Site Engineering for Landscape Architects is the top choice for site engineering, planning, and construction courses as well as for practitioners in the field, with easy-to-understand coverage of the principles and techniques of basic site engineering for grading, drainage, earthwork, and road alignment. The Sixth Edition has been revised to address the latest developments in landscape architecture while retaining an accessible approach to complex concepts.
The book offers an introduction to landform and the language of its design, and explores the site engineering concepts essential to practicing landscape architecture today—from interpreting landform and contour lines, to designing horizontal and vertical road alignments, to construction sequencing, to designing and sizing storm water management systems. Integrating design with construction and implementation processes, the authors enable readers to gain a progressive understanding of the material.
This edition contains completely revised information on storm water management and green infrastructure, as well as many new and updated case studies. It also includes updated coverage of storm water management systems design, runoff calculations, and natural resource conservation. Graphics throughout the book have been revised to bring a consistent, clean approach to the illustrations.
Perfect for use as a study guide for the most difficult section of the Landscape Architect Registration Exam (LARE) or as a handy professional reference, Site Engineering for Landscape Architects, Sixth Edition gives readers a strong foundation in site development that is environmentally sensitive and intellectually stimulating.
Tailor-made for hands-on gardeners, the workbook approach is accessible, practical, and can be used to create a garden from scratch and to redesign an existing garden. Gardeners will find easy ways to measure large spaces, estimate the height of a tree, and find the right proportions for a deck. They'll also find tips on space, light, and color. Includes hundreds of easy-to-follow line drawings and diagrams.
The book's contributors include the most well-known experts in the planning and design fields, among them James Howard Kunstler, Alex Garvin, Andres Duany, Joel Kotkin, and Wendell Cox. These and other prominent thinkers offer passionate debates and thought-provoking commentary on the most important and controversial topics in the field of urban planning and design: gentrification, eminent domain, the philosophical divide between the Smart Growth community, libertarians and New Urbanists, regional growth patterns, urban design trends, transportation systems, and reaction to disasters such as Katrina and 9/11 that changed the way we look at cities and security.
Planetizen's Contemporary Debates in Urban Planning provides readers with a unique and accessible introduction to a broad array of ideas and perspectives. With the increasing awareness of the need for sound urban planning to ensure the economic, environmental, and social health of modern society, Planetizen's Contemporary Debates in Urban Planning gives professionals in the field and concerned citizens alike a deeper understanding of the critical, complex issues that continue to challenge urban planners, designers, and developers.
Blending aesthetics and environmental consciousness, landscape architecture is one of the fastest growing fields, according to the US Department of Labor. Becoming a Landscape Architect gives you a comprehensive survey of the field as it is practiced today, and explains how to get started and how to succeed in this exciting, creative, and in-demand profession.
Featuring more than thirty-five interviews with leading landscape architects and more than 250 illustrations, the guide covers everything an aspiring landscape architect needs to know- from education and training, design specialties, and work settings to preparing an effective portfolio and finding a job in residential, ecological, commercial, and parks design.Complete guide to the profession of landscape architecture, one of today's fastest growing fields More than thirty-five interviews with leading landscape designers and educators give you an idea of what it's really like to work as a landscape architect Over 250 striking illustrations and a lively interior make the book visually appealing as well as informative Explains different educational paths and their prerequisites and requirements Author Kelleann Foster is Associate Professor and Assistant Department Head, Department of Landscape Architecture, Pennsylvania State University and Managing Partner, Visual Interactive Communications Group
For thousands of years, people have altered the meaning of space by reshaping nature. As an art form, these architectural landscape creations are stamped with societal imprints unique to their environment and place in time.
Illustrated History of Landscape Design takes an optical sweep of the iconic landscapes constructed throughout the ages. Organized by century and geographic region, this highly visual reference uses hundreds of masterful pen-and-ink drawings to show how historical context and cultural connections can illuminate today's design possibilities.
This guide includes:
Storyboards, case studies, and visual narratives to portray spaces
Plan, section, and elevation drawings of key spaces
Summaries of design concepts, principles, and vocabularies
Historic and contemporary works of art that illuminate a specific era
Descriptions of how the landscape has been shaped over time in response to human need
Directing both students and practitioners along a visually stimulating timeline, Illustrated History of Landscape Design is a valuable educational tool as well as an endless source ofinspiration.
Published in association with Library of American Landscape History: http://lalh.org/
This fifth edition has been restructured to bring it in to line with the most recent RHS syllabus, adding new material on the basis of science for horticulturists. The book contains beginning of chapter summaries, highlighted definitions and key points, and end of chapter test your learning questions. Each chapter ends with references for further reading.
Structured to meet the needs of a wide variety of courses in horticulture at levels 2 and 3, this book is particularly suitable for the RHS Certificate, Advanced Certificate and Diploma in Horticulture, BTEC National and the City and Guilds/NPTC National and Advanced National Certificate and Diploma courses. It also supports those studying plant science and related modules for 'A' Level Biology and the Diploma in Environmental and Land-based studies.
Charles Adams BSc (Agric) Hons, Dip Applied Educ., Fellow Inst Horticulture, is a lecturer at Capel Manor College and University of Hertfordshire, an external examiner in horticulture, and also a member of the Royal Horticultural Society Qualifications Advisory Committee.
Katherine Bamford BSc (Agric Sci) Hons, Cert Ed., formerly lecturer in horticulture science at Oaklands College, St. Albans, works in the commercial sector with herbs, organic vegetables and hardy plants.
Mike Early MSc, BSc Hons, DTA, Cert Ed., formerly a lecturer in horticulture science at Oaklands College, St. Albans, now works as a landscape gardner.
-Rick Fedrizzi, President, CEO and Founding Chairman, U.S. Green Building Council
"Having seen firsthand in my company the power of biomimicry to stimulate a wellspring of profitable innovation, I can say unequivocably that biophilic design is the real deal. Kellert, Heerwagen, and Mador have compiled the wisdom of world-renowned experts to produce this exquisite book; it is must reading for scientists, philosophers, engineers, architects and designers, and-most especially-businesspeople. Anyone looking for the key to a new type of prosperity that respects the earth should start here."
-Ray C. Anderson, founder and Chair, Interface, Inc.
The groundbreaking guide to the emerging practice of biophilic design
This book offers a paradigm shift in how we design and build our buildings and our communities, one that recognizes that the positive experience of natural systems and processes in our buildings and constructed landscapes is critical to human health, performance, and well-being. Biophilic design is about humanity's place in nature and the natural world's place in human society, where mutuality, respect, and enriching relationships can and should exist at all levels and should emerge as the norm rather than the exception.
Written for architects, landscape architects, planners,developers, environmental designers, as well as building owners, Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life is a guide to the theory, science, and practice of biophilic design. Twenty-three original and timely essays by world-renowned scientists, designers, and practitioners, including Edward O. Wilson, Howard Frumkin, David Orr, Grant Hildebrand, Stephen Kieran, Tim Beatley, Jonathan Rose, Janine Benyus, Roger Ulrich, Bert Gregory, Robert Berkebile, William Browning, and Vivian Loftness, among others, address:
The basic concepts of biophilia, its expression in the built environment, and how biophilic design connects to human biology, evolution, and development.
The science and benefits of biophilic design on human health, childhood development, healthcare, and more.
The practice of biophilic design-how to implement biophilic design strategies to create buildings that connect people with nature and provide comfortable and productive places for people, in which they can live, work, and study.
Biophilic design at any scale-from buildings to cities-begins with a few simple questions: How does the built environment affect the natural environment? How will nature affect human experience and aspiration? Most of all, how can we achieve sustained and reciprocal benefits between the two?
This prescient, groundbreaking book provides the answers.
We know Olmsted through the physical legacy of his stunning landscapes -- among them, New York's Central Park, California's Stanford University campus, and Boston's Back Bay Fens. But Olmsted's contemporaries knew a man of even more extraordinarily diverse talents. Born in 1822, he traveled to China on a merchant ship at the age of twenty-one. He cofounded The Nation magazine and was an early voice against slavery. He managed California's largest gold mine and, during the Civil War, served as the executive secretary to the United States Sanitary Commission, the precursor of the Red Cross.
Rybczynski's passion for his subject and his understanding of Olmsted's immense complexity and accomplishments make his book a triumphant work. In A Clearing in the Distance, the story of a great nineteenth-century American becomes an intellectual adventure.
Japanese Stone Gardens provides a comprehensive introduction to the powerful mystique and dynamism of the Japanese stone garden—from their earliest use as props in animistic rituals, to their appropriation by Zen monks and priests to create settings conducive to contemplation and finally to their contemporary uses and meaning. With insightful text and abundant imagery, this book reveals the hidden order of stone gardens and in the process heightens the enthusiast's appreciation of them.
The Japanese stone garden is an art form recognized around the globe. These meditative gardens provide tranquil settings, where visitors can shed the burdens and stresses of modern existence, satisfy an age-old yearning for solitude and repose, and experience the restorative power of art and nature. For this reason, the value of the Japanese stone garden today is arguably even greater than when many of them were created.
Fifteen gardens are featured in this book: some well known, such as the famous temple gardens of Kyoto, others less so, among them gardens spread through the south of Honshu Island and the southern islands of Shikoku and Kyushu and in faraway Okinawa.
Digital Drawing for Landscape Architecture: Contemporary Techniques and Tools for Digital Representation in Site Design, Second Edition bridges the gap between traditional analog and new digital tools by applying timeless concepts of representation to enhance design work in digital media. The book explores specific techniques for creating landscape designs, including digitally rendered plans, perspectives, and diagrams, and the updated second edition offers expanded coverage of newer concepts and techniques. Readers will gain insight into the roles of different drawings, with a clear emphasis on presenting a solid understanding of how diagram, plan, section, elevation, and perspective work together to present a comprehensive design approach.
Digital rendering is faster, more efficient, and more flexible than traditional rendering techniques, but the design principles and elements involved are still grounded in hand-rendering techniques. Digital Drawing for Landscape Architecture exploits both modalities to help designers create more beautiful, accurate, and communicative drawings in a professional studio environment. This second edition contains revised information on plan rendering techniques, camera matching workflow, and color selection, along with brand new features, like:Time-based imagery and tools Workflow integration techniques Photoshop and Illustrator task automation Over 400 updated images, plus over 50 new examples of award-winning work
The book takes a tutorial-based approach to digital rendering, allowing readers to start practicing immediately and get up to speed quickly. Communication is a vital, but often overlooked component of the design process, and designers rely upon their drawings to translate concepts from idea to plan. Digital Drawing for Landscape Architecture provides the guidance landscape designers need to create their most communicative renderings yet.
Key topics of the book include:The benefits of green infrastructure as a conservation and planning tool Requirements of ecosystem health Green infrastructure ecosystem services that contribute to human physical and psychological health Planning processes leading to robust green infrastructure networks Design of green infrastructure elements for multiple uses.
The concept of ecosystem services is extensively developed in this book, including biological treatment of stormwater and wastewater, opportunities for recreation, urban agriculture and emersion in a naturalistic setting. It defines planning and design processes as well as the political and economic facets of envisioning, funding and implementing green infrastructure networks.
The book differs from others on the market by presenting the technical issues, requirements and performance of green infrastructure elements, along with the more traditional recreation and wildlife needs associated with greenway planning, providing information derived from environmental engineering to guide planners and landscape architects.
Place attachments are emotional bonds that form between people and their physical surroundings. These connections are a powerful aspect of human life that inform our sense of identity, create meaning in our lives, facilitate community and influence action. Place attachments have bearing on such diverse issues as rootedness and belonging, placemaking and displacement, mobility and migration, intergroup conflict, civic engagement, social housing and urban redevelopment, natural resource management and global climate change.
In this multidisciplinary book, Manzo and Devine-Wright draw together the latest thinking by leading scholars from around the globe, capturing important advancements in three areas: theory, methods and application. In a wide range of conceptual and applied ways, the authors critically review and challenge contemporary knowledge, identify significant advances and point to areas for future research.
This volume offers the most current understandings about place attachment, a critical concept for the environmental social sciences and placemaking professions.
Since its original publication nearly thirty years ago, The Well-Tended Perennial Garden has helped home gardeners successfully plan, plant, and tend their gardens. Now Tracy Di-Sabato-Aust’s trusty advice and reassuring tone are back and better than ever in this completely revised new edition. Novice and experienced gardeners alike will benefit from Tracy’s thorough details on the essential practices of perennial care—included deadheading, pinching, and thinning—along with growing information for new species and cultivars, on-trend garden design advice, a monthly planting and maintenance schedule, and details on native plants and gardening for wildlife. The Well-Tended Perennial Garden is a must-have ally in the quest for a beautiful, well-maintained garden.
This book is not a pond building guide and does not contain design plans, drawings, technical data and also does not give any "how to" information.
In 1871, recovering from Reconstruction, a group of progressive citizens noticed that Houston needed a new cemetery at the edge of the central city. Embracing the picturesque aesthetic that had swept through the Eastern Seaboard, the founders of Glenwood selected land along Buffalo Bayou and developed Glenwood. Since then, the cemetery's monuments have memorialized the lives of many of the city's most interesting residents (Allen, Baker, Brown, Clayton, Cooley, Cullinan, Farish, Hermann, Hobby, House, Hughes, Jones, Law, Rice, Staub, Sterling, Weiss, and Wortham, among many others). The monuments also showcase the artistry and craftsmanship of some of the region's finest sculptors and artisans.
Accompanied by the breathtaking photography of Paul Hester, this book chronicles the cemetery's origins from its inception in 1871 to the present day.
Through the story of Glenwood, readers will appreciate some of the natural features that shaped Houston's evolution and will also begin to understand the forces of urbanization that positioned Houston to become the vital community it is today.
Houston's Silent Garden is a must-read for those interested in Houston civic and regional history, architecture, and urban planning.
The book comes with a handy pocket-sized chart that you can carry with you to job interviews or first dates - any important events - so that you can be confident that you will be able to achieve the best possible outcome.
Manufactured Sites focuses on the legacy of industrial production and pollutants on the contemporary landscape and their influence on new scientific research, innovative site technologies and progressive site design. It presents innovative environmental, engineering and design approaches along with ongoing research and built projects of international significance. Contributions range from innovative scientific engineering research from industry and federal agencies to contemporary international and regional professional reclamation and redevelopment projects such as the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia and the A.G. Thyssen steelworks and blast furnace planning in Germany's Ruhr region.
Das Buch erläutert grundlegende Aspekte der Geländemodellierung: Geländeformen, Maßstäbe, Interpolation, Höhenpunkte, Höhenlinie, Erdmassenberechnung, und führt in Themen wie Hangsicherungssysteme, Regenwassermanagement oder Geländemodellierung auf der Baustelle ein.
In der zweiten Auflage werden diese Grundlagen um neue Technologien wie landscapingSMART, digitale Geländemodellierung (DGM) und 3D-Maschinensteuerung aktualisiert. Hinzu kommen die Geländemodellierung von Straßen und Parkplätzen sowie weitere Baummaschinen zur Geländemodellierung.
Zahlreiche Praxisbeispiele ergänzen die theoretischen Grundlagen, in einem Aufgabenteil kann das Erlernte angewendet werden.
Contents of the Garden History Reference Encyclopedia
eTEXTS: The 100+ eTexts in the Encyclopedia are listed below
BIOGRAPHY: there is an alphabetical index with links to biographies of famous designers, writers and patrons who have guided the course of garden design history
GLOSSARY: there are explanations of garden history terms, with links to examples of their use in the eTexts
STYLES: there are diagrams of 24 key garden types and styles
TIMELINE: a combination of the 24 style diagrams with links to key persons and key examples
General histories of garden design
Garden History Guide. An overview of garden history from 2000 BC to 2000 AD (by Tom Turner). It introduces the subject and serves as a guide to the other resources in the Encyclopedia (approx 2,500 pages, 1.5m words and 2,000 illustrations).
Tom Turner Garden Design in the British Isles: History and styles since 1650 (1986, 2000) The Encyclopedia edition has been revised, with additional illustrations and hyperlinks to garden descriptions.
Marie-Luise Gothein History of garden art (English edition, 1928) Gothein's book, originally published in German (Geschichte der Gartenkunst, 1914 ), provides by far the best and by far the most comprehensive account of garden history from antiquity up to the start of the twentieth century.
eTexts relating to Ancient Egypt
Egyptian Book of the Dead (excerpts)
Herodotus journeyed to Egypt and down the Nile in the 5th century BC and included valuable information on sanctuaries, gardens, groves and statues.
A journey down the Nile in 1902, with romantic paintings of the people and the landscape
A visit to the Estate of Amun in 1909, with paintings capturing the mood of the ancient monuments
A journey down the Nile in 1914, with photographs of the monuments before they were restored and details of how the author's family hired a house boat and 'sailed away into a lotus land of sunshine and silent waters for five or six months'
eTexts relating to Ancient West Asia
The Song of Solomon from Old Testament of The Bible (also known as the Song of Songs). The greatest erotic love song in Western literature, making the association of gardens and love. It has been a profound influence on western thinking about gardens. 'The entire world, all of it, it not equal in worth to the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel.'
Excerpts from The Bible relating to gardens. The Garden of Eden was thought to have been in West Asia.
Excerpts from The Koran relating to gardens. Because gardens were so often used as a symbol of paradise, there are more references to gardens in The Koran than in The Bible.
eTexts relating to Ancient Greece
Plato's discussion of 'imitation' (mimesis) is explained and discussed. Book X of The Republic (c370 BC) is in the Encyclopedia . Plato's Theory of Forms led to the aesthetic principle that 'Art should Imitate Nature' which had a profound influence on western art in general and garden design in particular.
Homer, excerpts from the Iliad and Odyssey relating to gardens
Sir James Frazer's The Golden Bough (1890). The chapter in the Encyclopedia describes 'The Ritual of Adonis'. It is written by the founder of modern anthropology and helps to explain the Adonis Cult, which provides evidence of plants being grown in Greek courtyard gardens, and of the spirit in which sacred groves were made in Ancient Greece.
eTexts relating to The Roman Empire
Vitruvius Pollio on landscape architecture and garden design (27 BC) from de Architectura. Vitruvius was a Roman and wrote the oldest western book on design to have survived. It lays down the principle that places should have 'commodity, firmness and delight'. Book 1, Chapters 1-7, are in the Encyclopedia .
Excerpts from Ovid's Metamorphosis (1-8 AD) and Art of Love (1 BC). Ovid's poetry provided a rich source of imagery for garden designers and for the artists who made garden sculpture.
Pliny the Younger's letters describing his own gardens (c100 AD). These letters are the best surviving descriptions of Roman gardens and of how their owners used them. Pliny owned many gardens and 500 slaves.
Cicero, excerpts from his letters relating to gardens
Virgil's Aenead, sections relating to gardens
Life of St Martin The first outstanding monastic leader in France was St Martin of Tours (c316-397). His account of how he destroyed the sacred groves of the pagan religion does much to explain why Europe has such scanty remains of this type of outdoor space.
Ibn Battuta's account of Constantinople c1300
eTexts relating to Medieval Gardens
Charlemagne's 'chapter' (capitulary) on gardens gave detailed instructions for the plants to be used in the royal gardens and for the management of his lands. They are key texts for the study of medieval gardens, c800 AD.
A note on 'Irminsul.' , the sacred tree of the Saxons, destroyed by the Christians.
Guillaume de Lorris' Romance of the Rose or Roman de la Rose (c1250). This is an allegorical poem, inspired by Ovid, in which gardens and roses are associated with romantic love ('Full many a time I smote and struck the door and listened for someone to let me in')
Excerpts from Boccaccio's Decameron (1353), with classical descriptions of medieval garden scenes. The tales are famed for their sexual intrigue and this aspect is more prominent than garden scenery in the illustrations in the Encyclopedia .
Albertus Magnus advice on how to make a pleasure garden (1206)
Walafried Strabbo's poem Hortulus. This is the literary classic of medieval garden literature, celebrating the delight of plants in monastic life and giving detailed information on the culture and uses of plants.
The Life of St Anthony, relating to the origin of monastic gardening
The Life of St Philbert, relating to the origin of the European monastic cloister. He was Abbot of Jumièges in France c750.
A set of quotations from The Bible which make reference to gardens.(61 No)
eTexts relating to Islamic Gardens
A set of quotations from The Koran which make reference to gardens (151 No)
The Spanish Ambassador's visit to Samarkand, in 1404, with his descriptions of Mughal gardens
Babur's Memoir, Babur admired the gardens he had seen and, after founding a Mughal Empire, made gardens he made in India
Persian gardens were in better condition in 1900 than in 2000, and better still in 1700. This gives a particular importance to past travellers descriptions of their use and form. There sections from the following accounts of visits to Persian gardens in the Encyclopedia (and engravings, to capture the flavour of Persian gardens as they were)
Montesquieu's Persian letters (1721) contained little information on Pesian gardens but did much to awaken interest in seraglios and the 'romance of the East'.
Washington Irving, the 'father of American literature' published a famous account of the Alhambra in 1832. He was a friend of Sir Walter Scott and has the same interest in welding history with imagination. This provides a glimpse of the Alhambra and Generalife when they were, beyond question, the finest gardens in Europe.
eTexts relating to Renaissance Gardens
Plotinus The Enneads Eighth Tractate: 'On the Intellectual Beauty'. Plotinus (205-270AD) was 'rediscovered' during the renaissance, in the Platonic Academy founded at Careggi, and came to have a profound influence on renaissance design methods
St Augustine's conversion took place in a garden in Milan (described in his Confessions) and was often chosen as a frontispiece to editions of his work. Augustine is regarded as the greatest Christian thinker of antiquity, the transmitter of Plato and Aristotle to medieval and renaissance Christianity.
Leon Battista Alberti On Garden Design (1485) from De re aedificatoria libri X (Ten Books on Architecture). Drawing from Pliny and Vitruvius, the humanist scholar set forth the principles for the design of renaissance villas. They were taken up by Donato Bramante and guided the course of garden design for two centuries.
Vasari's biographical note on Leon Battista Alberti describes his multi-faced genius.
Leonardo da Vinci note on the design of a water garden (from his Notebooks) with a reference to his interpretation of Vitruvius
Andrea Palladio's I Quattro Libri dell'Architecttura (The Four Books of Architecture) (1570) is one of the most influential design works ever published. The quotations in the Encyclopedia relate to the placing of buildings and Neoplatonism.
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne's diary accounts of Italian Gardens (1580-1) let us view many still-famous Italian gardens through the eyes of a French renaissance traveller and writer. Montaigne invented the 'essay form'.
William Shakespeare's mention of gardens (30 No.) tell much of the gardens he knew. Despite his dates (1564-1616) these gardens are medieval, with only the slightest renaissance accent.
Francis Bacon's Essay 'On Gardens' (1625). This famous essay, by a philosopher and scientist, in Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe's words 'magisterially lays down the fundamental principles of gardening'. It begins with the words 'God Almighty first planted a garden' and praises wildness in gardens.
John Evelyn's diary accounts of gardens in France and Italy visited between 1644 and 1685. As with Montaigne's diary, they provide contemporary descriptions of French and Italian parks and gardens.
Andrew Marvell's The Garden (c1650) celebrates the delights in the symbolism of seventeenth century enclosed gardens. Marvell's Upon Appleton House, to my Lord Fairfax contains some garden description.
The Garden by Abraham Cowley 'I never had any other desire so strong, and so like to covetousness, as ....that I might be master at last of a small house and large garden
Sir Thomas Browne's essay on The Garden of Cyrus deals with the history of gardens, as viewed from 1658 (an extract is in the Encyclopedia )
eTexts relating to Enlightenment Gardens
René Descartes Descartes did not write either on aesthetics or on garden design, but historians continue to speak of the 'Cartesian Garden', by which they mean a geometrical garden. The Encyclopedia contains the text and a comment on his Discourse on the method of rightly conducting the reason, and seeking truth in the sciences.(1637) This short book laid the foundation for the philosophy of the Enlightenment and for Neoclassical aesthetics.
John James Theory and Practice of Gardening was published in 1712, based on A J Dezallier d'Arganville and Le Blond. It became the standard book on laying out a French baroque garden and provides a fascinating insight into how this was done. James also 'introduced the concept of the ha-ha and anticipated Pope's famous dictum on the genius of the place'. The Encyclopedia has 3 chapters, 4 plates and a discussion of James' book.
Alexander Pope's and his Essay on Criticism (1711) Epistle to Lord Burlington (1731). The former summarises contemporary attitudes to gardens and the latter summarises contemporary (rationalist-Neoclassical) aesthetic theory: based on Reason, Nature and the Genius of the Place.
John Serle's plan of Alexander Pope's garden at the time of his death, and his description of Pope's grotto (+ photographs of the grotto and its setting)
Sir Joshua Reynolds Discourses were delivered at the Royal Academy in London between 1769 and 1790 embody 'The basic ideas of neoclassical theory in the fine arts were set forth in definitive form, with clarity and grace'. The Encyclopedia contains relevant quotations.
eTexts relating to Romantic Gardens
William Temple's essay 'Upon the Gardens of Epicurus: or Of Gardening' (1685) is extravagantly praised by Nicholas Pevsner. He claims this essay 'started a line of thought and visual conceptions which were to dominate first England and then the World for two centuries.' The full text is in the Encyclopedia .
Jospeh Addison's Essay 161 made the key association of natural scenery with liberty and freedom. Essay 37 describes a perfect garden in which reason and nature go hand in hand. Essay 414 sees the works of nature as more delightful than artificial arrangements. Essay 417 supports Locke's theory of knowledge. Essay 477 describes Addison's own garden at Bilton.
William Shenstone A description of The Leasowes. This was one of the landscape gardens most admired in continental Europe, partly because it was the work of a poet and partly because it combined use and beauty - a ferme orneé. The full text of his publisher's description is in the Encyclopedia .
William Shenstone 'Unconnected thoughts on gardening'. The invention of the term 'landskip gardening' is attributed to Shenstone.
Edmund Burke An essay on the sublime and beautiful (1757). Taking an empiricist approach, Burke attacks Vitruvian and rationalist aesthetics. He also discusses garden design, praising Hogarth's 'line of beauty' (which Brown followed) and comparing 'smooth streams in the landscape' with ' in fine women smooth skins'.
Quotations from Lancelot 'Capability' Brown, describing the principles on which he worked.
Horace Walpole's essay 'On Gardening' (1780). The most brilliant and influential essay ever written on the development English park and garden design.
Thomas Jefferson's descriptions of English gardens
John Claudius Loudon's biography of Humphry Repton (1840). After Repton's own writings, this is the primary source of information on Humphry Repton's life and work.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau one of the letters from La Nouvelle Héloise deal's with Julie's garden. It is a romantic treatment of an ancient theme, making the association between women, sex and gardens (see above references the Song of Solomon, the Romance of the Rose and Boccaccio. Also the reference below to Goethe).
Uvedale Price On the Picturesque (1794) Excerpt from Chapter 1 and Chapter 4. Price was a widely respected authority on picturesque taste in gardens.
Humphry Repton 'A letter to Mr Price' (1795)
Humphry Repton Sketches and Hints (1795) This is Repton's first theoretical statement on his chosen professional (Introduction and Chapter 1 on Encyclopedia )
Humphry Repton Fragments on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1816) The Fragment reproduced (No 27) comes from the Red Book for Ashridge - a favourite project and the occasion for Repton's advocacy of what became the Mixed Style of garden design.
eTexts relating to Nineteenth Century Gardens
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Elective Affinities (1809). Like Rousseau, Goethe admired 'natural' gardens. He also drew gardens and designed gardens. The section reproduced in the Encyclopedia deals with the design of a romantic garden.
Jane Loudon's life of her husband John Claudius Loudon (1843). Jane was a novelist and her memoir is as touching as it is important as the key source of information on her husband - who was the most influential garden writer of the nineteenth century. Loudon's influence was particularly important in America.
Edward Kemp How to lay out a garden (1864 edn). Excerpts giving his views on styles of garden design and describing two gardens which he designed. It presents a somewhat depressing picture of the confusion which reigned in the mid-nineteenth century garden aesthetics - and continues to reign in many of the world's municipal parks departments..
Sir Walter Scott, excerpt from Waverly and from The Quarterly Review on gardens. Scott's remarks can be read in conjunction with those of his friends, Gilbert Laing Meason and Washington Irving. They introduced a romantic-historical dimension to garden design and appreciation.
Gustave Flaubert Bouvard and Pécuchet. Flaubert satirizes the bourgeois taste in garden design displayed by the characters whose names form the title of his last novel.
Famous Parks and Gardens of the World - the book was published anonymously and provides a good illustration of European gardening opinion in 1880. The Preface and Chapter 10 are in the Encyclopedia .
Ludwig II of Bavaria: the romantic gardens of the 'Mad King' were rich in historical associations.
eTexts relating to the History of Landscape Architecture
Guide to the History of Landscape Architecture, by Tom Turner
Gilbert Laing Meason. The full text of Meason's On the Landscape Architecture of the Great Painters of Italy (London 1828). Meason was the 'inventor' of the term Landscape Architecture, which has since come to be used by a world-wide profession, represented by the International Federation of Landscape Architects, by the American Society of Landscape Architects, by the UK Landscape Institute and numerous other national associations. Only 150 copies of his book were printed and its contents are not well known. This is the first time the book has been re-published. It is accompanied with an analysis of the text by Tom Turner. A clear appreciation of how landscape architecture began is regarded as central to comprehension of the modern profession.
Notes on the Top twenty theorists and designers in the history of landscape architecture and on the question What is landscape architecture?
John Claudius Loudon's included comments on Meason in his Gardener's Magazine (1828) and in his Encyclopedia of Architecture (1833). These comments transmitted the term to Andew Jackson Downing and, later, to Frederick Law Olmsted - setting the course of American landscape architecture.
Andrew Jackson Downing's Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening. (Section 1, Section 2 and Section 9). Downing was 'the first American writer on landscape architectural topics' (Norman T Newton in Design on the Land) and an 'incalcuable' influence on American garden design and landscape architecture (Oxford Companion to Gardens). Loudon's writings were his starting point.
Frederick Law Olmsted's description of his winning design for the Central Park, New York, competition (1858). Olmsted 'the father of American landscape architecture' entered the profession as a result of the Greensward Plan for Central Park, done in partnership with the English architect Calvert Vaux.
Norman T Newton's account of the scope of landscape architecture, from Design on the land.
Geoffrey Jellicoe's account of the scope of landscape design, from the Landscape of Man
Ian McHarg: notes and links on the twentieth century's outstanding landscape planner.
eTexts relating to Arts and Crafts Gardens
William Morris' essay on Hopes and fears for art in which he criticises carpet bedding and makes the point that gardens should be works of art and of craft.
Thomas Huxley's discussion of Evolution and ethics (1859), in which he views his own garden as a 'work of art' in contrast to the 'state of nature' which existed before it was made.
William Robinson The Wild Garden (1881 edn Chapters 1-5, originally published by John Murray and reproduced with their permission). Robinson is described by Jekyll (in the reference below) as 'our great champion of hardy flowers'. He urged the use of hardy plants, instead of subtropical plants and carpet bedding, in garden design. He had a sharp dispute with Blomfield (below).
John D Sedding Garden craft old and new (1891) introduced his book with a chapter on The Theory of the Garden. There are 2 chapters in the Encyclopedia .
Reginald Blomfield's The Formal garden in England (1901 edn, originally published by MacMillan and reproduced with their permission). A contemporary review in The Times said 'Mr. Blomfield's historical sketch of the art of gardening in England is full of interest and instruction, and his polemic against the so-called landscape gardeners is vigorous, incisive, and to our mind convincing.' The book is undoubtedly polemical, but commendably scholarly. Blomfield was the son of a bishop and had a hatred of modernism.
Gertrude Jekyll's account of garden design (from Wall water and woodland gardens, 1901, originally published by Country Life and reproduced with their permission). Jekyll was the most influential writer on planting design in the twentieth century. This chapter is the clearest statement of her views on the history and theory of garden design.
eTexts relating to Design Methods
Design methodology: an overview by Tom Turner
Surface water drainage and management (from Landscape Design October 1985) arguing for 'privileging' water in the design procedure
Wilderness and plenty: construction and deconstruction (from Urban Design Quarterly September 1992) arguing that the professional structure of the construction industry would benefit from deconstruction.
'Feminine' landscape design: a tale of two tragedies (from a Sheffield Spring School lecture, April 1993) arguing for the 'way of the hunter' to be balanced by the 'way of the nester'
Postmodern landscapes (from Landscape Design May 1993) arguing for landscape and garden designers to take account of postmodern ideas and theories in their work
Pattern analysis (from Landscape Design October 1991) arguing for a design method based on pattern analysis, instead of the modernist Survey-Analysis-Design (SAD) method taught in most of the world's landscape and garden design schools.
Revolutions in the garden (from Tom Turner's City as landscape, Spons 1996). After looking at the design revolutions which have taken place in the 1690s, 1790s, and 1890s this essay finds the seeds of a fourth design revolution in the work of Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe, Charles Jencks, and Ian Hamilton Finlay.
The flowers of garden design theory (from Garden Design Journal Autumn 1999, published as 'Timeless with delight') this article suggests a design method which integrates knowledge drawn from various fields, including the fine arts, philosophy, the natural and social sciences.
PAKILDA: Pattern Assisted Knowledge Intensive Landscape Design Approach (from Landscape Design May 2001). Developing the method outlined in the Garden Design Journal, this article the recommends a design method for landscape design and planning.
Design history and theory (from a lecture delivered at the University of Uppsala in April 2002) this article relates the PAKILDA method to the set of design objectives outlined by Vitruvius in the first century: utilitas (Commodity), firmitas (Firmness) and venustas (Delight).
eTexts relating to Twentieth Century Gardens
There are histories of American Garden Design in the Encyclopedia , written in 1834, 1928 and 2001.
Geoffrey Jellicoe: a collection of information on his work, including an essay by Tom Turner on: Geoffrey Jellicoe, the subconscious and landscape design (1998)
Garden Revolutions: an essay in which it is argued that 'structuralism can infuse gardens with post-Postmodern ideas and beliefs. It is a layered approach to garden making. '
Anarchy Evolution is a provocative look at the collision between religion and science, by an author with unique authority: UCLA lecturer in Paleontology, and founding member of Bad Religion, Greg Graffin. Alongside science writer Steve Olson (whose Mapping Human History was a National Book Award finalist) Graffin delivers a powerful discussion sure to strike a chord with readers of Richard Dawkins’ The God Delusion or Christopher Hitchens God Is Not Great. Bad Religion die-hards, newer fans won over during the band’s 30th Anniversary Tour, and anyone interested in this increasingly important debate should check out this treatise on science from the god of punk rock.
With its geographic spread and long history, Islamic art was subject to a wide range of regional and even national styles and influences, as well as changes within the various periods of its development throughout history.
The principles of the religion of Islam where applied to local culture, each region of the Islamic world flourishing at various periods in Islam’s history producing a unique style.
This Photography Book presents that Art in it's full richness and beauty in a landscape layout.
Visit the forum and blog @ http://SunnahMuakadah.com/
Use SketchUp more efficiently by taking advantage of components and groupsLearn new techniques for using Follow Me, Intersect, and constraintsGo beyond simple textures with tools such as texture positioning and Photo MatchCreate animations and walkthroughs, and explore design scenarios by using layers and scenesLearn how to use styles to customize your presentationsCombine SketchUp with the 3D Warehouse and Google Earth
Google SketchUp Cookbook is ideal for architects, engineers, interior designers, product designers, woodworkers, and other professionals and hobbyists who want to work more efficiently and achieve true mastery of this amazing tool.
Methods of Early Golf Architecture Includes:
- Characteristics of a Golf Architect
- Psychology of Design
- Deciding Where to Build
- The Design Process
- Utilizing Natural Features
- Teeing Grounds
- Through the Green
- Greens and Greenkeeping
- Ideal Holes
- The Construction Process
- Overseeing Construction
“A golf architect must be a student of agriculture, understand nature, have a knowledge of soils, knowledge of implements, drainage, and above all the particular character of the layout which tantalizes a lover of the game and holds him spellbound.”
– C.B. Macdonald
Psychology of Design
“How deadly dull are two or three holes of the same character when they follow each other! A drive and pitch followed by a drive and pitch is a good deal like serving a watery pudding after a watery soup.”
– Robert Hunter
“The ability to create is to consider all the problems of a golf course. The architect must visualize the effect his work will produce from all angles of the game.”
– George C. Thomas Utilizing Natural Features
"Now and then one finds a hole of real distinction which nature herself has modeled, and to add anything artificial would be a crime.”
– Robert Hunter
The Sakuteiki, or "Records of Garden Making," was written nearly one thousand years ago. It is the oldest existing text on Japanese gardening—or any kind of gardening—in the world. In this edition of the Sakuteiki the authors provide an English-language translation of this classic work and an introduction to the cultural and historical context that led to the development of Japanese gardening. Central to this explanation is an understanding of the sacred importance of stones in Japanese culture and Japanese garden design.
Written by a Japanese court noble during the Heian period (794-1184), the Sakuteiki includes both technical advice on gardening—much of which is still followed in today's Japanese gardens—and an examination of the four central threads of allegorical meaning, which were integral features of Heian-era garden design. For those seeking inspiration to build a rock garden or just better understand the Japanese stone garden, the Sakuteiki is an enduring classic.
At the heart of a Japanese garden is harmony with nature. More than simply a landscape of trees and flowering shrubs, a Japanese garden provides a place of serenity and rest, filled with peaceful spots that lend themselves to meditation and contemplation. Japanese Gardens celebrates and illustrates this ideal, showcasing the exquisite natural beauty of more than 20 quintessentially Japanese gardens—big and small, urban and rural, traditional and contemporary.
The expert author-and-photographer team behind this book excels at capturing and explaining the essential elements and techniques that distinguish Japanese garden design from that of other countries. The featured sites reflect a cross section of Japanese culture and history including large feudal period gardens, temple and Zen gardens and private countryside gardens. The mountain flower garden, tea garden, rock garden and bonsai garden alike are all celebrated and appreciated in this beautiful book.
As development and subsequent habitat destruction accelerate, there are increasing pressures on wildlife populations. But there is an important and simple step toward reversing this alarming trend: Everyone with access to a patch of earth can make a significant contribution toward sustaining biodiversity. There is an unbreakable link between native plant species and native wildlife—native insects cannot, or will not, eat alien plants. When native plants disappear, the insects disappear, impoverishing the food source for birds and other animals. In many parts of the world, habitat destruction has been so extensive that local wildlife is in crisis and may be headed toward extinction.
Bringing Nature Home has sparked a national conversation about the link between healthy local ecosystems and human well-being, and the new paperback edition—with an expanded resource section and updated photos—will help broaden the movement. By acting on Douglas Tallamy's practical recommendations, everyone can make a difference.
Back in America after twenty years in Britain, Bill Bryson decided to reacquaint himself with his native country by walking the 2,100-mile Appalachian Trail, which stretches from Georgia to Maine. The AT offers an astonishing landscape of silent forests and sparkling lakes—and to a writer with the comic genius of Bill Bryson, it also provides endless opportunities to witness the majestic silliness of his fellow human beings.
For a start there's the gloriously out-of-shape Stephen Katz, a buddy from Iowa along for the walk. Despite Katz's overwhelming desire to find cozy restaurants, he and Bryson eventually settle into their stride, and while on the trail they meet a bizarre assortment of hilarious characters. But A Walk in the Woods is more than just a laugh-out-loud hike. Bryson's acute eye is a wise witness to this beautiful but fragile trail, and as he tells its fascinating history, he makes a moving plea for the conservation of America's last great wilderness. An adventure, a comedy, and a celebration, A Walk in the Woods has become a modern classic of travel literature.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
If chaos theory transformed our view of the universe, biomimicry is transforming our life on Earth. Biomimicry is innovation inspired by nature – taking advantage of evolution’s 3.8 billion years of R&D since the first bacteria. Biomimics study nature’s best ideas: photosynthesis, brain power, and shells – and adapt them for human use. They are revolutionising how we invent, compute, heal ourselves, harness energy, repair the environment, and feed the world.
Science writer and lecturer Janine Benyus names and explains this phenomenon. She takes us into the lab and out in the field with cutting-edge researchers as they stir vats of proteins to unleash their computing power; analyse how electrons zipping around a leaf cell convert sunlight into fuel in trillionths of a second; discover miracle drugs by watching what chimps eat when they’re sick; study the hardy prairie as a model for low-maintenance agriculture; and more.
On the afternoon of August 20, 1910, a battering ram of wind moved through the drought-stricken national forests of Washington, Idaho, and Montana, whipping the hundreds of small blazes burning across the forest floor into a roaring inferno that jumped from treetop to ridge as it raged, destroying towns and timber in the blink of an eye. Forest rangers had assembled nearly ten thousand men to fight the fires, but no living person had seen anything like those flames, and neither the rangers nor anyone else knew how to subdue them. Egan recreates the struggles of the overmatched rangers against the implacable fire with unstoppable dramatic force, and the larger story of outsized president Teddy Roosevelt and his chief forester, Gifford Pinchot, that follows is equally resonant. Pioneering the notion of conservation, Roosevelt and Pinchot did nothing less than create the idea of public land as our national treasure, owned by every citizen. Even as TR's national forests were smoldering they were saved: The heroism shown by his rangers turned public opinion permanently in favor of the forests, though it changed the mission of the forest service in ways we can still witness today.
This e-book includes a sample chapter of SHORT NIGHTS OF THE SHADOW CATCHER.
"Going green" is no longer a choice; it's a necessity. Developed landscapes have played a significant role in exacerbating the environmental and social problems that threaten humanity; however, they can also be part of the solution. Designing the Sustainable Site: Integrated Design Strategies for Small-Scale Sites and Residential Landscapes gives site designers and landscape architects the tools and information they need to become a driving force in the quest for sustainability.
Advocating a regenerative design approach in which built landscapes sustain and restore vital ecological functions, this book guides readers through a design process for new and redeveloped sites that not only minimizes damage to the environment but also actively helps to repair it. Designing the Sustainable Site: Assists designers in identifying and incorporating sustainable practices that have the greatest positive impact on both the project and the surrounding community, within a regional context Uses photographs, sketches, and case studies to provide a comprehensive look at successful green landscape design Illustrates how sustainable practices are relevant and applicable to projects of any size or budget Demonstrates how built environments can protect and restore ecosystem services Explains the multiple and far-reaching benefits that sustainable design solutions can provide Assists project teams in fulfilling credit requirements of green building assessment tools, such as LEED, BREEAM, or SITES
With attention to six global environmental challenges—including air pollution, urban flooding and water pollution, water shortages, invasive species, and loss of biodiversity—along with guidance on how to meet these challenges, Designing the Sustainable Site is a practical design manual for sustainable alternatives to small-scale site and residential landscape design.
Communities across the country are working to convert unused railway and canal corridors into trails for pedestrians, cyclists, horseback riders, and others, serving the needs of both recreationists and commuters alike. These multi-use trails can play a key role in improving livability, as they offer an innovative means of addressing sprawl, revitalizing urban areas, and reusing degraded lands.
Trails for the Twenty-First Century is a step-by-step guide to all aspects of the planning, design, and management of multi-use trails. Originally published in 1993, this completely revised and updated edition offers a wealth of new information including.
•discussions of recent regulations and federal programs, including ADA and TEA-21
•recently revised design standards from AASHTO
•current research on topics ranging from trail surfacing to conflict resolution
•information about designing and building trails in brownfields and other
•environmentally troubled landscapes
Also included is a new introduction that describes the importance of rail-trails to the sustainable communities movement, and an expanded discussion of maintenance costs. Enhanced with a wealth of illustrations, Trails for the Twenty-First Century provides detailed guidance on topics such as: taking a physical inventory and assessment of a site; involving the public and meeting the needs of adjacent landowners; understanding and complying with existing legislation; designing, managing, and promoting a trail; and where to go for more information. It is the only comprehensive guidebook available for planners, landscape architects, local officials, and community activists interested in creating a multi-use trail.
A sampling of cemeteries profiled:
*Hope Cemetery in Barre, Vermont, where lifelike sculptures of angels and Greek goddesses stand next to a stone soccer ball and Shell Oil truck gravemarker, all elaborately carved from local granite by immigrant Italian stonecutters.
*Spider Gates Cemetery, in Leicester, Massachusetts, a notorious Quaker burying ground famed for its frequent ghost sightings and still in use today.
*A cemetery situated on the raised median of the Interstate in Warner, New Hampshire,which was preserved in 1970 by highway planners, who constructed the roadway around it.
*Evergreen Cemetery in New Haven, Vermont, final resting place of Timothy Clark Smith, whose 1893 crypt includes a window to help him escape in case he was buried alive.
Driving directions are provided for each cemetery, and detailed maps show the location of the more obscure graveyards. This unique guide offers an intriguing way to learn about the history and culture of New England.
That is where the books of this new series come in. They present the various garden types from the perspective of contemporary landscape and garden design. Starting from the formidable beauty of the world’s most distinguished gardens, they point the way toward the essential compositional principles, the plants most commonly utilized and their most characteristic uses, and the possibilities for employing them in contemporary projects, thus providing readers with a rich source of inspiration for their own designs and creations.
The panorama of "The Chinese Garden" stretches from the surviving historical gardens all the way to such modern examples as the garden at the Bank of China in Hong Kong (designed by I. M. Pei), Ai Weiwei’s Yiwu Riverbank Park, the Garden of Flowering Fragrance in the Los Angeles, California, region and the Garden of Awakening Orchids in Portland, Oregon.
Much in the text is underpinned by landscape ecology, in contrast to the idea of landscape as only appealing to the eye or aspiring cerebrally to be fine art. Landscape and Sustainability establishes that the sustainability agenda needs a new mindset among professionals: the driving question must always be ‘is it sustainable?’ Developing theory into practice, from the global to the local scale and from issues of policy and planning through to detailed design and implementation and on to long-term maintenance and management, the contributors raise and re-examine a complex array of research, policy and professional issues and agendas to contribute to the necessary ongoing debate about the future of both landscape and sustainability.
Associating the changing natural world with journeys in self-understanding, and the design process with a visual and spatial autobiography, this book describes journeys between London and the North Sea in successive centuries, analysing an enduring and evolving tradition from the picturesque and romanticism to modernism. Creative architects have often looked to the past to understand the present and imagine the future. Twenty-first-century architects need to appreciate the shock of the old as well as the shock of the new.
A major advance of Geomorphology in recent decades is the development of techniques that make it possible to quantify morphogenetic processes and rates at which forms change under different environmental conditions. The development of Geochronology, or absolute dating methods, is helping us correct the limitations of relative dating that have prevailed in Geomorphology for many years. The ability to assign numerical ages to both landforms and deposits opens up multiple possibilities for reconstructing the evolution of relief, making correlations, calculating rates, and estimating recurrence periods.
A theme of major concern facing people today is the possible warming of the planet due to the release of greenhouse gases into the environment. Investigations conducted by the scientific community show that this temperature increase is at least partially anthropogenic. Given this more-than-probable cause and effect relationship, the most sensible and prudent path is to design and apply mitigation measures to alleviate this heating that can negatively affect both the natural environment and human society. The information that Geomorphology can provide on the recent past (Historical Geomorphology) may be very useful in making predictions on the activity of these potentially dangerous processes in the future and on the possible effects of environmental changes.
The aim of this book is to provide a general vision of the multiple aspects of Geomorphology and to provide a methodological foundation to approach the study of various branches of geomorphology. To this end, the book contains a basic bibliography that can be used for future research. In addition, applied aspects of Geomorphology are covered at the end of each chapter to provide knowledge of the activities of geomorphologists in the professional world.