Beginning with simple theoretical models and experimental techniques, the book develops the complete repertoire of theoretical principles and experimental techniques necessary for understanding and implementing the most sophisticated NMR experiments.
Important new techniques and applications of NMR spectroscopy have emerged since the first edition of this extremely successful book was published in 1996. This updated version includes new sections describing measurement and use of residual dipolar coupling constants for structure determination, TROSY and deuterium labeling for application to large macromolecules, and experimental techniques for characterizing conformational dynamics. In addition, the treatments of instrumentation and signal acquisition, field gradients, multidimensional spectroscopy, and structure calculation are updated and enhanced.
The book is written as a graduate-level textbook and will be of interest to biochemists, chemists, biophysicists, and structural biologists who utilize NMR spectroscopy or wish to understand the latest developments in this field.Provides an understanding of the theoretical principles important for biological NMR spectroscopyDemonstrates how to implement, optimize and troubleshoot modern multi-dimensional NMR experimentsAllows for the capability of designing effective experimental protocols for investigations of protein structures and dynamicsIncludes a comprehensive set of example NMR spectra of ubiquitin provides a reference for validation of experimental methods
This new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated and has been redesigned to give the book a more contemporary look. As with previous editions it contains numerous examples, references and a series of exercises of increasing difficulty to encourage student understanding. Updates include: Increased coverage of MALDI and ESI, more detailed description of time of flight spectrometers, new material on isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and an expanded range of applications.
Mass Spectrometry, Third Edition is an invaluable resource for all undergraduate and postgraduate students using this technique in departments of chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, pharmacology, agriculture, material science and food science. It is also of interest for researchers looking for an overview of the latest techniques and developments.
Reviews of the First Edition
“For anyone wishing to know what really goes on in their NMR experiments, I would highly recommend this book” – Chemistry World
“...I warmly recommend for budding NMR spectroscopists, or others who wish to deepen their understanding of elementary NMR theory or theoretical tools” – Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry
* The first reference work on named reactions to present colored schemes for easier understanding
* 250 frequently used named reactions are presented in a convenient two-page layout with numerous examples
* An opening list of abbreviations includes both structures and chemical names
* Contains more than 10,000 references grouped by seminal papers, reviews, modifications, and theoretical works
* Appendices list reactions in order of discovery, group by contemporary usage, and provide additional study tools
* Extensive index quickly locates information using words found in text and drawings
Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy deals with the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. It measure the absorption of different IR frequencies by a sample positioned in the path of an IR beam. Currently, infrared spectroscopy is one of the most common spectroscopic techniques used in the food industry. With the rapid development in infrared spectroscopic instrumentation software and hardware, the application of this technique has expanded into many areas of food research. It has become a powerful, fast, and non-destructive tool for food quality analysis and control.
Infrared Spectroscopy for Food Quality Analysis and Control reflects this rapid technology development. The book is divided into two parts. Part I addresses principles and instruments, including theory, data treatment techniques, and infrared spectroscopy instruments. Part II covers the application of IRS in quality analysis and control for various foods including meat and meat products, fish and related products, and others.
*Explores this rapidly developing, powerful and fast non-destructive tool for food quality analysis and control
*Presented in two Parts -- Principles and Instruments, including theory, data treatment techniques, and instruments, and Application in Quality Analysis and Control for various foods making it valuable for understanding and application
*Fills a need for a comprehensive resource on this area that includes coverage of NIR and MVA
Principle, experimental set ups, parameters and interpretation rules of several advanced IR-based techniques; application to biointerface characterisation through the presentation of recent examples, will be given in this book. It will describe how to characterise amino acids, protein or bacterial strain interactions with metal and oxide surfaces, by using infrared spectroscopy, in vacuum, in the air or in an aqueous medium. Results will highlight the performances and perspectives of the technique.Description of the principles, expermental setups and parameter interpretation, and the theory for several advanced IR-based techniques for interface characterisationContains examples which demonstrate the capacity, potential and limits of the IR techniquesHelps finding the most adequate mode of analysisContains examplesContains a glossary by techniques and by keywords
A discussion is then presented on carbon-13 NMR, detailing its pros and cons and showing how it can be used in conjunction with proton NMR via the pivotal 2-D techniques (HSQC and HMBC) to yield vital structural information. Some of the more specialist techniques available are then discussed, i.e. flow NMR, solvent suppression, Magic Angle Spinning, etc. Other important nuclei are then discussed and useful data supplied. This is followed by a discussion of the neglected use of NMR as a tool for quantification and new techniques for this explained. The book then considers the safety aspects of NMR spectroscopy, reviewing NMR software for spectral prediction and data handling and concludes with a set of worked Q&As.
This book is an easy-to-use compendium of problems encountered when using various commonly used analytical techniques. Emphasis is on impurities, by-products, contaminants and other artifacts. A separate entry is provided for each artifact. For specific chemicals, this entry provides the common name, mass spectrum, gas chromatographic data, CAS name and registry number, synonyms and a narrative discussion. More than 1100 entries are included. Mass spectral data are indexed in a 6-peak index (molecular ion, base peak, second peak, third peak) and there are also formula, author and subject indexes. An extensive bibliography contains complete literature citations.
The book is designed to be used. It will not only allow experienced analysts to profit from the mistakes of others, but it will also be invaluable to other scientists who use analytical instruments in their work.
The aim of the book is twofold. Firstly, to reveal to the reader the combined use of different spectroscopic data, to facilitate an insight into the structure and conformational properties of any new piperidine derivative. Secondly, to establish a consistent link between conformation and reactivity for a variety of piperidine derivatives. Such a bridge is a key step for stereocontrol when dealing with the application of piperidine derivatives as synthetic intermediates. The book is conceived so that most of the information comes from visual inspection of the very abundant graphic material. An exhaustive subject index of more than 450 entries is also included.
This book guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use telescopes (from small amateur models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and to observe objects in the sky. Mathematics to around Advanced Placement standard (US) or A level (UK) is assumed, although High School Diploma (US) or GCSE-level (UK) mathematics plus some basic trigonometry will suffice most of the time. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires no prior knowledge or experience.
This is a ‘how to’ book that provides the knowledge and background required to understand how and why telescopes work. Equipped with the techniques discussed in this book, the observer will be able to operate with confidence his or her telescope and to optimize its performance for a particular purpose. In principle the observer could calculate his or her own predictions of planetary positions (ephemerides), but more realistically the observer will be able to understand the published data lists properly instead of just treating them as ‘recipes.’ When the observer has obtained measurements, he/she will be able to analyze them in a scientific manner and to understand the significance and meaning of the results.
“Telescopes and Techniques, 3rd Edition” fills a niche at the start of an undergraduate astronomer’s university studies, as shown by it having been widely adopted as a set textbook. This third edition is now needed to update its material with the many new observing developments and study areas that have come into prominence since it was published. The book concentrates on the knowledge needed to understand how small(ish) optical telescopes function, their main designs and how to set them up, plus introducing the reader to the many ways in which objects in the sky change their positions and how they may be observed. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the most advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable the reader to see some of the developments possible from the basic observing techniques covered in the main parts of the book.
Volume I focuses on physics and mechanics of micro- and opto-electronic structures and systems, i.e., on the science underpinnings of engineering methods and approaches used in microelectronics and photonics. Volume II deals with various practical aspects of reliability and packaging of micro- and opto-electronic systems. Internationally recognized experts and world leaders in particular areas of this branch of applied science and engineering contributed to the book.
The highly-anticipated paperback edition of The Elements is finally available.
An eye-opening, original collection of gorgeous, never-before-seen photographic representations of the 118 elements in the periodic table.
The elements are what we, and everything around us, are made of. But how many elements has anyone actually seen in pure, uncombined form? The Elements provides this rare opportunity. Based on seven years of research and photography, the pictures in this book make up the most complete, and visually arresting, representation available to the naked eye of every atom in the universe. Organized in order of appearance on the periodic table, each element is represented by a spread that includes a stunning, full-page, full-color photograph that most closely represents it in its purest form. For example, at -183°C, oxygen turns from a colorless gas to a beautiful pale blue liquid.
Also included are fascinating facts, figures, and stories of the elements as well as data on the properties of each, including atomic weight, density, melting and boiling point, valence, electronegativity, and the year and location in which it was discovered. Several additional photographs show each element in slightly altered forms or as used in various practical ways. The element's position on the periodic table is pinpointed on a mini rendering of the table and an illustrated scale of the element's boiling and/or melting points appears on each page along with a density scale that runs along the bottom.
Packed with interesting information, this combination of solid science and stunning artistic photographs is the perfect gift book for every sentient creature in the universe.
Includes a tear-out poster of Theodore Gray's iconic Photographic Periodic Table!
The section regarding GC Conditions, Derivatization, and Mass Spectral Interpretation of Specific Compound Types has the same number of compound types as the original edition, but the information in each section has been expanded to not only explain some of the spectra but to also explain why certain fragmentations take place. The number of Appendices has been increased from 12 to 17. The Appendix on Atomic Masses and Isotope Abundances has been expanded to provide tools to aid in determination of elemental composition from isotope peak intensity ratios. An appendix with examples on "Steps to follow in the determination of elemental compositions based on isotope peak intensities" has been added. Appendices on whether to use GC/MS or LC/MS, third-party software for use in data analysis, list of information required in reporting GC/MS data, X+1 and X+2 peak relative intensities based on the number of atoms of carbon in an ion, and list of available EI mass spectral databases have been added. Others such as the ones on derivatization, isotope peak patterns for ions with Cl and/or Br, terms used in GC and in mass spectrometry, and tips on setting up, maintaining and troubleshooting a GC/MS system have all been expanded and updated.Covers the practical instruction necessary for successful operation of GC/MS equipmentReviews the latest advances in instrumentation, ionization methods, and quantitationIncludes troubleshooting techniques and a variety of additional information useful for the GC/MS practitionerA true benchtop referenceA guide to a basic understanding of the components of a Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS)Quick References to data interpretationReady source for information on new analyses
The Essentials For Dummies Series
Dummies is proud to present our new series, The Essentials For Dummies. Now students who are prepping for exams, preparing to study new material, or who just need a refresher can have a concise, easy-to-understand review guide that covers an entire course by concentrating solely on the most important concepts. From algebra and chemistry to grammar and Spanish, our expert authors focus on the skills students most need to succeed in a subject.
This multi-disciplined text covers the fundamentals as well as recent advance in this topic, providing need-to-know information for researchers in many disciplines including pharmaceutical, environmental and biomedical analysis who are utilizing mass spectrometry
Fully revised and expanded by 30%, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Second Edition incorporates the latest industrial and scientific trends in all areas. It updates all previous material and adds new chapters on such topics as the history of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, the design of X-ray spectrometers, state-of-the-art applications, and X-ray spectra.
Ron Jenkins draws on his extensive experience in training and consulting industry professionals for this clear and concise treatment, covering first the basic aspects of X rays, then the methodology of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and available instrumentation. He offers a comparison between wavelength and energy dispersive spectrometers as well as step-by-step guidelines to X-ray spectrometric techniques for qualitative and quantitative analysis-from specimen preparation to real-world industrial application.
Favored by the American Chemical Society and the International Centre for Diffraction Data, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Second Edition is an ideal introduction for newcomers to the field and an invaluable reference for experienced spectroscopists-in chemical analysis, geology, metallurgy, and materials science.
An up-to-date review of X-ray spectroscopic techniques. This proven guidebook for industry professionals is thoroughly updated and expanded to reflect advances in X-ray analysis over the last decade. X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Second Edition includes:
* The history of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-new to this edition.
* A critical review of the most useful X-ray spectrometers.
* Techniques and procedures for quantitative and qualitative analysis.
* Modern applications and industrial trends.
* X-ray spectra-new to this edition.
On the threshold of the new millennium when plasma emission and mass spectrometry are so important and popular, the editor considered it timely to produce a book which covers all present atomic detectors and techniques where FA has been or can be advantageously employed. The book has been conceived in three separate parts: Part I gives the fundamental, instrumentation and potential of FIA as a most versatile sample presentation/introduction system for atomic spectrometry. Part II provides a modern account of fundamentals, possibilities and applications offered by flow analysis to atomic spectrometry for on-line sample pretreatments, separations and preconcentrations. Part III deals with applications of FA-ASD combinations to analytical problem-solving in most varied fields and situations.
This monograph integrates the most popular aspects of FIA, its new developments for sample on-line treatments and on-line non-chromatographic and chromatographic separations (all typical 'flow analysis') in connection with all branches of analytical atomic spectrometry. Thus, academics, researchers and routine users of analytical atomic spectrometry will find this book invaluable.
This is presented in a concise yet comprehensive manner and each section is prepared such that they can be read independently of each other, and all equations are presented using the most commonly used units. Greater emphasis has been placed on spectral understanding/interpretation. For completeness sake, a description of commonly used instrumentation is also presented. Finally, some complementary surface analytical techniques and associated concepts are reviewed for comparative purposes in stand-alone appendix sections.
Medical Applications of Mass Spectrometry addresses the key issues in the medical applications of mass spectrometry at the level appropriate for the intended readership. It will go a long way to help the utilization of mass spectrometry in medicine.
The book comprises five parts. A general overview is followed by a description of the basic sampling and separation methods in analytical chemistry. In the second part a solid foundation in mass spectrometry and modern techniques of data analysis is presented. The third part explains how mass spectrometry is used in exploring various classes of biomolecules, including proteins and lipids. In the fourth section mass spectrometry is introduced as a diagnostic tool in clinical treatment, infectious pathogen research, neonatal diagnostics, cancer, brain and allergy research, as well as in various fields of medicine: cardiology, pulmonology, neurology, psychiatric diseases, hemato-oncology, urologic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, gynecology and pediatrics. The fifth part covers emerging applications in biomarker discovery and in mass spectrometric imaging.
* Provides a broad look at how the medical field is benefiting from advances in mass spectrometry.
* Guides the reader from basic principles and methods to cutting edge applications.
* There is NO comparable book on the market to fill this fast growing field.
Written by expert users of the most common assays found in a clinical laboratory (clinical chemists, toxicologists, and clinical pathologists practicing mass spectrometry), the book lays out how experts in the field have chosen their mass spectrometers, purchased, installed, validated, and brought them on line for routine testing.
The early chapters of the book covers what the practitioners have learned from years of experience, the challenges they have faced, and their recommendations on how to build and validate assays to avoid problems. These chapters also include recommendations for maintaining continuity of quality in testing. The later parts of the book focuses on specific types of assays (therapeutic drugs, Vitamin D, hormones, etc.). Each chapter in this section has been written by an expert practitioner of an assay that is currently running in his or her clinical lab.Provides readers with the keys to choosing, installing, and validating a mass spectrometry platformOffers tools to evaluate, validate, and troubleshoot the most common assays seen in clinical pathology labsExplains validation, ion suppression, interference testing, and quality control design to the detail that is required for implementation in the lab
This book summarizes the major advances and relevant applications of GC-MS techniques over the last 10 years, with chapters by leading authors in the field of environmental chemistry. The authors are drawn from academia, industry and government.
The book is organized in three main parts. Part I covers applications of basic GC-MS to solve environmental-related problems. Part II focuses on GC-MS-MS instrumentation for the analyses of a broad range of analysis in environmental samples (pesticides, persistent organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors, etc.). Part III covers the use of more advanced GC-MS techniques using low- and high-resolution mass spectrometry for many applications related to the environment, food and industry.Summarizes the major advances of GC-MS techniques in the last decadePresents relevant applications of GC-MS techniquesCovers academic, industrial and governmental sectors
High-Resolution XAS/XES: Analyzing Electronic Structures of Catalystscovers the latest developments in X-ray light sources, detectors, crystal spectrometers, and photon-in-photon-out core level spectroscopy techniques. It also addresses photon-in-photon-out core level spectroscopy applications for the study of catalytic systems, highlighting hard X-ray measurements primarily due to probe high penetration, enabling in situ studies.
This first-of-its-kind book:Discusses high-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in terms of time-resolved and surface enhancement Supplies an understanding of catalytic reactivity essential for capitalizing on core level X-ray spectroscopy at fourth-generation light sources (XFELs) Describes all spectrometers developed to perform core level X-ray spectroscopy, considering the advantages and disadvantages of each Details methods to elucidate aspects of catalysts under working conditions, such as active sites and molecule adsorption Introduces theoretical calculations of spectra and explores biological as well as heterogeneous catalysts
Complete with guidelines and warnings for the use of this type of spectroscopy, High-Resolution XAS/XES: Analyzing Electronic Structures of Catalysts provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of this exciting field.
Comparative studies on the charge dynamics and Mott transition features of transition-metal oxides were performed: Charge dynamics and thermoelectricity in a typical Mott transition system La1−xSrxVO3, charge dynamics in a doped valence-bond solid system (Ti1−xVx)2O3 and in layered nickelates R2-xSrxNiO4 with charge-ordering instability are investigated thoroughly. The results obtained successfully provide a number of novel insights into the emergent phenomena near the Mott transition.
The book begins with the core principles of gas chromatography and its specific uses with MS detectors. It discusses generalities of mass spectrometry, including the various types of MS detectors and insight into the vacuum necessary for efficient operation. Chapters cover the types of analyzers used in GC-MS and their functioning principles, with a focus on the commonly used quadrupolar analyzers, as well as the implementation, advantages, and limits of various modes of acquisition in GC-MS. The text also compares performance and limitations of quadrupolar analyzers.
The author includes a full chapter on quantification using GC-MS, a topic that can be puzzling for many chemists. Encouraging a critical approach to databases, he compares laboratory-made and commercial mass spectra databases, and describes a database research algorithm. The final chapter examines mass spectra interpretation, covering chemistry concepts such as inductive and mesomeric effects required to understand dissociation pathways, and presents a global strategy for mass spectra interpretation.
Additional topics include basic instrumental components and sampling techniques, quantitative analysis, Raman polarization data, infrared gas contours, and polarized IR studies, among others.Focuses on group frequency correlations and how to use them in spectral interpretationRevised and updated by a pioneer in the field, Norman Colthup, who for thirty years has served as an expert lecturer for the Fisk Infrared InstituteExplores new group frequency studies in aromatics, alkanes and olefins, among othersIncludes completely updated section on instrumentation
* Covers latest advances in vapor and trace detection techniques and bulk detection techniques
* Reviews both current techniques and those in advanced stages of development
* Techniques that are described in detail, including its principles of operation, as well as its applications in the detection of explosives
* Bridges the gap between conventional photophysics & photochemistry and nanoscience
* Continuing the series that focuses on 'hot' areas of photochemistry, optics, material science and bioscience
Mass spectrometry (MS) is playing an increasingly important role in the study of protein interactions. Mass Spectrometry of Protein Interactionspresents timely and definitive discussions of the diverse range of approaches for studying protein interactions by mass spectrometry with an extensive set of references to the primary literature. Each chapter is written by authors or teams of authors who are international authorities in their fields. This leading reference text:
Discusses the direct detection of protein interactions through electrospray ionization (ESI-MS); ion mobility analysis; and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-MS)
Covers the indirect analysis of protein interactions through hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HX-MS); limited proteolysis; cross-linking; and radial probe (RP-MS)
Guides researchers in the use of mass spectrometry in structural biology, biochemistry, and protein science to map and define the huge number and diversity of protein interactions
Reviews the latest discoveries and applications and addresses new and ongoing challenges
This is a comprehensive reference for researchers in academia and industry engaged in studies of protein interactions and an excellent text for graduate and postgraduate students.
The book reviews basic principles, instrumentation, sampling methods, quantitative analysis, origin of group frequencies and qualitative interpretation using generalized Infrared (IR) and Raman spectra. An extensive use of graphics is used to describe the basic principles of vibrational spectroscopy and the origins of group frequencies, with over 100 fully interpreted FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra included and indexed to the relevant qualitative interpretation chapter. A final chapter with forty four unknown spectra and with a corresponding answer key is included to test the readers understanding. Tables of frequencies (peaks) for both infrared and Raman spectra are provided at key points in the book and will act as a useful reference resource for those involve interpreting spectra.
This book provides a solid introduction to vibrational spectroscopy with an emphasis placed upon developing critical interpretation skills. Ideal for those using and analyzing IR and Raman spectra in their laboratories as well as those using the techniques in the field.Uniquely integrates discussion of IR and Raman spectraTheory illustrated and explained with over 100 fully interpreted high quality FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra (4 cm-1 resolution)Selected problems at the end of chapters and 44 unknown IR and Raman spectra to test readers understanding (with a corresponding answer key)
This new edition includes many new topics such as band theory and heat capacity of solids, spectroscopy of molecules and complexes (including applications to ligand field theory), and small molecules of astrophysical interest.Accessible style and colorful illustrations make the content appropriate for professional researchers and students alikePresents results of quantum mechanical calculations that can be performed with readily available softwareProvides exceptionally clear discussions of spin-orbit coupling and group theory, and comprehensive coverage of barrier penetration (quantum mechanical tunneling) that touches upon hot topics, such as superconductivity and scanning tunneling microscopyProblems given at the end of each chapter help students to master concepts
Careful attention is given to developing and interrelating four approaches - steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The presentation is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintance with the general principles of quantum mechanics, but no extensive background in quantum theory or proficiency in mathematics is required. Likewise, no previous background in NMR is assumed, since the book begins with a description of the basic physics, together with a brief account of the historical development of the field.
This third edition of High Resolution NMR preserves the "conversational" approach of the previous editions that has been well accepted as a teaching tool. However, more than half the material is new, and the remainder has been revised extensively. Problems are included to reinforce concepts in the book.Uses mathematics to augment, not replace, verbal explanationsWritten in a clear and conversational styleFollows the successful format and approach of two previous editionsRevised and updated extensively--about 70 percent of the text is newIncludes problems and references to additional reading at the end of each chapter
This book incorporates recent technological advances in analytical pyrolysis methods especially useful for the characterization of 163 typical synthetic polymers. The book briefly reviews the instrumentation available in advanced analytical pyrolysis, and offers guidance to perform effectually this technique combining with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Main contents are comprehensive sample pyrograms, thermograms, identification tables, and representative mass spectra (MS) of pyrolyzates for synthetic polymers. This edition also highlights thermally-assisted hydrolysis and methylation technique effectively applied to 33 basic condensation polymers.Coverage of Py-GC/MS data of conventional pyrograms and thermograms of basic 163 kinds of synthetic polymers together with MS and retention index data for pyrolyzates, enabling a quick identificationAdditional coverage of the pyrograms and their related data for 33 basic condensation polymers obtained by the thermally-assisted hydrolysis and methylation techniqueAll compiled data measured under the same experimental conditions for pyrolysis, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to facilitate peak identificationSurveyable instant information on two facing pages dedicated to the whole data of a given polymer sample