The combined contributions from researchers in Asian studies, linguistics, psycholinguistics, psychology, cognitive psychology, reading, and education inform international comparative studies of literacy by making apparent the features of the Chinese culture, language, writing system, and pedagogy that may facilitate or impede the acquisition of literacy.
Mike Ellis is a web designer and runs the popular website www.slanguage.com. He lives with his family in Philadelphia.
Each chapter focuses on a specific problem in machine learning, such as classification, prediction, optimization, and recommendation. Using the R programming language, you’ll learn how to analyze sample datasets and write simple machine learning algorithms. Machine Learning for Hackers is ideal for programmers from any background, including business, government, and academic research.Develop a naïve Bayesian classifier to determine if an email is spam, based only on its textUse linear regression to predict the number of page views for the top 1,000 websitesLearn optimization techniques by attempting to break a simple letter cipherCompare and contrast U.S. Senators statistically, based on their voting recordsBuild a “whom to follow” recommendation system from Twitter data
Animal tracks, word magic, the speech of stones, the power of letters, and the taste of the wind all figure prominently in this intellectual tour de force that returns us to our senses and to the sensuous terrain that sustains us. This major work of ecological philosophy startles the senses out of habitual ways of perception.
For a thousand generations, human beings viewed themselves as part of the wider community of nature, and they carried on active relationships not only with other people with other animals, plants, and natural objects (including mountains, rivers, winds, and weather patters) that we have only lately come to think of as "inanimate." How, then, did humans come to sever their ancient reciprocity with the natural world? What will it take for us to recover a sustaining relation with the breathing earth?
In The Spell of the Sensuous David Abram draws on sources as diverse as the philosophy of Merleau-Ponty, Balinese shamanism, Apache storytelling, and his own experience as an accomplished sleight-of-hand of magician to reveal the subtle dependence of human cognition on the natural environment. He explores the character of perception and excavates the sensual foundations of language, which--even at its most abstract--echoes the calls and cries of the earth. On every page of this lyrical work, Abram weaves his arguments with a passion, a precision, and an intellectual daring that recall such writers as Loren Eisleley, Annie Dillard, and Barry Lopez.
Chinese Demystified walks you step by step through the fundamentals and moves on to more advanced topics. Each chapter concludes with a self-test that allows you to track your progress, and a comprehensive final exam at the end of the book gives instant feedback on new language skills. The book includes characters in simplified and traditional formats along with pinyin phonetic translation for easy pronunciation.
At last—there is a truly effective and enjoyable way to learn Chinese characters! This book helps students to learn and remember both the meanings and the pronunciations of over 800 characters. This otherwise daunting task is made easier by the use of techniques based on the psychology of leaning and memory. key principles include the use of visual imagery, the visualization of short "stories," and the systematic building up of more complicated characters from basic building blocks.
Key features: Specially designed pictures and stories are used in a structured way to make the learning process more enjoyable and effective, reducing the need for rote learning to the absolute minimum. The emphasis throughout is on learning and remembering the meanings and pronunciations of the characters. Tips are also included on learning techniques and how to avoid common problems. Characters are introduced in a logical sequence, which also gives priority to learning the most common characters first. Modern simplified characters are used, with pronunciations given in pinyin. Key information is given for each character, including radical, stroke–count, traditional form, compounds, and guidance on writing the character.
Linguistics has long shied away from claiming any link between a language and the culture of its speakers: too much simplistic (even bigoted) chatter about the romance of Italian and the goose-stepping orderliness of German has made serious thinkers wary of the entire subject. But now, acclaimed linguist Guy Deutscher has dared to reopen the issue. Can culture influence language—and vice versa? Can different languages lead their speakers to different thoughts? Could our experience of the world depend on whether our language has a word for "blue"?
Challenging the consensus that the fundaments of language are hard-wired in our genes and thus universal, Deutscher argues that the answer to all these questions is—yes. In thrilling fashion, he takes us from Homer to Darwin, from Yale to the Amazon, from how to name the rainbow to why Russian water—a "she"—becomes a "he" once you dip a tea bag into her, demonstrating that language does in fact reflect culture in ways that are anything but trivial. Audacious, delightful, and field-changing, Through the Language Glass is a classic of intellectual discovery.
By using concrete examples, minimal theory, and two production-ready Python frameworks—scikit-learn and TensorFlow—author Aurélien Géron helps you gain an intuitive understanding of the concepts and tools for building intelligent systems. You’ll learn a range of techniques, starting with simple linear regression and progressing to deep neural networks. With exercises in each chapter to help you apply what you’ve learned, all you need is programming experience to get started.Explore the machine learning landscape, particularly neural netsUse scikit-learn to track an example machine-learning project end-to-endExplore several training models, including support vector machines, decision trees, random forests, and ensemble methodsUse the TensorFlow library to build and train neural netsDive into neural net architectures, including convolutional nets, recurrent nets, and deep reinforcement learningLearn techniques for training and scaling deep neural netsApply practical code examples without acquiring excessive machine learning theory or algorithm details
You can study Chinese for years, but do you really know how to talk like a native speaker? The next book in Plume?s foreign language slang series, Niubi! will make sure you learn all the colorful vernacular words and phrases used by Chinese people of all ages in a variety of situations, including flirting and dating, wheeling and dealing, and even specific Internet slang?not to mention plenty of Chinese words that are . . . well, best not to mention.
Accessible and useful to complete novices (Niubi! newbies), intermediate students of Mandarin Chinese, or just anyone who enjoys cursing in other languages, this irreverent guide is packed with hilarious anecdotes and illustrations, mini cultural lessons, and contextual explanations. So whether you?re planning a trip to Beijing, flirting with an online acquaintance from Shanghai, or just want to start a fight in Chinatown?Niubi! will ensure that nothing you say is lost in translation.
Top SLA researchers and applied linguists lend their expertise on matters such as foreign language across curriculum programs, testing, online learning, the incorporation of linguistic variation into the classroom, heritage language learners, the teaching of translation, the effects of study abroad and classroom contexts on learning, and other pedagogical issues. Other common themes of The Art of Teaching Spanish include the rejection of the concept of a monolithic language competence, the importance of language as social practice and cultural competence, the psycholinguistic component of SLA, and the need for more cross-fertilization from related fields.
Gesture and Thought expands on McNeill’s acclaimed classic Hand and Mind. While that earlier work demonstrated what gestures reveal about thought, here gestures are shown to be active participants in both speaking and thinking. Expanding on an approach introduced by Lev Vygotsky in the 1930s, McNeill posits that gestures are key ingredients in an “imagery-language dialectic” that fuels both speech and thought. Gestures are both the “imagery” and components of “language.” The smallest element of this dialectic is the “growth point,” a snapshot of an utterance at its beginning psychological stage. Utilizing several innovative experiments he created and administered with subjects spanning several different age, gender, and language groups, McNeill shows how growth points organize themselves into utterances and extend to discourse at the moment of speaking.
An ambitious project in the ongoing study of the relationship of human communication and thought, Gesture and Thought is a work of such consequence that it will influence all subsequent theory on the subject.
Yi Ren has taught thousands of Americans to speak Chinese fluently. Now, she and co-author Xiayuan Liang share their secrets for fast mastery of Mandarin Chinese with you. China has 1.3 billion people and due to initiatives to phase out regional dialects in favor of Mandarin Chinese, nearly all of them can communicate in Mandarin. Don't let yourself be intimidated by this rewarding language. Although it is true that mastery of the Chinese language takes time, Mandarin Chinese actually has simpler grammar than English and there are no conjugations—meaning anyone can learn a few important phrases in no time. Chock full of extra hints and tips drawn from the authors' many years of experience teaching Mandarin Chinese in adult evening classes, Chinese for Beginners focuses on realistic situations you'll encounter when you meet people in China. New words are explained in terms of how you'll actually use them to communicate with new friends. The audio-CD lets you listen and repeat and remember the sentences with ease, and will help you soon declare with pride, "I can say that in Chinese!"
Chinese for Beginners includes: Lighthearted approaches that bring Chinese to life in a down-to-earth fashion. Real-life dialogues and situations to help you converse with confidence . An "Extend Your Vocabulary" feature in each chapter helps you to remember and understand more words that you'd think possible . Native-speaker audio recordings teach you to pronounce Chinese tones accurately. Answer Keys help you keep track of your learning process . Interesting notes, idioms, sayings, photos, poems, and insider tips about China's culture, special places, and everyday life add to the adventure.
This user-friendly guide to learning the basics will work for anyone who wants to speak and understand Chinese for business, for pleasure, or for travel—and who wants to enjoy the process of learning a new language while they're at it!
These topics are presented in such a way that students can examine the inherent diversity of the communicative systems used in the United States as both a form of cultural enrichment and as the basis for socio-political conflict. The author team outlines the different viewpoints on contemporary issues surrounding language in the US and contextualizes these issues within linguistic facts, to help students think critically and formulate logical discussions. To provide opportunities for further examination and debate, chapters are organized around key misconceptions or questions ("I don't have an accent" or "Immigrants don't want to learn English"), bringing them to the forefront for readers to address directly.
Language and Linguistic Diversity in the US is a fresh and unique take on a widely taught topic. It is ideal for students from a variety of disciplines or with no prior knowledge of the field, and a useful text for introductory courses on language in the US, American English, language variation, language ideology, and sociolinguistics.
Or did we? Portions of the human brain are also devoted to reading. Children learn to read at a very young age and can seamlessly absorb information even more quickly through reading than through hearing. We know that we didn’t evolve to read because reading is only a few thousand years old.
In "Harnessed," cognitive scientist Mark Changizi demonstrates that human speech has been very specifically “designed” to harness the sounds of nature, sounds we’ve evolved over millions of years to readily understand. Long before humans evolved, mammals have learned to interpret the sounds of nature to understand both threats and opportunities. Our speech—regardless of language—is very clearly based on the sounds of nature.
Even more fascinating, Changizi shows that music itself is based on natural sounds. Music—seemingly one of the most human of inventions—is literally built on sounds and patterns of sound that have existed since the beginning of time.
Its clear presentation and lack of jargon mean that it can be used in conjunction with a language course or for independent study. It will also prove invaluable for revision and reference.
Featuring an introduction to the language, full key to exercises and a glossary of grammatical terms, the Grammar and Workbook provides a firm foundation on which to build proficiency and confidence in speaking, reading and writing Cantonese.
But if you're serious about your profession, intuition isn't enough. Perl Best Practices author Damian Conway explains that rules, conventions, standards, and practices not only help programmers communicate and coordinate with one another, they also provide a reliable framework for thinking about problems, and a common language for expressing solutions. This is especially critical in Perl, because the language is designed to offer many ways to accomplish the same task, and consequently it supports many incompatible dialects.
With a good dose of Aussie humor, Dr. Conway (familiar to many in the Perl community) offers 256 guidelines on the art of coding to help you write better Perl code--in fact, the best Perl code you possibly can. The guidelines cover code layout, naming conventions, choice of data and control structures, program decomposition, interface design and implementation, modularity, object orientation, error handling, testing, and debugging.
They're designed to work together to produce code that is clear, robust, efficient, maintainable, and concise, but Dr. Conway doesn't pretend that this is the one true universal and unequivocal set of best practices. Instead, Perl Best Practices offers coherent and widely applicable suggestions based on real-world experience of how code is actually written, rather than on someone's ivory-tower theories on howsoftware ought to be created.
Most of all, Perl Best Practices offers guidelines that actually work, and that many developers around the world are already using. Much like Perl itself, these guidelines are about helping you to get your job done, without getting in the way.
Praise for Perl Best Practices from Perl community members:
"As a manager of a large Perl project, I'd ensure that every member of my team has a copy of Perl Best Practices on their desk, and use it as the basis for an in-house style guide."-- Randal Schwartz
"There are no more excuses for writing bad Perl programs. All levels of Perl programmer will be more productive after reading this book."-- Peter Scott
"Perl Best Practices will be the next big important book in the evolution of Perl. The ideas and practices Damian lays down will help bring Perl out from under the embarrassing heading of "scripting languages". Many of us have known Perl is a real programming language, worthy of all the tasks normally delegated to Java and C++. With Perl Best Practices, Damian shows specifically how and why, so everyone else can see, too."-- Andy Lester
"Damian's done what many thought impossible: show how to build large, maintainable Perl applications, while still letting Perl be the powerful, expressive language that programmers have loved for years."-- Bill Odom
"Finally, a means to bring lasting order to the process and product of real Perl development teams."-- Andrew Sundstrom"Perl Best Practices provides a valuable education in how to write robust, maintainable Perl, and is a definitive citation source when coaching other programmers."-- Bennett Todd"I've been teaching Perl for years, and find the same question keeps being asked: Where can I find a reference for writing reusable, maintainable Perl code? Finally I have a decent answer."-- Paul Fenwick"At last a well researched, well thought-out, comprehensive guide to Perl style. Instead of each of us developing our own, we can learn good practices from one of Perl's most prolific and experienced authors. I recommend this book to anyone who prefers getting on with the job rather than going back and fixing errors caused by syntax and poor style issues."-- Jacinta Richardson"If you care about programming in any language read this book. Even if you don't intend to follow all of the practices, thinking through your style will improve it."-- Steven Lembark"The Perl community's best author is back with another outstanding book. There has never been a comprehensive reference on high quality Perl coding and style until Perl Best Practices. This book fills a large gap in every Perl bookshelf."-- Uri Guttman
Do you wake up feeling rough? Then you’re philogrobolized. Pretending to work? That’s fudgelling, which may lead to rizzling if you feel sleepy after lunch, though by dinner time you will have become a sparkling deipnosophist.
From Mark Forsyth, author of the bestselling The Etymologicon, this is a book of weird words for familiar situations. From ante-jentacular to snudge by way of quafftide and wamblecropt, at last you can say, with utter accuracy, exactly what you mean.
"Paul Dickson is a national treasure who deserves a wide audience," declared Library Journal. The author of more than 50 books, Dickson has written extensively on language. This expanded edition of War Slang features new material by journalist Ben Lando, Iraq Bureau Chief for Iraq Oil Report and a regular contributor to The Wall Street Journal and Time. It serves language lovers and military historians alike by adding an eloquent new dimension to our understanding of war.
Tuttle Mini Chinese Dictionary is ideal for any application where a handy and portable dictionary is required. Intended for use by tourists, students, and business people traveling to China or as a Mandarin language study reference Mini Chinese Dictionary is an essential tool for communicating in Chinese. It's useful pocket-sized format and easy-to read type will make translating Chinese much easier. In addition to being an excellent English to Chinese dictionary and Chinese to English dictionary Mini Chinese Dictionary contains important notes on the Chinese language, Chinese grammar and Mandarin pronunciation. All Chinese words are written in a Romanized form as well as Chinese characters script (hanzi) so that in the case of difficulties the book can simply be shown to the person the user is trying to communicate with.
This mini dictionary contains the following essential features:Bidirectional Chinese to English and English to ChineseOver 12,000 essential Chinese words, as well as useful Chinese expressions and idiomsHeadwords printed in blue for quick and easy referenceA basic overview of Chinese grammar and pronunciation All the latest Chinese social media and computer terms
Tuttle Concise Chinese Dictionary has both Chinese to English and English to Chinese sections. It's compact size allows for easy transport without limiting the content. This Mandarin dictionary is perfect for Chinese language students, or business people and tourists traveling to China who wish to learn Chinese. It contains over 25,000 words and expressions (including all the required words for the official HSK Chinese Proficiency Examination), carefully selected to cover all important aspects of life and commerce in China. In addition, extensive information on Chinese grammar and Mandarin pronunciation are included.
This dictionary contains the following features: 25,000 Chinese words and expressions. Chinese–English and English–Chinese sections Up-to-date local Chinese slang and idioms. A guide to Mandarin pronunciation and Chinese Grammar. An explanation of Mandarin tones and syllables. An introduction to writing Chinese and stroke order. Radical and stroke indexes for easy reference. All the Chinese vocabulary included in the HSK language examinations. Romanized forms (hanyu pinyin) including tones for accurate pronunciation. Extensive notes with detailed tips on usage and social context. Parts of speech, common phrases and idiomatic expressions.
Other dictionaries in this bestselling series you might be interested in include: Concise Japanese Dictionary, Concise Korean Dictionary, and Concise Vietnamese Dictionary.
Topics covered range broadly from parts of speech (nouns, verbs, adverbs, etc.) to grammatical topics (aspect, negation, passive voice, etc.) to special topics (terms of address, pronunciation, time, etc.).
This text is ideal for self-study and enables students at all levels to learn Taiwanese by building a solid foundation in grammar.
Taiwanese (also known as Hokkien, Fookien, Amoy, Southern Min, or Fukienese) along with its variants is spoken by over 40 million people worldwide and is a member of the Chinese language family.
Features of this text include:
• Easy-to-use reference guide with cross-referenced entries and a comprehensive index
• 1000+ example sentences using everyday vocabulary rendered in Taiwanese, Mandarin Chinese, and English
• Character script for Taiwanese in accordance with the official selection of Taiwanese Characters by the Taiwanese Ministry of Education (2007)
• Romanization provided for both Taiwanese (Pe̍h-ōe-jī) and Mandarin Chinese (Hànyǔ Pīnyīn)
• In-depth guide to pronunciation using English approximations and full explanations on rules for changing tones (tone sandhi)
Tags: Taiwanese, learn Taiwanese, learning Taiwanese, Taiwanese language, Taiwanese grammar, Hokkien, learning Hokkien, Amoy, Southern Min, Fukienese, Fookien, Min nan
The first half of the book follows the life of an exchange student experiencing Beijing for the first time. Chinese language students are guided step-by-step through the stages of arriving at the airport, going through customs, and adjusting to Chinese university dormitories. The revised edition includes new lessons on daily life, such as doing laundry and getting a haircut, as well as visiting the zoo, night markets, and the Great Wall. Later lessons discuss recent social and political issues in China, including divorce, Beijing traffic, and the college entrance examination. A New China provides detailed grammar explanations, extensive vocabulary lists, and homework exercises.Single-volume, user-friendly format New lessons and vocabulary reflecting daily living in China Includes China's recent social and political issues Detailed grammar explanations, vocabulary lists, and homework exercises Uses both traditional and simplified characters
250 Essential Chinese Characters Volume 1 is a second edition, completely revised and with 50 percent new material. Featuring a new design; tips for mastery throughout; exercises in AP-exam format; progressive review sections; and several indices, this volume is a crucial learning tool for anyone interested in Chinese.
Master each character's radical, stroke count and meaningGrow in proficiency by learning compound wordsExample sentences show how to use them in contextReview activities reinforce your leaning progressHelpful writing guides and practice grids for every characterAfter studying this book together with its companion, 250 Essential Chinese Characters, Volume 2, you'll have learned 500 of the most important characters in Chinese, and thousands of words in which they appear. Whether you're new to Chinese or coming back for review, each of these 250 characters offers you ways to improve your Chinese skills.
to Portuguese to Chinese is a four language vocabulary guide highlighting over
5,000 selected Spanish words that have either the same spelling and meaning as
their English and Portuguese language counterparts or contain easily
recognizable English and Portuguese meanings with a comparison to their Chinese
Spanish is the language base for this guide. All Spanish
words are given the general or specific meanings of Spanish currently spoken in
Argentina. Spanish is the language to which the English definitions and the
Portuguese equivalents are compared. The Chinese is matched to English
This guide is designed after the "vocabulary
first" method of language instruction as advocated by the author. It
teaches a basic vocabulary by word association.
Tuttle Learner's Chinese-English Dictionary is a totally new dictionary designed specifically for elementary to intermediate learners of Chinese, and contains all 3,051 vocabulary items prescribed for Levels A and B of the internationally recognized test of Mandarin language proficiency, Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi (HSK).
This self-contained dictionary has over 3,000 headwords—those required for HSK Levels A and B, plus important proper nouns and common idioms. Extensive notes on culture, grammar and meaning are included to enhance understanding and ensure correct usage. Students attempting to learn Chinese will find this dictionary to be an essential guide to the Chinese language as well as a reliable reference tool.
This Chinese dictionary contains: The 4,800 most frequently used Chinese vocabulary items. All entries contain Romanized Chinese forms (hanyu pinyin), simplified Chinese characters (hanzi) as well as traditional Chinese characters if they exist. Terms are searchable by Chinese–English or English–Chinese. All Chinese entries are arranged alphabetically by Romanized Mandarin Chinese forms (hanyu pinyin). Chinese word components are listed and analyzed to facilitate understanding. Over 4,700 sample sentences to demonstrate how each word is used. Detailed notes on culture, grammar and usage. Chinese translations for common English names and places in China.
This is an encyclopedic dictionary of close to 400 important philosophical, literary, and political terms and concepts that defy easy--or any--translation from one language and culture to another. Drawn from more than a dozen languages, terms such as Dasein (German), pravda (Russian), saudade (Portuguese), and stato (Italian) are thoroughly examined in all their cross-linguistic and cross-cultural complexities. Spanning the classical, medieval, early modern, modern, and contemporary periods, these are terms that influence thinking across the humanities. The entries, written by more than 150 distinguished scholars, describe the origins and meanings of each term, the history and context of its usage, its translations into other languages, and its use in notable texts. The dictionary also includes essays on the special characteristics of particular languages--English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish.
Originally published in French, this one-of-a-kind reference work is now available in English for the first time, with new contributions from Judith Butler, Daniel Heller-Roazen, Ben Kafka, Kevin McLaughlin, Kenneth Reinhard, Stella Sandford, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Jane Tylus, Anthony Vidler, Susan Wolfson, Robert J. C. Young, and many more.The result is an invaluable reference for students, scholars, and general readers interested in the multilingual lives of some of our most influential words and ideas.Covers close to 400 important philosophical, literary, and political terms that defy easy translation between languages and cultures Includes terms from more than a dozen languages Entries written by more than 150 distinguished thinkers Available in English for the first time, with new contributions by Judith Butler, Daniel Heller-Roazen, Ben Kafka, Kevin McLaughlin, Kenneth Reinhard, Stella Sandford, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Jane Tylus, Anthony Vidler, Susan Wolfson, Robert J. C. Young, and many more Contains extensive cross-references and bibliographies An invaluable resource for students and scholars across the humanities
The phrasebook contains more than 1.800 idioms and words arranged clearly in terms of themes like custom duties, hotels, services, transport, garages, sights, entertainment, eating out, sports and leisure.
- More than 1.800 illustrated idioms and words
- Precise and intelligible grouping into themes and subordinate themes
- Illustrations make communication even simpler.
- Phonetic spelling is included.
Thus learning becomes fun and tunes you up for your trip! The main themes are: Basics, Traveling, Hotel, Renting, Local transport, Sightseeing, Bank, Communication means, In the restaurant, Food/Drinks, Shopping, Repairs/Laundry, Sport/Leisure, Health/Drugstore, Beauty Care, Calling for police.
Size of the paper edition – 228 pages.
The volume is distinguished in three ways:
* Following a Vygotskyan perspective on development, the studies assume that language learning is a fundamentally pragmatic enterprise, intrinsically linked to language use. This breaks from a more traditional understanding of second and foreign language learning, which has viewed learning and use as two distinct phenomena. The importance of classroom interaction to additional language development is foregrounded.
* The investigations reported in this book are distinguished by their methodological approach. Because language learning is assumed to be a situated, context-sensitive, and dynamic process, the studies do not rely on traditional experimental methods for collecting and analyzing data, but rather, they involve primarily the use of ethnographic and discourse analytic methods.
* The studies focus on interactional practices that promote second and foreign language learning. Although a great deal of research has examined first language learning in classrooms from a sociocultural perspective, little has looked at second and foreign language classrooms from such a perspective. Thus there is a strong need for this volume of studies addressing this area of research.
Researchers, teacher educators, and graduate students across the fields of second and foreign language learning, applied linguistics, and language education will find this book informative and relevant. Because of the programmatic implications arising from the studies, it will also appeal to teacher educators and teachers of second and foreign languages from the elementary to the university levels.
The redesigned fourth edition of Second Language Acquisition retains the features that students found useful in the current edition but also provides new pedagogical tools that encourage students to reflect upon the experiences of second language learners. As with previous editions, discussion questions and problems at the end of each chapter help students apply their knowledge, and a glossary defines and reinforces must-know terminology. This clearly-written, comprehensive, and current textbook, by expert Sue Gass, is the ideal textbook for the introductory SLA course in second language studies, applied linguistics, linguistics, TESOL, and language education programs.
In Qumran Hebrew, Reymond examines the orthography, phonology, and morphology of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Short sections treat specific linguistic phenomena and present a synopsis and critique of previous research. Reymond’s approach emphasizes problems posed by scribal errors and argues that guttural letters had not all “weakened” but instead were “weak” in specific linguistic environments, texts, or dialects. Reymond illustrates that certain phonetic shifts (such as the shift of yodh > aleph and the opposite shift of aleph > yodh) occur in discernible linguistic contexts that suggest this was a real phonetic phenomenon.
Features:Summary and critique of previous research Discussion of the most recently published scrolls Examination of scribal errors, guttural letters, and phonetic shifts
The first part provides an introduction to basic procedures for handling and operating with text strings. Then, it reviews major mathematical modeling approaches. Statistical and geometrical models are also described along with main dimensionality reduction methods. Finally, it presents some specific applications such as document clustering, classification, search and terminology extraction.
All descriptions presented are supported with practical examples that are fully reproducible. Further reading, as well as additional exercises and projects, are proposed at the end of each chapter for those readers interested in conducting further experimentation.
The Tuttle Chinese–English Dictionary provides clear and accurate definitions in idiomatic English for the 18,000 most common Chinese vocabulary items (characters and compounds), including all words required for the official HSK Chinese Language Proficiency Examination used by the Chinese government as well as corporations and universities worldwide.
This Chinese dictionary is designed specifically for English speakers. All entries are listed alphabetically in their romanized form using the standard Hanyu Pinyin romanization system. To ensure that the dictionary is up–to–date, recently coined terms have been included reflecting the dramatic changes taking place in Chinese society, business and education. Entries contain idiomatic expressions and detailed notes on Chinese culture, grammar and usage that are extremely useful for foreigners—a unique feature found in no other Chinese dictionary. Over 8,000 example Chinese sentences are provided showing how Chinese words are used in real–life situations. A concise guide to Chinese pronunciation, tones and grammar and lists of common character components, measure words are given at the front of the dictionary, while Chinese personal and place names are given at the back. Indexes list characters by strokes and also by radicals to enable the reader to look up characters when the pronunciation is not known. Clear and concise definitions for 18,000 common vocabulary items. The only Chinese dictionary designed specifically for English speakers. All entries listed alphabetically in romanized Hanyu Pinyin form. Includes all words for the HSK Chinese language Proficiency Examination.