be used as a powerful therapeutic tool, with the potential to dramatically extend life spans and even reverse human aging. Telomerase-based treatments are already available, and have shown early promise, but much more potent treatments will become available over the next decade.
The Telomerase Revolution is the definitive work on the latest science on human aging, covering both the theory and the clinical implications. It takes the reader to the forefront of the upcoming revolution in human medicine.
We all have a rage circuit we can’t fully control once it is engaged as R. Douglas Fields, PhD, reveals in this essential book for our time. The daily headlines are filled with examples of otherwise rational people with no history of violence or mental illness suddenly snapping in a domestic dispute, an altercation with police, or road rage attack. We all wish to believe that we are in control of our actions, but the fact is, in certain circumstances we are not. The sad truth is that the right trigger in the right circumstance can unleash a fit of rage in almost anyone.
But there is a twist: Essentially the same pathway in the brain that can result in a violent outburst can also enable us to act heroically and altruistically before our conscious brain knows what we are doing. Think of the stranger who dives into a frigid winter lake to save a drowning child.
Dr. Fields is an internationally recognized neurobiologist and authority on the brain and the cellular mechanisms of memory. He has spent years trying to understand the biological basis of rage and anomalous violence, and he has concluded that our culture’s understanding of the problem is based on an erroneous assumption: that rage attacks are the product of morally or mentally defective individuals, rather than a capacity that we all possess.
Fields shows that violent behavior is the result of the clash between our evolutionary hardwiring and triggers in our contemporary world. Our personal space is more crowded than ever, we get less sleep, and we just aren't as fit as our ancestors. We need to understand how the hardwiring works and how to recognize the nine triggers. With a totally new perspective, engaging narrative, and practical advice, Why We Snap uncovers the biological roots of the rage response and how we can protect ourselves—and others.
From the Hardcover edition.
The rapid increase of the power of personal computers has led to the use of serious forward-time simulation programs in genetic studies. Forward-Time Population Genetics Simulations presents both new and commonly used methods, and introduces simuPOP, a powerful and flexible new program that can be used to simulate arbitrary evolutionary processes with unique features like customized chromosome types, arbitrary nonrandom mating schemes, virtual subpopulations, information fields, and Python operators.
The book begins with an overview of important concepts and models, then goes on to show how simuPOP can simulate a number of standard population genetics models—with the goal of demonstrating the impact of genetic factors such as mutation, selection, and recombination on standard Wright-Fisher models. The rest of the book is devoted to applications of forward-time simulations in various research topics.
Forward-Time Population Genetics Simulations includes:
An overview of currently available forward-time simulation methods, their advantages, and shortcomings
An overview and evaluation of currently available software
A simuPOP tutorial
Applications in population genetics
Applications in genetic epidemiology, statistical genetics, and mapping complex human diseases
The only book of its kind in the field today, Forward-Time Population Genetics Simulations will appeal to researchers and students of population and statistical genetics.
The emerging focus on CSCs in brain tumors represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. Importantly, the realization that a distinct sub-population of cells contributes disproportionately to the growth and sustenance of central nervous system tumors has important implications for the treatment of such tumors. To treat CNS tumors, there is now a growing need to treat CSCs to achieve adequate tumor control.
The volume will present representative state-of-the-art research in almost all areas of retinal degenerations, ranging from cytopathologic, physiologic, diagnostic and clinical aspects; animal models; mechanisms of cell death; molecular genetics; and developing potential therapeutic measures such as gene therapy and neuroprotective agents for potential pharmaceutical therapy; and several sight restoration approaches, including optogenetics. While advances in these areas of retinal degenerations will be included, several new topics either were in their infancy or did not exist at the time of the last RD Symposium, RD2012. These include many new developments in sight restoration using optogenetics, retinal or RPE cell transplantation, stem cell approaches and visual prosthetic devices. In addition, major advances will be presented in other basic mechanisms in age-related macular degeneration, several new aspects of gene and antioxidant therapy and revolutionary new imaging and functional testing that will have a huge impact on the diagnosis and following the course of retinal degenerations, as well as to provide new quantitative endpoints for clinical trials. The retina is an approachable part of the central nervous system (CNS), and there is a major interest in neuroprotective and gene therapy for CNS diseases and neurodegenerations, in general. It should be noted that with successful and exciting initial clinical trials in neuroprotective and gene therapy, including the restoration of sight in blind children, the retinal degeneration therapies are leading the way towards new therapeutic measures for neurodegenerations of the CNS. Many of the successes recently reported in these areas of retinal degeneration sprang from collaborations established at previous RD Symposia, and many of those will be reported at the RD2014 meeting and included.
The book begins with an analysis of cell cycle control, moving on to control effects on cell population and structured models and finally the signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and their influence on therapy outcome. It also discusses the incorporation of intracellular processes using signaling pathway models, since the successful treatment of cancer based on analysis of intracellular processes, might soon be a reality. It brings together various aspects of modeling anticancer therapies, which until now have been distributed over a wide range of literature. Written for researchers and graduate students interested in the use of mathematical and engineering tools in biomedicine with special emphasis on applications in cancer diagnosis and treatment, this self-contained book can be easily understood with only a minimal basic knowledge of control and system engineering methods as well as the biology of cancer. Its interdisciplinary character and the authors’ extensive experience in cooperating with clinicians and biologists make it interesting reading for researchers from control and system engineering looking for applications of their knowledge. Systems and molecular biologists as well as clinicians will also find new inspiration for their research.
"A rewarding read for anyone who wants to know the unvarnished truth about how science really gets done." --Financial Times
American taxpayers spend $30 billion annually funding biomedical research, but over half of these studies can't be replicated due to poor experimental design, improper methods, and sloppy statistics. Bad science doesn't just hold back medical progress, it can sign the equivalent of a death sentence for terminal patients. In Rigor Mortis, Richard Harris explores these urgent issues with vivid anecdotes, personal stories, and interviews with the top biomedical researchers. We need to fix our dysfunctional biomedical system--before it's too late.
"Rigor Mortis effectively illustrates what can happen when a convergence of social, cultural, and scientific forces . . . conspires to create a real crisis of confidence in the research process."
"Harris makes a strong case that the biomedical research culture is seriously in need of repair." --Nature
Validation of Alternative Methods for Toxicity Testing is divided into two sections, in the first, practical insights are given on the state-of-the-art and on approaches that have resulted in successfully validated and accepted alternative methods. The second section focuses on the evolution of validation principles and practice that are necessary to ensure fit-for-purpose validation that has the greatest impact on international regulatory acceptance of alternative methods. In this context validation needs to keep pace with the considerable scientific advancements being made in toxicology, the availability of sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied in a variety of ways, and the increasing societal and regulatory demands for better safety assessment.
This book will be a useful resource for scientists in the field of toxicology, both from industry and academia, developing new test methods, strategies or techniques, as well as Governmental and regulatory authorities interested in understanding the principles and practicalities of validation of alternative methods for toxicity testing.
Twenty chapters, all authored by leading names in the field, are cohesively structured into four sections. The opening section focuses on the history and principles of membrane potential imaging and lends context to the following sections, which examine applications in single neurons, networks, large neuronal populations and the heart. Topics discussed include population membrane potential signals in development of the vertebrate nervous system, use of membrane potential imaging from dendrites and axons, and depth-resolved optical imaging of cardiac activation and repolarization. The final section discusses the potential – and limitations – for new developments in the field, including new technology such as non-linear optics, advanced microscope designs and genetically encoded voltage sensors.
Membrane Potential Imaging in the Nervous System and Heart is ideal for neurologists, electro physiologists, cardiologists and those who are interested in the applications and the future of membrane potential imaging.
Included in this book are references for:
- Books - Journals - Magazine - Newspapers - Media - Reviews - Social Media - Online Posts and Much More.
- 250 pages packed with over 1,000 reference examples - Comprehensive information on in text citations - Quick example guides for building references and in text citations fast - Detailed instructions on creating any reference from the ground up.
This book collectively presents a considerable body of experimental and epidemiological evidence from peer-reviewed scientific publications that support a role for natural compounds and herbal extracts in the chemoprevention and therapy of amyloidogenic disorders.
Each contribution is written by scientific experts in the relevant field; chapters are devoted to Mediterranean diet and olive oil phenols, traditional Chinese medicine, herbal extracts, polyphenols (with a particular emphasis on epigallocatechin-3-gallate) and bi-flavonoids, amongst others.
The topic of this book is relevant to a wide audience, from academia and university students in the biological and chemical sciences, to physicians and allied health professionals, as well as people working in the nutraceutical industry.
When Sarah Gray received the devastating news that her unborn son Thomas was diagnosed with anencephaly, a terminal condition, she decided she wanted his death—and life—to have meaning. In the weeks before she gave birth to her twin sons in 2010, she arranged to donate Thomas’s organs. Due to his low birth weight, they would go to research rather than transplant. As transplant donors have the opportunity to meet recipients, Sarah wanted to know how Thomas's donation would be used.
That curiosity fueled a scientific odyssey that leads Sarah to some of the most prestigious scientific facilities in the country, including Harvard, Duke, and the University of Pennsylvania. Pulling back the curtain of protocol and confidentiality, she introduces the researchers who received Thomas’s donations, held his liver in their hands, studied his cells under the microscope.
Sarah’s journey to find solace and understanding takes her beyond her son’s donations—offering a breathtaking overview of the world of medical research and the valiant scientists on the horizon of discovery. She goes behind the scenes at organ procurement organizations, introducing skilled technicians for whom death means saving lives, empathetic counselors, and the brilliant minds who are finding surprising and inventive ways to treat and cure disease through these donations. She also shares the moving stories of other donor families.
A Life Everlasting is an unforgettable testament to hope, a tribute to life and discovery, and a portrait of unsung heroes pushing the boundaries of medical science for the benefit of all humanity.
This critical approach towards old and new cancer biomarkers should foster a deepened and useful understanding of the diagnostic and prognostic index of these fundamental parameters of laboratory medicine and in the same time facilitating the research of new and more sensitive-specific signals of the cancer cell proliferation.
• Shows the relationship between shamanism, near death experiences, and other mystical and altered states with those induced by psychedelics
• Lays the conceptual foundation for the creation of important new therapies in psychiatry and psychology
Stanislav Grof’s first 17 years of research into nonordinary states of consciousness induced by LSD and other psychedelics led to a revolutionary understanding of the human psyche. His research was the impetus behind a vastly expanded cartography of the unconscious, including two new realms still unacknowledged by official academic circles--the perinatal domain, which holds memories of the various stages of birth, and the transpersonal domain, which mediates experiential identification with other species and mythic figures, visits to archetypal realms, access to past life memories, and union with the cosmic creative principle.
The research presented in this book provides a map of the psyche that is essential for understanding such phenomena as shamanism and near death experiences as well as other nonordinary states of consciousness. This map has led to the development of important new therapies in psychiatry and psychology for treating mental conditions often seen as disease and therefore suppressed by medication. It also provides a new threshold to understanding and entering the numinous realm of spirit.
Capturing the contributions and innovations of renowned laboratory researchers in transmembrane protein study for the first time, this book is comprehensive in scope. It covers a wide array of experimental approaches: photochemistry, novel biological tools, and innovative spectroscopy, all combined with traditional techniques of electrophysiology and molecular biology. Novel Chemical Tools to Study Ion Channel Biology, part of the bestselling Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology series is ideal for researchers and advanced students interested in biochemistry, biophysics, fluorometry, electrophysiology, and chemical biology..
Now, that evidence has been discovered.
A thrilling scientific detective story, The Balance Within tells how researchers finally uncovered the elusive mind-body connection and what it means for our health. In this beautifully written book, Dr. Esther Sternberg, whose discoveries were pivotal in helping to solve this mystery, provides first hand accounts of the breakthrough experiments that revealed the physical mechanisms - the nerves, cells, and hormones - used by the brain and immune system to communicate with each other. She describes just how stress can make us more susceptible to all types of illnesses, and how the immune system can alter our moods. Finally, she explains how our understanding of these connections in scientific terms is helping to answer such crucial questions as "Does stress make you sick?" "Is a positive outlook the key to better health?" and "How do our personal relationships, work, and other aspects of our lives affect our health?"
A fascinating, elegantly written portrait of this rapidly emerging field with enormous potential for finding new ways to treat disease and cope with stress, The Balance Within is essential reading for anyone interested in making their body and mind whole again.
Recent progress in the field has radically changed our perspective to study IDPs through NMR: increasingly complex IDPs can now be characterized, a wide range of observables can be determined reporting on the structural and dynamic properties, computational methods to describe the structure and dynamics are in continuous development and IDPs can be studied in environments as complex as whole cells. This volume communicates the new exciting possibilities offered by NMR and presents open questions to foster further developments.
Intrinsically Disordered Proteins Studied by NMR Spectroscopy provides a snapshot to researchers entering the field as well as providing a current overview for more experienced scientists in related areas.
Regulatory Aspects of Gene Therapy and Cell Therapy Products: A Global Perspective is part of the American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy sub-series of the highly successful Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology series. It is essential reading for graduate students, clinicians, and researchers interested in gene and cell therapy and the regulation of pharmaceuticals.
This volume provides formulas and procedures for determination of sample size required not only for testing equality, but also for testing non-inferiority/superiority, and equivalence (similarity) based on both untransformed (raw) data and log-transformed data under a parallel-group design or a crossover design with equal or unequal ratio of treatment allocations. It contains a comprehensive and unified presentation of statistical procedures for sample size calculation that are commonly employed at various phases of clinical development. Each chapter includes, whenever possible, real examples of clinical studies from therapeutic areas such as cardiovascular, central nervous system, anti-infective, oncology, and women's health to demonstrate the clinical and statistical concepts, interpretations, and their relationships and interactions.
The book highlights statistical procedures for sample size calculation and justification that are commonly employed in clinical research and development. It provides clear, illustrated explanations of how the derived formulas and/or statistical procedures can be used.
The definitive haematology textbook of choice for medical students
Hoffbrand's Essential Haematology has built a reputation as the flagship haematology textbook for both students and junior doctors, providing an authoritative introduction to the subject.
Now in its 7th edition, this classic text provides up-to-date knowledge of the pathogenesis, clinical and laboratory features, treatment of blood and bone marrow disorders, in its concise and user-friendly style.
Hoffbrand's Essential Haematology outlines the basic principles of clinical and laboratory haematology and shows how manifestations of blood diseases can be explained by new knowledge of the disease processes. It is an indispensable resource for students and trainees and an essential read for all specialists who are interested in updating their knowledge.
Hoffbrand’s Essential Haematology:Provides up-to-date knowledge of the pathogenesis, clinical and laboratory features and treatment of all blood disorders Features detailed information on the new genetics of leukaemia and lymphoma Includes a new chapter on thrombosis, focussing on the new oral anticoagulants Is beautifully presented, with over 300 colour illustrations Comprehensively covers both theory and treatment regimes
Includes a companion website at www.wileyessential.com/haematology featuring all the figures and tables from the book, and over 300 interactive multiple choice questions.
This title is also available as a mobile App from MedHand Mobile Libraries. Buy it now from iTunes, Google Play or the MedHand Store.