What does this mean for the city – for its governability and governance? In this book Vincent Kaufmann assesses the urban implications of the mobility turn. He explores the modern urban phenomenon from the point of view of the mobility capacities of its players – their motility. He asks that the reader consider the idea of a city or region as the product or an arrangement of a specific set of motilities.
Re-Thinking the City seeks to identify how the motility of individuals, goods, and information acts as an organizing principle – or rather, the organizing principle – of contemporary urban change, and then aims to examine the consequences for urban governance by exploring the channels through which individual and collective motility can be regulated.
As New York City’s transportation commissioner, Janette Sadik-Khan managed the seemingly impossible and transformed the streets of one of the world’s greatest, toughest cities into dynamic spaces safe for pedestrians and bikers. Her approach was dramatic and effective: Simply painting a part of the street to make it into a plaza or bus lane not only made the street safer, but it also lessened congestion and increased foot traffic, which improved the bottom line of businesses. Real-life experience confirmed that if you know how to read the street, you can make it function better by not totally reconstructing it but by reallocating the space that’s already there.
Breaking the street into its component parts, Streetfight demonstrates, with step-by-step visuals, how to rewrite the underlying “source code” of a street, with pointers on how to add protected bike paths, improve crosswalk space, and provide visual cues to reduce speeding. Achieving such a radical overhaul wasn’t easy, and Streetfight pulls back the curtain on the battles Sadik-Khan won to make her approach work. She includes examples of how this new way to read the streets has already made its way around the world, from pocket parks in Mexico City and Los Angeles to more pedestrian-friendly streets in Auckland and Buenos Aires, and innovative bike-lane designs and plazas in Austin, Indianapolis, and San Francisco. Many are inspired by the changes taking place in New York City and are based on the same techniques. Streetfight deconstructs, reassembles, and reinvents the street, inviting readers to see it in ways they never imagined.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
As a journalist and associate editor of Fortune magazine who covered the demise of Penn Central and the creation of Conrail, Rush Loving often had a front row seat to the foibles and follies of this group of men. He uncovers intrigue, greed, lust for power, boardroom battles, and takeover wars and turns them into a page-turning story for readers.
Included is the story of how the chairman of CSX Corporation, who later became George W. Bush’s Treasury secretary, was inept as a manager but managed to make millions for himself while his company drifted in chaos. Men such as he were shy of scruples, yet there were also those who loved trains and railroading, and who played key roles in reshaping transportation in the northeastern United States. This book will delight not only the rail fan, but anyone interested in American business and history.
A New Edition of the Phenomenal #1 Bestseller
"One mark of a great book is that it makes you see things in a new way, and Mr. Friedman certainly succeeds in that goal," the Nobel laureate Joseph E. Stiglitz wrote in The New York Times reviewing The World Is Flat in 2005. In this new edition, Thomas L. Friedman includes fresh stories and insights to help us understand the flattening of the world. Weaving new information into his overall thesis, and answering the questions he has been most frequently asked by parents across the country, this third edition also includes two new chapters--on how to be a political activist and social entrepreneur in a flat world; and on the more troubling question of how to manage our reputations and privacy in a world where we are all becoming publishers and public figures.
The World Is Flat 3.0 is an essential update on globalization, its opportunities for individual empowerment, its achievements at lifting millions out of poverty, and its drawbacks--environmental, social, and political, powerfully illuminated by the Pulitzer Prize--winning author of The Lexus and the Olive Tree.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
For millions of people, travel by air is a confounding, uncomfortable, and even fearful experience. Patrick Smith, airline pilot and author of the web's popular Ask the Pilot feature, separates the fact from fallacy and tells you everything you need to know...
•How planes fly, and a revealing look at the men and women who fly them
•Straight talk on turbulence, pilot training, and safety
•The real story on congestion, delays, and the dysfunction of the modern airport
•The myths and misconceptions of cabin air and cockpit automation
•Terrorism in perspective, and a provocative look at security
•Airfares, seating woes, and the pitfalls of airline customer service
•The colors and cultures of the airlines we love to hate
Cockpit Confidential covers not only the nuts and bolts of flying, but also the grand theater of air travel, from airport architecture to inflight service to the excitement of travel abroad. It's a thoughtful, funny, at times deeply personal look into the strange and misunderstood world of commercial flying.
It's the ideal book for frequent flyers, nervous passengers, and global travelers.
Refreshed and vastly expanded from the original Ask the Pilot, with approximately 75 percent new material.
As six advertising agencies scrambled for the account and the winner tried to churn out the Big Idea that would install Subaru in the collective national unconscious, Randall Rothenberg was there, observing every nuance of the chaos, comedy, creativity, and egotism that made up an ad campaign.
One can read Rothenberg's bok as the behind-the-scenes chronicle of the brief and very troubled marriage between a beleaguered automobile company and Wieden & Kennedy, an aggressively hip ad agency whose creative director despised cars. One can read it as a history of advertising's journey from the conventionally upbeat slogan "Helps Build Strong Bodies 12 Ways" to the supercool nineties minimalism of "Bo Knows." Either way, Where the Suckers Moon is a face-paced, insightful, and occasionally appalling look at an industry whose obsession with image has affected our entireculture.
But the container didn't just happen. Its adoption required huge sums of money, both from private investors and from ports that aspired to be on the leading edge of a new technology. It required years of high-stakes bargaining with two of the titans of organized labor, Harry Bridges and Teddy Gleason, as well as delicate negotiations on standards that made it possible for almost any container to travel on any truck or train or ship. Ultimately, it took McLean's success in supplying U.S. forces in Vietnam to persuade the world of the container's potential.
Drawing on previously neglected sources, economist Marc Levinson shows how the container transformed economic geography, devastating traditional ports such as New York and London and fueling the growth of previously obscure ones, such as Oakland. By making shipping so cheap that industry could locate factories far from its customers, the container paved the way for Asia to become the world's workshop and brought consumers a previously unimaginable variety of low-cost products from around the globe.
Published in hardcover on the fiftieth anniversary of the first container voyage, this is the first comprehensive history of the shipping container. Now with a new chapter, The Box tells the dramatic story of how the drive and imagination of an iconoclastic entrepreneur turned containerization from an impractical idea into a phenomenon that transformed economic geography, slashed transportation costs, and made the boom in global trade possible.
On ship-tracking websites, the waters are black with dots. Each dot is a ship; each ship is laden with boxes; each box is laden with goods. In postindustrial economies, we no longer produce but buy. We buy, so we must ship. Without shipping there would be no clothes, food, paper, or fuel. Without all those dots, the world would not work.
Freight shipping has been no less revolutionary than the printing press or the Internet, yet it is all but invisible. Away from public scrutiny, shipping revels in suspect practices, dubious operators, and a shady system of "flags of convenience." Infesting our waters, poisoning our air, and a prime culprit of acoustic pollution, shipping is environmentally indefensible. And then there are the pirates.
Rose George, acclaimed chronicler of what we would rather ignore, sails from Rotterdam to Suez to Singapore on ships the length of football fields and the height of Niagara Falls; she patrols the Indian Ocean with an anti-piracy task force; she joins seafaring chaplains, and investigates the harm that ships inflict on endangered whales.
Sharply informative and entertaining, Ninety Percent of Everything reveals the workings and perils of an unseen world that holds the key to our economy, our environment, and our very civilization.
In the 1980s, it was unimaginable that the home computer would become as common and easy to use as a toaster. Today, plug-in charging stations and smart grids seem like something still far off in the future. But by 2020, the auto industry will look very different from today's field of troubled auto giants. The combination of technological breakthroughs and charging networks driven by global warming and peak oil makes it clear that revolutionary change in the auto industry is happening right now.
In High Voltage, Jim Motavalli captures this period of unprecedented change, documenting the evolution from internal combustion engines to electric power. Driven by the auto world's ambitious and sometimes outlandish personalities, the book chronicles the race to dominate the market, focusing on big players like Tesla and Fisker, as well as a tiny start-up and a battery supplier. Flashing forward to the changes we'll see in the coming years, High Voltage shows a not-so-distant future where we will live on a smart grid, our cars "fueling," that is, charging, while we shop or sleep. The ramifications of these changes will be on a grander scale than most of us ever imagined--altering foreign policy, reducing trade deficits, and perhaps even ending global warming.
Transport Revolutions analyzes five prior episodes of rapid and radical change in the way people and goods travel. It examines the worldwide state of transport today, especially its energy use and impacts, positive and negative. The authors then show how ample movement of people and freight could be sustained beyond 2025 with much-reduced dependence on oil, focusing on the United States and China. Preparations for the end of cheap oil include:Substantial use of electricity for land transport, particularly through direct powering of vehiclesUse of wind to power water transportRadical changes in aviationRestructuring how transport is financed and managed
Written for transport professionals, those with a business interest in transport, and planners and policymakers, this book will appeal to anyone with an interest in how transport will evolve in the years ahead.
Richard Gilbert is a consultant on transport and energy and the author of numerous books, including several for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Anthony Perl is a professor of political science and urban studies at Simon Fraser University. He has co-edited and co-authored four books, including New Departures: Rethinking Rail Passenger Policy for the Twenty-First Century and The Integrity Gap: Canada’s Environmental Policy and Institutions.
fast and efficient way of calling for assistance at sea, whatever the
size of craft or geographical position. Now updated for the fourth
edition, this book explains the operation of the system as a whole and
the procedures involved, as well as covering the syllabi of the General
Operator's Certificate (GOC), the Long Range Certificate (LRC), and the
Restricted Operator's Certificate (ROC).
GMDSS: A User's Handbook has proved an invaluable reference for both exam candidates and equipment users alike.
'The ideal publication' Cruising
'Concise and lucid practical guidance' The Nautical Magazine
'A useful guide for those taking examinations... or those who need to brush up on procedures' Lloyds List
Modern Astrodynamics is designed as a stepping stone for the exposition of modern astrodynamics to students, researchers, engineers and scientists. This volume will present the main constituents of the astrodynamical science in an elaborate, comprehensive and rigorous manner. Although the volume will contain a few distinct chapters, it will render a coherent portrayal of astrodynamics.Encompasses the main constituents of the astrodynamical sciences in an elaborate, comprehensive and rigorous manner Presents recent astrodynamical advances and describes the challenges aheadThe first volume of a series designed to give scientists and engineers worldwide an opportunity to publish their works in this multi-disciplinary field
Buckle up with the Stobart drivers, and join them on a week in the life of a massive delivery, from paperwork to pallet. Learn what it's like to be sat in the driver seat of a Stobart truck - the noises, visibility, clutch control, gears, steering - and discover the sheer size and power of these machines.
Illustrated throughout with amazing photographs, and featuring first-hand stories of incredible journeys from the intrepid truckers, as well as astonishing facts and stats and the history of the fleet, this is truly an irresistible book for Stobart fans of all ages.
On the one hand, the capital intensive, large-scale and complex airport investments need a detailed, long/medium-term planning of airport infrastructure. Such planning requires at least predictable traffic volumes (and traffic composition) within the planning horizon.
On the other hand, airline route networks are increasingly dynamic structures that frequently show discontinuous changes. As a consequence, the much more volatile airport traffic restricts the value of detailed traffic forecasts. Volatility of airport traffic and its composition requires flexibility of airport strategies and planning processes.
The book explores this dilemma through a detailed study of airline network development, airport connectivity and airport planning in the deregulated EU air transport market. The questions the book seeks to answer are:
· how have airlines responded to the regime changes in EU aviation with respect to the configuration of their route networks?
· what has been the impact of the reconfiguration of airline network configurations for the connectivity of EU airports?
· how can airport planners and airport authorities deal with the increasingly uncertain airline network behaviour in Europe?
The text places emphasis on making informed choices from an array of competing options, and developing the confidence to do so.Shows the use of standard, empirical, and classical methods in support of the design process Explains the preparation of a professional quality design reportProvides a sample outline of a design report Can be used in conjunction with Sforza, Commercial Aircraft Design Principles to form a complete course in Aircraft/Spacecraft Design
Coverage of elasticity, energy methods, and virtual work sets the stage for discussions of airworthiness/airframe loads and stress analysis of aircraft components. Numerous worked examples, illustrations, and sample problems show how to apply the concepts to realistic situations.
This text is designed for undergraduate and postgraduate students of aerospace and aeronautical engineering as well as for professional development and training courses.Based on the author's best-selling text Aircraft Structures for Engineering Students, this introduction covers core concepts in about 200 fewer pages than the original by removing some optional topics like structural vibrations and aeroelasticity Systematic step-by-step procedures in the worked examplesSelf-contained, with complete derivations for key equations
Readers can learn how to make 60 different ropework projects, including mats, bellropes, key fobs, fenders and doorstops. Along with fascinating titbits of nautical history as background to many projects and guidance as to how they can be the starting point for many other items, Des gives step-by-step instructions on how to put these knots together to form the finished article, and advice on the size and lengths of the materials required - just as you would find in a recipe book. Full-colour illustrations, clear and practical tips on technique, and photos of the finished products mean that this book is ideal for all abilities.
With this book to hand, readers will have the confidence to start making desirable objects with knots because, as Des says, this is the book that makes all other knot books work!
The author has revised and updated the text throughout and added new examples and exercises using Matlab. Additional worked examples make the text even more accessible by showing the application of concepts to airframe structures.
The text is designed for undergraduate and postgraduate students of aerospace and aeronautical engineering. It is also suitable for professional development and training courses.New worked examples throughout the text aid understanding and relate concepts to real world applicationsMatlab examples and exercises added throughout to support use of computational tools in analysis and designAn extensive aircraft design project case study shows the application of the major techniques in the book
Hamilton challenges the popular notion of "red state" conservatism as a devil's bargain between culturally conservative rural workers and economically conservative demagogues in the Republican Party. The roots of rural conservatism, Hamilton demonstrates, took hold long before the culture wars and free-market fanaticism of the 1990s. As Hamilton shows, truckers helped build an economic order that brought low-priced consumer goods to a greater number of Americans. They piloted the big rigs that linked America's factory farms and agribusiness food processors to suburban supermarkets across the country.
Trucking Country is the gripping account of truckers whose support of post-New Deal free enterprise was so virulent that it sparked violent highway blockades in the 1970s. It's the story of "bandit" drivers who inspired country songwriters and Hollywood filmmakers to celebrate the "last American cowboy," and of ordinary blue-collar workers who helped make possible the deregulatory policies of Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan and set the stage for Wal-Mart to become America's most powerful corporation in today's low-price, low-wage economy.
Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.
The committee developed a series of conclusions and recommendations in five areas--the value of the NNR-NE, the state of science and technology supporting naval engineering, the wholeness of the NNR-NE research portfolio, opportunities for enhancement of research and education, and the effectiveness of the NNR-NE initiative.
The report's recommendations are addressed to the administrators of the NNR-NE initiative and of ONR.
Then becoming a freight broker is likely for you!
The experts at Entrepreneur lay out a step-by-step approach to starting a freight brokerage business, showing aspiring entrepreneurs how to establish a business, define services, find reliable carriers, set rates, and more. Requiring no special training or knowledge of the shipping industry, this guide provides real life examples, sound business advice, and priceless tips on creating a successful company in this billion-dollar industry.
Addressing this subject area, the domain of Instrumentation Engineers/Technicians as well as Control Engineers, and covering established processes and protocols and extensive developing technology, this textbook is written with the marine engineer in mind, particularly those studying Engineering Knowledge. The content ranges from simple measurement devices, through signal conditioning and digitisation to highly sophisticated automated control and instrumentation systems.
It also includes a brand new section on electrical equipment in hazardous areas detailing hazards, gas groups, temperature classifications and types of protection including increased and intrinsic safety and encapsulation, and up-to-date material on the new generation of Liquified Natural Gas carriers, SMART sensors and protocols, as well as computer based systems.
With the expansion of the Champions League came the opportunity for the grafters to move from ticket touting and producing 'unofficial' replica kits into the independent travel business. International Travel is the company for those who, through choice or because of their police records prohibit them, do not travel with the official clubs. Their customers include many 'straight' supporters of Leeds United, arch-rivals of Man U, but Tommy's core clients are the 'Lads' - die-hard 30-something football hooligans.
Scum Airways follows the exploits and adventures of Big Tommy and his team of grafters as they continue to build their empire. John Sugden went along for the ride and provides startling insights into professional football's burgeoning black economy. From Munich to Madrid, Amsterdam to Bangkok, through to the streets and bars of Toyko and Sapporo during the 2002 World Cup, and beyond, Scum Airways reveals the dark side of the football business.
Not so long ago, airports were built near cities, and roads connected the one to the other. This pattern—the city in the center, the airport on the periphery— shaped life in the twentieth century, from the central city to exurban sprawl. Today, the ubiquity of jet travel, round-the-clock workdays, overnight shipping, and global business networks has turned the pattern inside out. Soon the airport will be at the center and the city will be built around it, the better to keep workers, suppliers, executives, and goods in touch with the global market.
This is the aerotropolis: a combination of giant airport, planned city, shipping facility, and business hub. The aerotropolis approach to urban living is now reshaping life in Seoul and Amsterdam, in China and India, in Dallas and Washington, D.C. The aerotropolis is the frontier of the next phase of globalization, whether we like it or not.
John D. Kasarda defined the term "aerotropolis," and he is now sought after worldwide as an adviser. Working with Kasarda's ideas and research, the gifted journalist Greg Lindsay gives us a vivid, at times disquieting look at these instant cities in the making, the challenges they present to our environment and our usual ways of life, and the opportunities they offer to those who can exploit them creatively. Aerotropolis is news from the near future—news we urgently need if we are to understand the changing world and our place in it.
North America was settled by people with distinct religious, political, and ethnographic characteristics, creating regional cultures that have been at odds with one another ever since. Subsequent immigrants didn't confront or assimilate into an “American” or “Canadian” culture, but rather into one of the eleven distinct regional ones that spread over the continent each staking out mutually exclusive territory.
In American Nations, Colin Woodard leads us on a journey through the history of our fractured continent, and the rivalries and alliances between its component nations, which conform to neither state nor international boundaries. He illustrates and explains why “American” values vary sharply from one region to another. Woodard (author of American Character: A History of the Epic Struggle Between Individual Liberty and the Common Good) reveals how intranational differences have played a pivotal role at every point in the continent's history, from the American Revolution and the Civil War to the tumultuous sixties and the "blue county/red county" maps of recent presidential elections. American Nations is a revolutionary and revelatory take on America's myriad identities and how the conflicts between them have shaped our past and are molding our future.
From the Hardcover edition.
Jennings takes readers on a world tour of geogeeks from the London Map Fair to the bowels of the Library of Congress, from the prepubescent geniuses at the National Geographic Bee to the computer programmers at Google Earth. Each chapter delves into a different aspect of map culture: highpointing, geocaching, road atlas rallying, even the “unreal estate” charted on the maps of fiction and fantasy. He also considers the ways in which cartography has shaped our history, suggesting that the impulse to make and read maps is as relevant today as it has ever been.
From the “Here be dragons” parchment maps of the Age of Discovery to the spinning globes of grade school to the postmodern revolution of digital maps and GPS, Maphead is filled with intriguing details, engaging anecdotes, and enlightening analysis. If you’re an inveterate map lover yourself—or even if you’re among the cartographically clueless who can get lost in a supermarket—let Ken Jennings be your guide to the strange world of mapheads.
Maps have a mysterious hold over us. Whether ancient, crumbling parchments or generated by Google, maps tell us things we want to know, not only about our current location or where we are going but about the world in general. And yet, when it comes to geo-politics, much of what we are told is generated by analysts and other experts who have neglected to refer to a map of the place in question.
All leaders of nations are constrained by geography. In “one of the best books about geopolitics” (The Evening Standard), now updated to include 2016 geopolitical developments, journalist Tim Marshall examines Russia, China, the US, Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Japan, Korea, and Greenland and the Arctic—their weather, seas, mountains, rivers, deserts, and borders—to provide a context often missing from our political reportage: how the physical characteristics of these countries affect their strengths and vulnerabilities and the decisions made by their leaders.
Offering “a fresh way of looking at maps” (The New York Times Book Review), Marshall explains the complex geo-political strategies that shape the globe. Why is Putin so obsessed with Crimea? Why was the US destined to become a global superpower? Why does China’s power base continue to expand? Why is Tibet destined to lose its autonomy? Why will Europe never be united? The answers are geographical. “In an ever more complex, chaotic, and interlinked world, Prisoners of Geography is a concise and useful primer on geopolitics” (Newsweek) and a critical guide to one of the major determining factors in world affairs.
The history of exploration and establishment of new lands, science and technologies has always entailed risk to the health and lives of the explorers. Yet, when it comes to exploring and developing the high frontier of space, the harshest frontier ever, the highest value is apparently not the accomplishment of those goals, but of minimizing, if not eliminating, the possibility of injury or death of the humans carrying them out.
For decades since the end of Apollo, human spaceflight has been very expensive and relatively rare (about 500 people total, with a death rate of about 4%), largely because of this risk aversion on the part of the federal government and culture. From the Space Shuttle, to the International Space Station, the new commercial crew program to deliver astronauts to it, and the regulatory approach for commercial spaceflight providers, our attitude toward safety has been fundamentally irrational, expensive and even dangerous, while generating minimal accomplishment for maximal cost.
This book entertainingly explains why this means that we must regulate passenger safety in the new commercial spaceflight industry with a lighter hand than many might instinctively prefer, that NASA must more carefully evaluate rewards from a planned mission to rationally determine how much should be spent to avoid the loss of participants, and that Congress must stop insisting that safety is the highest priority, for such insistence is an eloquent testament to how unimportant they and the nation consider the opening of this new frontier.
5 Steps to a 5: 500 AP Human Geography Questions to Know by Test Day is tailored to meet your study needs—whether you’ve left it to the last minute to prepare or you have been studying for months. You will benefit from going over the questions written to parallel the topic, format, and degree of difficulty of the questions contained in the AP exam, accompanied by answers with comprehensive explanations.
Features:500 AP-style questions and answers referenced to core AP materials Review explanations for right and wrong answers Additional online practice Close simulations of the real AP exams Updated material reflects the latest tests Online practice exercises
Harvey analyzes core issues in city planning and policy--employment and housing location, zoning, transport costs, concentrations of poverty--asking in each case about the relationship between social justice and space. How, for example, do built-in assumptions about planning reinforce existing distributions of income? Rather than leading him to liberal, technocratic solutions, Harvey's line of inquiry pushes him in the direction of a "revolutionary geography," one that transcends the structural limitations of existing approaches to space. Harvey's emphasis on rigorous thought and theoretical innovation gives the volume an enduring appeal. This is a book that raises big questions, and for that reason geographers and other social scientists regularly return to it.
This eBook edition has been optimized for on-screen viewing with cross-linked questions, answers, and explanations.
AP Human Geography can be a tough nut to crack, but stellar AP scores are an important part of having a competitive college application at the most selective schools. Written by the experts at The Princeton Review, Cracking the AP Human Geography Exam arms you to take on the test and achieve your highest possible score.
Techniques That Actually Work.
• Tried-and-true strategies to help you avoid traps and beat the test
• Tips for pacing yourself and guessing logically
• Essential tactics to help you work smarter, not harder
Everything You Need to Know to Help Achieve a High Score.
• Comprehensive content reviews for all test topics
• Engaging activities to help you critically assess your progress
• Access to AP Connect, our online portal for helpful pre-college information and exam updates
Practice Your Way to Excellence.
• 2 full-length practice tests with detailed answer explanations
• Detailed maps and charts illustrating trends, theories, and models
• Useful lists of key terms and practice drills for every content review chapter
Combining the latest research and theoretical frameworks Spaces of Sustainability offers a unique insight into contemporary attempts to create a more sustainable society and introduces the debates surrounding sustainable development through a series of interesting transcontinental case studies. These include: discussions of land-use conflicts in the USA; agricultural reform in the Indian Punjab; environmental planning in the Barents Sea; community forest development in Kenya; transport policies in Mexico City; and political reform in Russia.
Written in an approachable and concise manner, this is essential reading for students of geography, planning, environmental politics and urban studies. It is illustrated throughout with figures and plates, along with a range of explanatory help boxes and useful web links.
Revealing how seemingly race-neutral urban sites contain hidden racial assumptions and imperatives, Lipsitz examines the ways in which urban space and social experience are racialized and emphasizes that aggrieved communities do not passively acquiesce to racism. He recognizes the people and communities that have reimagined segregated spaces in expressive culture as places for congregation.
How Racism Takes Place not only exposes the degree to which this white spatial imagining structures our society but also celebrates the black artists and activists who struggle to create a just and decent society.
In this pioneering study, White explores the relationship between the natural history of the Columbia River and the human history of the Pacific Northwest for both whites and Native Americans. He concentrates on what brings humans and the river together: not only the physical space of the region but also, and primarily, energy and work. For working with the river has been central to Pacific Northwesterners' competing ways of life. It is in this way that White comes to view the Columbia River as an organic machine--with conflicting human and natural claims--and to show that whatever separation exists between humans and nature exists to be crossed.