The book begins at the simplest level, develops the basics, and reinforces fundamentals, ensuring a solid foundation in the principles and methods of physics. It provides an ideal introduction for college-level students of physics, chemistry, and engineering; for motivated AP Physics students; and for general readers interested in advances in the sciences.
In 1600 he published De Magnete in Latin. As lively and entertaining as it was scientifically scrupulous, it summarized everything that had previously been known about electricity and magnetism, founded a new science and earned Gilbert the title of "the father of modern electricity." In it Gilbert explores magnetism and electricity, lodestones, phenomena of magnetism, direction of the earth's magnetic lines of force, variation in the compass, dip, the concept of the earth as a giant magnet, and much else.
This Dover edition is a complete, unabridged reprinting of the definitive English translation of De Magnete prepared by Dr. P. Fleury Mottelay. Dr. Mottelay has added a number of footnotes that explain points that might be obscure to today's readers, who will find in this historically important text invaluable insights into the origins of modern science and physics. Translation by P. F. Mottelay. Biographical introduction. 90 illustrations.
Magnetic fields are found in every corner of the cosmos. For decades, astrophysicists have identified them by their effects on visible light, radio waves, and x-rays. J. B. Zirker summarizes our deep knowledge of magnetism, pointing to what is yet unknown about its astrophysical applications.
In clear, nonmathematical prose, Zirker follows the trail of magnetic exploration from the auroral belts of Earth to the farthest reaches of space. He guides readers on a fascinating journey of discovery to understand how magnetic forces are created and how they shape the universe. He provides the historical background needed to appreciate exciting new research by introducing readers to the great scientists who have studied magnetic fields.
Students and amateur astronomers alike will appreciate the readable prose and comprehensive coverage of The Magnetic Universe.
Timeless and collectible, the lectures are essential reading, not just for students of physics but for anyone seeking an introduction to the field from the inimitable Feynman.
* Discusses pioneering work in the use of marine sediments to investigate the Earths magnetic field
* Serves as a guide for students wishing to begin studies in magnetostratigraphy
* Provides a comprehensive guide to magnetic polarity stratigraphy including up-to-date geomagnetic polarity time scales
* Correlates magnetic stratigraphics from marine and non-marine Cenozoic sequences
* Details reversal history of the magnetic field for the last 350 million years
* Discusses correlation using magnetic dipole intensity changes
* Up-to-date correlation of biostratigraphy with magnetic stratigraphy through the late Jurassic
Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with a review of experimental results and phenomenology concerning the formation of local magnetic moments in metals, followed by a Hartree-Fock description of local states. The intensive activity that followed Kondo's discovery of a serious divergence in the perturbative calculation of certain physical properties of magnetic alloys is described in detail. The parallel problems encountered when the matrix is superconducting are discussed from a theoretical viewpoint. The remaining chapters examine the coexistence of superconductivity and magnetism; magnetic hyperfine-interaction studies of the s-d model and the Kondo effect; functional integral methods for the problem of magnetic impurities; and magnetic moment effects in superconductors.
This book will be of interest to students and practitioners in solid state physics.
The comprehensive style of the papers will appeal to specialists and non-specialists alike, in particular solid-state physicists will find the volume of considerable interest, as the field of materials research continues to benefit from the type of work presented here.
Solid-state physics is the branch of physics primarily devoted to the study of matter in its solid phase, especially at the atomic level. This prestigious series presents timely and state-of-the-art reviews pertaining to all aspects of solid-state physics.Contributions from leading authoritiesInforms and updates on all the latest developments in the field
This text is comprised of eight chapters; the first of which gives an overview of NMR spectroscopy and its use in studies of biological systems. The next two chapters discuss the theoretical basis for NMR applications in biochemistry, with emphasis on Bloch equations, quantum mechanics, correlation function and correlation time, double resonance, and chemical exchange. The reader is then introduced to the basis for chemical shifts and spin-spin splitting, along with several examples of the use of these NMR parameters in studies of small molecule interactions and structure. The experimental apparatus and procedures employed in NMR studies, Fourier transform NMR, and NMR spectral parameters of small molecules interacting with macromolecules are also considered. The book highlights the information obtainable from the spectra of biopolymers, and then concludes with a chapter on NMR investigations of the state of motion of lipids in membranes and model membranes; water in macromolecular and cellular systems; and sodium ion in biological tissue.
This book is intended primarily for chemists, biochemists, biophysicists, and molecular biologists, as well as graduate students.
Instructors teaching form this textbook will be able to gain online access to the solutions manual which provides step-by-step solutions to all exercises contained in the book. The solutions manual also contains many tips, coloured illustrations, and explanations on how the solutions were derived.
Modern Ferrite Technology, 2nd ed, offers the readers an expert overview of the latest ferrite advances as well as their applications in electronic components. This volume develops the interplay among material properties, component specification and device requirements using ferrites. Throughout, emphasis is placed on practical technological concerns as opposed to mathematical and physical aspects of the subject.
The book traces the origin of the magnetic effect in ferrites from the level of the simplest particle and the increases the scope to the larger and larger hierarchies. From the desired magnetic properties the author deduces the physical and chemical material parameters, taking into consideration major chemistry, impurity levels, ceramic microstructures and grain boundary effects. He then discusses the processing conditions and associated conditions required for implementation. In addition to conventional ceramic techniques, he describes non-conventional methods such as coprecipitation, co-spray roasting and single crystal growth.
The second section of this book deals with a complete listing of the many important applications in the field including ferrites for permanent magnet, telecommunications, power supplies, memory systems magnetic recording and microwave applications.
The function of ferrites in each of these applications is described. The requirements of the electronic circuit and device are broken down into the individual component specifications with regard to size and configuration. Design criteria for power level, degree of stability and cost are then considered.
Why do compass needles point north—but not quite north? What guides the migration of birds, whales, and fish across the world’s oceans? How is Earth able to sustain life under an onslaught of solar wind and cosmic radiation? For centuries, the world’s great scientists have grappled with these questions, all rooted in the same phenomenon: Earth’s magnetism.
Over two thousand years after the invention of the compass, Einstein called the source of Earth’s magnetic field one of greatest unsolved mysteries of physics. Here, for the first time, is the complete history of the quest to understand the planet’s attractive pull—from the ancient Greeks’ fascination with lodestone to the geological discovery that the North Pole has not always been in the North—and to the astonishing modern conclusions that finally revealed the true source.
Richly illustrated and skillfully told, North Pole, South Pole unfolds the human story behind the science: that of the inquisitive, persevering, and often dissenting thinkers who unlocked the secrets at our planet’s core.
“In recent years, many very good books for interested non-scientists have been published: Richard Dawkins’s Climbing Mount Improbable and The Ancestor’s Tale, Stephen Jay Gould’s The Lying Stones of Marrakech, and Dava Sobel’s Longitude and The Planets, to name some of them. North Pole, South Pole . . . is a worthy addition to that list . . . Turner has a great story to tell, and she tells it well.” —The Press (New Zealand)
* Uses extensive illustrations to explain the concept of Diffusion Tensor Imaging
* Easy to understand, even without a background in physics
* Includes sections on image interpretation, experimental design and applications
Table of Contents: Introduction / Passive Magnetic Silencing Techniques / Active Signature Compensation / Summary
The book begins with simple concepts such as Berry phases, Dirac fermions, Hall conductance and its link to topology, and the Hofstadter problem of lattice electrons in a magnetic field. It moves on to explain topological phases of matter such as Chern insulators, two- and three-dimensional topological insulators, and Majorana p-wave wires. Additionally, the book covers zero modes on vortices in topological superconductors, time-reversal topological superconductors, and topological responses/field theory and topological indices. The book also analyzes recent topics in condensed matter theory and concludes by surveying active subfields of research such as insulators with point-group symmetries and the stability of topological semimetals. Problems at the end of each chapter offer opportunities to test knowledge and engage with frontier research issues. Topological Insulators and Topological Superconductors will provide graduate students and researchers with the physical understanding and mathematical tools needed to embark on research in this rapidly evolving field.
After briefly dealing with the spin Hamiltonians of typical ions and the interactions between the ions, this book goes on discussing the diverse aspects of ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism, and antiferromagnetism in insulators as well as in metals. These topics are followed by presentation of abstract quantum mechanical and statistical models and the theory of spin interactions in solids. The other chapters describe the actual magnetic structures and the phenomenology of ferromagnets. This text further considers the fundamentals of neutron diffraction and optical phenomena in magnetically ordered materials. The concluding chapters look into the cooperative phenomena characterized by ordered arrangements of magnetic moments subject to strong mutual interactions.
Physicists and magnetism researchers will find this book of great value.
This book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and solids - may also find this text useful.
New to this edition: This new edition presents the fundamentals of wave propagation in Anisotropic, Anelastic, Porous Media while also incorporating the latest research from the past 7 years, including that of the author. The author presents all the equations and concepts necessary to understand the physics of wave propagation. These equations form the basis for modeling and inversion of seismic and electromagnetic data. Additionally, demonstrations are given, so the book can be used to teach post-graduate courses. Addition of new and revised content is approximately 30%.Examines the fundamentals of wave propagation in anisotropic, anelastic and porous mediaPresents all equations and concepts necessary to understand the physics of wave propagation, with examplesEmphasizes geophysics, particularly, seismic exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs, which is essential for exploration and production of oil
An understanding of magnetic phenomena is essential for anyone working on the practical application of electromagnetic theory. Magnetic Fields: A Comprehensive Theoretical Treatise for Practical Use provides physicists and engineers with a thorough treatment of the magnetic aspects of classical electromagnetic theory, focusing on key issues and problems arising in the generation and application of magnetic fields. From magnetic potentials and diffusion phenomena to magnetohydrodynamics and properties of matter-topics are carefully selected for their relevance to the theoretical framework as well as current technologies. Outstanding in its organization, clarity, and scope, Magnetic Fields:
* Examines a wide range of practical problems, from magnetomechanical devices to magnetic acceleration mechanisms
* Opens each chapter with reference to pertinent engineering examples
* Provides sufficient detail enabling readers to follow the derivation of the results
* Discusses solution methods and their application to different problems
* Includes more than 300 graphs, 40 tables, 2,000 numbered formulas, and extensive references to the professional literature
* Reviews the essential mathematics in the appendices
After a short introduction to the basics of magnetism and molecular magnetism, the text goes on to cover specific properties of molecular magnetic materials as well as their current and future applications. Design strategies for acquiring molecular magnetic materials with desired physical properties are discussed, as are such multifunctional materials as high Tc magnets, chiral and luminescent magnets, magnetic sponges as well as photo- and piezo-switching magnets.
The result is an excellent resource for materials scientists, chemists, physicists and crystal engineers either entering or already working in the field.
The principles and properties of the major plasma confinement machines are explored with basic physics to the extent currently understood. For the observational laws that are not understood — the empirical confinement laws — offering challenges to the next generation of plasma students and researchers — are explained in detail. An example, is the confinement regime — called the "I–mode" — currently a hot topic — is explored.
Numerous important problems and puzzles for the next generation of plasma scientists are explained. There is growing demand for new simulation codes utilizing the massively parallel computers with MPI and GPU methods. When the 20 billion dollar ITER machine is tested in the 2020ies, new theories and faster/smarter computer simulations running in near real-time control systems will be used to control the burning hydrogen plasmas.
The technique is treated both qualitatively and quantitatively, with a progressive increase in sophistication in each succeeding chapter. Following a general introductory chapter, the first half of the book deals with single unpaired electron systems and considers both metal and ligand Zeeman, hyperfine and quadrupole interactions. The simulation of these spectra is discussed, followed by the relationship between spin-Hamiltonian parameters and models of the electronic structures of paramagnets. The second half of the book treats multiple unpaired electron systems using the same philosophy. An introduction to the epr properties of cluster compounds and of extended exchanging systems is also given. There is a chapter on linewidths and lineshapes, and an extensive appendix containing much additional information. A wide-ranging library of simulated and experimental spectra is given, as well as graphical data which should aid spectrum interpretation. Each chapter contains key references and there is a substantial subject and keyword index.
This book is designed to teach epr spectroscopy to students without any previous knowledge of the technique. However, it will also be extremely useful to researchers dealing with paramagnetic d transition metals.
This textbook presents the theory of classical fields as a mathematical structure based solidly on laboratory experiments. Here the student is introduced to the beauty of classical field theory as a gem of theoretical physics. To keep the discussion fluid, the history is placed in a beginning chapter and some of the mathematical proofs in the appendices. Chapters on Green’s Functions and Laplace’s Equation and a discussion of Faraday’s Experiment further deepen the understanding. The chapter on Einstein’s relativity is an integral necessity to the text. Finally, chapters on particle motion and waves in a dispersive medium complete the picture. High quality diagrams and detailed end-of-chapter questions enhance the learning experience.
The aim is to provide a basic understanding of edge states, bulk topological invariants, and of the bulk--boundary correspondence with as simple mathematical tools as possible.
The present approach uses noninteracting lattice models of topological insulators, building gradually on these to arrive from the simplest one-dimensional case (the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model for polyacetylene) to two-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators (the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model for HgTe). In each case the discussion of simple toy models is followed by the formulation of the general arguments regarding topological insulators.
The only prerequisite for the reader is a working knowledge in quantum mechanics, the relevant solid state physics background is provided as part of this self-contained text, which is complemented by end-of-chapter problems.
As the topic is getting popular, it is nowadays presented and discussed at various international conferences. After the first ten years during which the topic has remained mainly theoretical with a few proof-of-concept demonstrations in the literature, the evolution has been towards applications, instrumentation, and novel designs. The physical explanations for various effects are now well understood and efficient numerical methods and analysis tools have been developed.
The book contains a comprehensive set of finite element model (FEM) scripts for solving basic phononic crystal problems. The scripts are short, easy to read, and efficient, allowing the reader to generate for him(her)self band structures for 2D and 3D phononic crystals, to compute Bloch waves, waveguide and cavity modes, and more.
At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale.
With the Fifth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.