The publication of The War of 1812: The War That Both Sides Won in 1990 provided a contemporary look at the period, and included such developments as the 1975 discovery of the Hamilton and Scourge on the bottom of Lake Ontario, and the 1987 discovery of the skeletons of casualties at Snake Hill. Now, a decade later, Wesley B. Turner has updated The War of 1812 to include the volumes of new research that have come to light in recent years. All this new material has been incorporated into this interesting and informative overview of a crucial period in Canada’s history.
What began in 1754 with a French victory—the defeat at Fort Necessity of a young Lieutenant Colonel George Washington—quickly became a disaster for France. The cost in soldiers, ships, munitions, provisions, and treasure was staggering. France was deeply in debt when the war began, and that debt grew with each year. Further, the country’s inept system of government made defeat all but inevitable. Nester describes missed diplomatic and military opportunities as well as military defeats late in the conflict.
Nester masterfully weaves his narrative of this complicated war with thorough accounts of the military, economic, technological, social, and cultural forces that affected its outcome. Readers learn not only how and why the French lost, but how the problems leading up to that loss in 1763 foreshadowed the French Revolution almost twenty-five years later.
One of the problems at Versailles was the king’s mistress, the powerful Madame de Pompadour, who encouraged Louis XV to become his own prime minister. The bewildering labyrinth of French bureaucracy combined with court intrigue and financial challenges only made it even more difficult for the French to succeed. Ultimately, Nester shows, France lost the war because Versailles failed to provide enough troops and supplies to fend off the English enemy.
This is not only the first major publication to focus on button blankets but also the first oral history about them and their place in the culture of the Northwest Coast. Those interviewed include speakers from six of the seven major Northwest Coast Indian groups. Elders, designers, blanket makers, and historians, each has a voice, but all do not conform to any one theory about the ceremonial robe. Rather, the book is a search for the truth about the historical and contemporary role and traditions of the blanket, as those relate to the past and present Indian way of life on the Pacific Northwest Coast.
In this first entry in the series, the focus is on the 1812 invasions of Upper Canada: the Battles of Detroit, Queenston Heights, and Frenchman's Creek, and features such figures as Major General Isaac Brock, Brigadier General William Hull, Major General Roger H. Sheaffe, and Tecumseh, among others.
Although their own oral histories tell that the Lowland Cree have lived in the region for thousands of years, many historians have portrayed the Lowland Cree as relative newcomers who were dependent on the Hudson's Bay Company fur-traders by the 1700s. Historical geographer Victor Lytwyn shows instead that the Lowland Cree had a well-established traditional society that, far from being dependent on Europeans, was instrumental in the survival of traders throughout the network of HBC forts during the 18th and 19th centuries.
The story of Scugog Carrying Place, the ancient aboriginal trails connecting Lake Ontario with Lakes Scugog and Simcoe and the Kawartha lakes is a multifaceted one. In tracing its documented history from the 1790s to the 1850s, author Grant Karcich unravels mysteries; explores the lifestyles of early First Nations; provides background on local archaeological sites; and introduces the intrepid early surveyors, fur traders, missionaries, colourful characters, and entrepreneurial immigrant settlers from both the newly formed United States and the United Kingdom. In their wake come the demon whiskey, devastating plagues, competing world views, saddlebag preachers, and ultimately the marginalization of the First Nations people.
The Scugog Trail assumes a significant role in the transition of the land, from forest to agriculture to villages, towns, and industrial centres. Long-forgotten cabins, cemeteries, and a cartographic mystery involving the infamous Cabane de Plomb add to the mystique. The trail bore witness to the development of communities, such as Oshawa, Harmony, Columbus, Prince Albert, Port Perry, Seagrave, Cannington, and Beaverton, whose stories also unfold. Scugog Carrying Place is a must read for history buffs, genealogists, archaeologists, and anyone with roots in this part of Ontario.
Also included are excerpts from the journals of Lord Milton and Walter B. Cheadle, who became the first tourists to the Cariboo in 1863. Richly descriptive and touched with humour, their first-hand account is a fascinating window into Cariboo history.
In the summer of 2003, architect Paul Chiasson decided to climb a mountain he had never explored on Cape Breton Island, where eight generations of his Acadian family had lived. One of the oldest points of exploration and settlement in the Americas, with a written history dating back to the first days of European discovery, Cape Breton is littered with remnants of old settlements. But that day Chiasson found a road that was unique. Well made and consistently wide, and at one time clearly bordered with stone walls, the road had been a major undertaking. But he could find no record of it. In the two years of detective work that followed, Chiasson systematically surveyed the history of Europeans in North America and came to a stunning conclusion: the ruins he had stumbled upon – an entire townsite on a mountaintop---did not belong to the Portuguese, the French, the English, or the Scots. And they predated John Cabot's 1497 "discovery" of the island.
Using aerial and site photographs, maps and drawings, and his own expertise as an architect, Chiasson re-creates how he pieced together the clues to one of the world's great mysteries: a large Chinese colony existed and thrived on Canadian shores well before the European Age of Discovery. He addresses how the ruins had been previously overlooked or misunderstood, and how the colony was abandoned and forgotten, in China and in the New World. And he discovers the traces the colony left in the storytelling and culture of the Mi'kmaq, whose written language, clothing, technical knowledge, religious beliefs, and legends, he argues, expose deep cultural ties to China.
A gripping account of an earth-shaking discovery, The Island of Seven Cities will change the way we think about our world.
The Pioneer Scots of Prince Edward Island should command our respect. They showed tremendous courage and determination and most were successful.
Previous studies of early Scottish emigration to the New World have tended to concentrate on the miseries of evictions and the destruction of old communities. In this groundbreaking study of the influx of Scots to Prince Edward Island, the widely held assumption that emigration was solely a flight from poverty is challenged. By uncovering previously unreported ship crossings, as well as a wide range of manuscripts and underused sources such as customs records and newspaper shipping reports, the book provides the most comprehensive account to date of the influx of Scots to the Island. "A Very Fine Class of Immigrants" is essential reading for individuals wishing to trace family links or deepen their understanding of how and why the Island came to acquire its distinctive Scottish communities. And by accessing, for the first time, shipping sources like Lloyd's List and the Lloyd's Shipping Register, the author brings a new dimension to our understanding of emigrant travel. Lucille H. Campey demonstrates that far from sailing on disease-ridden leaky tubs, as popularly imagined, the Island's Pioneer Scots usually crossed the Atlantic on the best available ships of the time.
Brock was born in English Channel Island of Guernsey, where his limited combat experience did nothing to shake his moxy. Before coming to Canada, he faced a challenge to duel; when he insisted the other man be a handkerchief's length away, his opponent was forced to back down. Brock survived family financial disaster and faced desertions and near-mutinies before his successful years commanding his regiment in Upper Canada. As military governor of the colony, he called up the militia to oppose the invading Americans and led his troops into the key Battle of Queenston Heights. He died in the Queenston battle, but his courage inspired his troops to victory -- and even brought tribute from his American foes.
In this short biography reflecting recent research and writing by academic historians about Brock and the war, Cheryl MacDonald tells the story of Brock and the War of 1812 in a way that will appeal to any reader, young or old.
Employed by the Montreal-based North West Company, Fraser was responsible for building many of British Columbia’s first trading posts. His exploratory efforts helped lead to Canada’s boundary later being declared at the 49th parallel. In this new volume, librarian and archivist W. Kaye Lamb provides a detailed introduction as well as illuminating annotations to Fraser’s journals, which were originally published by Macmillan of Canada in 1960.
Oak Island poses two different challenges for treasure seekers. There is a deep mine shaft, at the bottom of which the treasure lies. The authors offer evidence that this treasure came from the wreck of a Spanish galleon in the seventeenth century.
Even more mystifying than the mine shaft is the complex tunnel which links it to the ocean. Harris and MacPhie have determined that the project would have required a labour force of over 100 men to supplement a small force of experienced miners. The work would have taken almost two years to complete. In new chapters written for this edition, they present the evidence they have discovered in British military history records which shows who commanded this force, how it reached Nova Scotia, and when the work was carried out.
The new facts and insights offered in this book are a startling and convincing addition to the history of Oak Island.
In this sweeping, enthralling biography, acclaimed historian David Hackett Fischer brings to life the remarkable Samuel de Champlain—soldier, spy, master mariner, explorer, cartographer, artist, and Father of New France.
Born on France's Atlantic coast, Champlain grew to manhood in a country riven by religious warfare. The historical record is unclear on whether Champlain was baptized Protestant or Catholic, but he fought in France's religious wars for the man who would become Henri IV, one of France's greatest kings, and like Henri, he was religiously tolerant in an age of murderous sectarianism. Champlain was also a brilliant navigator. He went to sea as a boy and over time acquired the skills that allowed him to make twenty-seven Atlantic crossings without losing a ship.
But we remember Champlain mainly as a great explorer. On foot and by ship and canoe, he traveled through what are now six Canadian provinces and five American states. Over more than thirty years he founded, colonized, and administered French settlements in North America. Sailing frequently between France and Canada, he maneuvered through court intrigue in Paris and negotiated among more than a dozen Indian nations in North America to establish New France. Champlain had early support from Henri IV and later Louis XIII, but the Queen Regent Marie de Medici and Cardinal Richelieu opposed his efforts. Despite much resistance and many defeats, Champlain, by his astonishing dedication and stamina, finally established France's New World colony. He tried constantly to maintain peace among Indian nations that were sometimes at war with one another, but when he had to, he took up arms and forcefully imposed a new balance of power, proving himself a formidable strategist and warrior.
Throughout his three decades in North America, Champlain remained committed to a remarkable vision, a Grand Design for France's colony. He encouraged intermarriage among the French colonists and the natives, and he insisted on tolerance for Protestants. He was a visionary leader, especially when compared to his English and Spanish contemporaries—a man who dreamed of humanity and peace in a world of cruelty and violence.
This superb biography, the first in decades, is as dramatic and exciting as the life it portrays. Deeply researched, it is illustrated throughout with many contemporary images and maps, including several drawn by Champlain himself.
The main theme of the book is the life of Isabelle Montour (1667-1752). This adventurous, self-reliant woman was the daughter of a French soldier and an Algonkin mother. The first third of her life was spent as a member of the French colony on the St. Lawrence River, the second third she lived on the fringes of French and Ottawan societies at the western outposts of Michilimackinac and Detroit, and the final third she lived as an Iroquois in the provinces of New York and Pennsylvania. Isabelle was fluent in several Indian languages as well as French and English; she became an influential interpreter-diplomat for the governors of New York and Pennsylvania. Much of her life was devoted to improving relations between Indians and Europeans.
As Madame Montour’s extraordinary life unfolds, we learn about European-Indian relations during the century leading up to the French and Indian War. This well-referenced history, told with drama and detail, covers the French-Iroquois hostilities on the Saint Lawrence River, the fur-trade center at Fort Michilimackinac, the political turmoil at Detroit, the immigration of western tribes into New York province, and the growing conflict between Pennsylvania merchants and French soldiers in the Ohio Valley. Isabelle Montour was involved in all these events.
Lucille Campey traces the process of emigration and explains why Scots chose their different settlement locations in Nova Scotia and Cape Breton. Much detailed information has been distilled to provide new insights on how, why and when the province came to acquire its distinctive Scottish communities. Challenging the widely held assumption that this was primarily a flight from poverty, After the Hector reveals how Scots were being influenced by positive factors, such as the opportunity for greater freedoms and better livelihoods.
The suffering and turmoil of the later Highland Clearances have cast a long shadow over earlier events, creating a false impression that all emigration had been forced on people. Hard facts show that most emigration was voluntary, self-financed and pursued by people expecting to improve their economic prospects. A combination of push and pull factors brought Scots to Nova Scotia, laying down a rich and deep seam of Scottish culture that continues to flourish. Extensively documented with all known passenger lists and details of over three hundred ship crossings, this book tells their story.
"The saga of the Scots who found a home away from home in Nova Scotia, told in a straightforward, unembellished, no-nonsense style with some surprises along the way. This book contains much of vital interest to historians and genealogists."
- Professor Edward J. Cowan, University of Glasgow
"...a well-written, crisp narrative that provides a useful outline of the known Scottish settlements up to the middle of the 19th century...avoid[s] the sentimental 'victim & scapegoat approach' to the topic and instead has provided an account of the attractions and mechanisms of settlement...."
- Professor Michael Vance, St. Mary's University, Halifax
Individual settlements have been well observed, but the overall picture has never been pieced together. Why did Upper Canada have such appeal to Scots? What was their impact on the province? Why did they choose their different settlement locations? Drawing on new and wide-ranging sources author Lucille H. Campey charts the progress of Scottish settlement throughout Upper Canada. This book contains much descriptive information, including all known passenger lists. It gives details of the 550 ships, which made over 900 crossings and carried almost 100,000 emigrant Scots. The book describes the enterprise and independence shown by the pioneers who were helped on their way by some remarkable characters such as Thomas Talbot, Lord Selkirk, John Galt, Archibald McNab and William Dickson. Providing a fascinating overview of the emigration process, it is essential reading for both historians and genealogists.
Scots were some of the provinces earliest pioneers and they were always at the cutting edge of each new frontier. They were a founding people who had an enormous influence on the province’s early development.
"I am happy to commend Lucille Campey’s latest book on Scottish settlement patterns in Canada. The product of meticulous research, The Scottish Pioneers of Upper Canada has much to offer both genealogists and general readers, as it weaves together statistical information, institutional histories and personal accounts to produce a fascinating picture of the multi-dimensional networks that underpinned the transatlantic movement and brought 100,000 Scots to Upper Canada during the seven decades reviewed. Persistent myths of helpless exile are challenged, as the preconditions and processes of emigration are analyzed, along with the cultural traditions imported by the ’trail blazers and border guards’ who laid the foundations of Canada’s most populous province." - Marjory Harper, Reader in History, University of Aberdeen
"With a real feel for the sacrifice and the emotional turmoil of the pioneers, Lucille H. Campey has one again got her audience to face the raw heritage common to every Scots-Canadian. This is an excellent read, full of fascinating detail dug from much archival research. This book is another splendid addition to a series of much interest to both historians and genealogists." - Professor Graeme Morton, Scottish Studies Foundation Chair, University of Guelph
In French Canadians, Furs, and Indigenous Women in the Making of the Pacific Northwest, Jean Barman rewrites the history of the Pacific Northwest from the perspective of French Canadians attracted by the fur economy, the indigenous women whose presence in their lives encouraged them to stay, and their descendants. Joined in this distant setting by Quebec paternal origins, the French language, and Catholicism, French Canadians comprised Canadiens from Quebec, Iroquois from the Montreal area, and métis combining Canadien and indigenous descent. For half a century, French Canadians were the largest group of newcomers to this region extending from Oregon and Washington east into Montana and north through British Columbia. Here, they facilitated the early overland crossings, drove the fur economy, initiated non-wholly-indigenous agricultural settlement, eased relations with indigenous peoples, and ensured that, when the region was divided in 1846, the northern half would go to Britain, giving today’s Canada its Pacific shoreline.
One of Canada’s founding peoples, the Irish arrived in the Newfoundland fishing stations as early as the seventeenth century. By the eighteenth century they were establishing farms and settlements from Nova Scotia to the Great Lakes. Then, in the 1840s, came the failures of Ireland’s potato crop, which people in the west of Ireland had depended on for survival. "And that," wrote a Sligo countryman, "was the beginning of the great trouble and famine that destroyed Ireland."
Flight from Famine is the moving account of a Victorian-era tragedy that has echoes in our own time but seems hardly credible in the light of Ireland’s modern prosperity. The famine survivors who helped build Canada in the years that followed Black ’47 provide a testament to courage, resilience, and perseverance. By the time of Confederation, the Irish population of Canada was second only to the French, and four million Canadians can claim proud Irish descent.
From the Trade Paperback edition.