This volume includes a selection of papers presented at the EURESCO Conference “The International Dimension of Environmental Policy” held in Kerkrade, The Netherlands, in October 2000. We would like to thank those who made this conference possible: the European Science Foundation (ESF), which provided financial and organizational support; the European Commission EURESCO Programme; the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), which sponsored the conference under the research project: “Environmental Policy, International Competitiveness and the Location Behavior of Firms”; and GLOBUS, Tilburg University. The European Science Foundation (ESF), the EURESCO Programme, NWO and GlOBUS cannot be held responsible for the contents and/or opinions expressed in this volume. Our gratitude also goes to the people who assisted us in editing this volume: the papers’ referees, the authors, our publisher Kluwer, and Ineke Lavrijssen and Evelyn Rogge for invaluable editorial help at different stages of this project. Laura Marsiliani W. Allen Wallis Institute of Political Economy, University of Rochester, USA and Department of Economics and Finance, University of Durham, United Kingdom; Michael Rauscher Institute of Economics, Rostock University, Germany; Cees Withagen Department of Economics and CentER, Tilburg University, The Netherlands and Department of Economics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [Marsiliani, L., Rauscher, M. and Withagen, C] (eds.), [Environmental Economics and the International Economy], vii.
Der Sammelband enthält interdisziplinäre Analysen unterschiedlicher Formen der Finanzierung von Fernsehanbietern und ihrer Auswirkungen, insbesondere von Werbung, Gebühren und Entgelten (Pay-TV oder 'Pay-per-view'). Alternative Finanzierungsformen prägen Inhalte und Struktur von Fernsehprogrammen; ebenso wie technische und medienpolitische Veränderungen beeinflussen sie darüber hinaus die Zahl und Größe der Fernsehanbieter und damit deren Präsenz im öffentlichen Meinungsbildungsprozeß. Medienwissenschaftler, Ökonomen, Juristen und Praktiker legen in dem Sammelband ihre Sicht dieser Zusammenhänge dar.
This volume inc1udes a selection of papers presented at the second European Research Conference (EURESCO) on "The International Dimension of Environmental Policy" held in Acquafredda di Maratea, Italy, in October 2001. We thank those who made this conference possible: the European Science Foundation (ESF), which provided financial and organizational support; the European Commission EURESCO Programme; the Fondazione ENI Enrico Mattei (FEEM) in Milan; and GLOBUS, Tilburg University. The European Science Foundation (ESF), the EURESCO Programme, FEEM and GLOBUS cannot be held responsible for the contents and/or opinions expressed in this volume. Our gratitude also goes to the people who assisted us in editing this volume: the papers' referees, the authors, our publisher Kluwer, and especially to Stefan Jost in Rostock who handled the manuscript with maximum care during the process of copy-editing. None of these persons bears any responsibilities for remaining errors or shortcomings. Laura Marsiliani, Michael Rauscher, and Cees Withagen [Marsiliani, L., Rauscher, M. and Withagen, c.] (eds.), [Environmental Policy in an International Perspective], xi. © 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Introduction a C Laura Marsiliani, Michael Rauscherb and Cees Withagen a University 0/ Rochester and University 0/ Durham, b University 0/ Rostock, C Free University Amsterdam and Ti/burg University 1. THE ISSUES Nowadays, the proteetion of the environment is one of the most debated issues in the international are~a. Because of the transboundary nature of pollution and the characteristic of the environment as aglobaI public good, international co operation is highly desirable.
The use of environmental resources involves strategic be- havior of self-interested agents, bargaining, cooperation and other efforts to provokeor settle conflicts. In order to model conflicts and cooperation in managingthese resources most papers contained in the book make use of advanced game theoretic concepts. The first six contributions investigate conceptual issues of international conflicts and cooperation while the other four address conflicts and cooperation arising in the context of monitoring and enforcing environmental controls. The emphasis is on demonstrating how new developments in economic (game) theory can fruitfully be applied to important environmental issues. Descriptive as well as normative approaches are presented. In the context of international environmental problems attention is focused on the consequences of non-cooperative behavior and on the incentives for, and barrieres to, the emergence of cooperation. Incomplete implementation of environmental controls can be attributed, to some extent, to failures of monitoring and enforcement which, in turn, raises the issue of designing institutional arrangements allowing for (more) effective enforcement. Students and researchers with a working knowledge of economic theory can expect to learn how complex issues of economic-environmental interaction are successfully tackled by advanced (game) theoretic methods.
In a neoclassical world the existence of non-zero transaction costs, nonconvex technologies, public goods and so on creates inefficiencies which can be dealt with by various institutions. But, institutions can create inefficiencies of their own. This volume addresses the issue of efficiency and institutions from different angles. First, the efficiency of modern welfare states is analyzed on a general level where topics like social justice, redistribution and rent seeking are studied in an environment of pressure groups and self-interested politicians (papers by Streit, Schlieper, WickstrAm). Second, several papers deal with more specific issues like intergenerational transfers in a social insurance system, the efficiency of law, and contractual arrangements in the labor market (Witt, Rowley and Brough, Monissen and Wenger). Third, allocation procedures for nonexclusive public goods are analyzed (GA1/4th and Hellwig, Pethig).
During the last decades, environmental economics as a science has been very successful in improving our understanding of environment-economy interdepen dence. Using conventional economic methodology, environmental aspects have been explicitly incorporated into economic models making use of the concept of externality. This concept was already familiar to economists long before evidence of severe environmental deterioration found its way into the headlines and peo ple's awareness. But before that time, external effects were not considered as being empirically very relevant, they seemed to be -like the example of the bees and the fruit trees - somewhat bucolic in nature. All that changed dramatically when it was no longer possible (or easy) to ignore the large-scale environmental disruption with its negative feedback on consumers and producers caused by growing pollution and excessive use of environmental resources. In diagnosing the discrepancy between private and social cost as the cause of the problem, the externality paradigm proved very useful. The correct diagnosis implies the straightforward cure to internalise all external cost, namely the damage cost of pollution. But it is one thing to identify the qualitative nature of the problem at an abstract conceptual level and quite another thing to place specific money values on pollution damage and society's valuation of the environment, respectively, in the context of specific pollution (control) problems. Very often it is controversial not only how inefficient the no-policy situation is but also what exactly the net benefit of any public action of reducing pollution is.
1. 1. Oil price fluctuations and their impact on economic performance Drastic oil price fluctuations have been a major characteristic of the world petroleum market since the beginning of the seventies. The oil crises of 1973n4 and 1979/80 were followed by a dramatic drop of the oil price during the first two quarters of 1986. Starting from a level less than 2 $ per barrel in 1972, the spot market price of Arabian Light crude oil increased to some 35 $ in 1980, then slowly decreased, and finally fell to 13 $ in 1986 (annual averages). If monthly data are considered, the peaks of the oil price movement look even more dramatic. In December 1980 Arabian crude was traded for more than 40 $ a barrel, and in August 1986 the price was down at 8 $ (see Fig. 1. 1). 40 30 20 10 r o 84 88 76 80 72 Figure 1. 1: The spot market price of Saudi-Arabian Light crude oil! ! Data are taken from the Petroleum Economist and the OPEC Bulletin, various issues. 2 After the Second World War petroleum has become the most important energy resource. During the fifties and sixties its price was relatively low compared to other energy 2 sources like coal and firewood and it tended to drive them out of the market.