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From a physical perspective, a DMA of a given order is defined as an array that measures the differential acoustic pressure field of that order; such an array has a beampattern in the form of a polynomial whose degree is equal to the DMA order. Therefore, the fundamental and core problem of differential beamforming boils down to the design of beampatterns with orthogonal polynomials. But certain constraints also have to be considered so that the resulting beamformer does not seriously amplify the sensors’ self noise and the mismatches among sensors.

Accordingly, the book subsequently revisits several performance criteria, which can be used to evaluate the performance of the derived differential beamformers. Next, differential beamforming is placed in a framework of optimization and linear system solving, and it is shown how different beampatterns can be designed with the help of this optimization framework. The book then presents several approaches to the design of differential beamformers with the maximum DMA order, with the control of the white noise gain, and with the control of both the frequency invariance of the beampattern and the white noise gain. Lastly, it elucidates a joint optimization method that can be used to derive differential beamformers that not only deliver nearly frequency-invariant beampatterns, but are also robust to sensors’ self noise.

The advantage of using the interframe correlation is that we can improve not only the long-time fullband SNR, but the frame-wise subband SNR as well. The third and fourth classes discuss the problem of multichannel noise reduction in the STFT domain with and without interframe correlation, respectively. In the last category, we consider the interband correlation in the design of the noise reduction filters. We illustrate the basic principle for the single-channel case as an example, while this concept can be generalized to other scenarios. In all categories, we propose different optimization cost functions from which we derive the optimal filters and we also define the performance measures that help analyzing them.

Acoustic MIMO Signal Processing is divided into two major parts - the theoretical and the practical. The authors begin by introducing an acoustic MIMO paradigm, establishing the fundamental of the field, and linking acoustic MIMO signal processing with the concepts of classical signal processing and communication theories in terms of system identification, equalization, and adaptive algorithms. In the second part of the book, a novel and penetrating analysis of aforementioned acoustic applications is carried out in the paradigm to reinforce the fundamental concepts of acoustic MIMO signal processing.

Acoustic MIMO Signal Processing is a timely and important professional reference for researchers and practitioners from universities and a wide range of industries. It is also an excellent text for graduate students who are interested in this exciting field.

Acoustic MIMO Signal Processing is divided into two major parts - the theoretical and the practical. The authors begin by introducing an acoustic MIMO paradigm, establishing the fundamental of the field, and linking acoustic MIMO signal processing with the concepts of classical signal processing and communication theories in terms of system identification, equalization, and adaptive algorithms. In the second part of the book, a novel and penetrating analysis of aforementioned acoustic applications is carried out in the paradigm to reinforce the fundamental concepts of acoustic MIMO signal processing.

Acoustic MIMO Signal Processing is a timely and important professional reference for researchers and practitioners from universities and a wide range of industries. It is also an excellent text for graduate students who are interested in this exciting field.

This book bridges the gap between these two classes of methods by showing how the ideas behind subspace methods can be incorporated into traditional linear filtering. In the context of subspace methods, the enhancement problem can then be seen as a classical linear filter design problem. This means that various solutions can more easily be compared and their performance bounded and assessed in terms of noise reduction and speech distortion. The book shows how various filter designs can be obtained in this framework, including the maximum SNR, Wiener, LCMV, and MVDR filters, and how these can be applied in various contexts, like in single-channel and multichannel speech enhancement, and in both the time and frequency domains.

First short book treating subspace approaches in a unified way for time and frequency domains, single-channel, multichannel, as well as binaural, speech enhancementBridges the gap between optimal filtering methods and subspace approachesIncludes original presentation of subspace methods from different perspectivesIn this book, we extend all these fundamental ideas to circular microphone arrays and show that we can design small and compact differential arrays of any order that can be electronically steered in many different directions and offer a good degree of control of the white noise amplification problem, high directional gain, and frequency-independent response. We also present a number of practical examples, demonstrating that differential beamforming with circular microphone arrays is likely one of the best candidates for applications involving speech enhancement (i.e., noise reduction and dereverberation). Nearly all of the material presented is new and will be of great interest to engineers, students, and researchers working with microphone arrays and their applications in all types of telecommunications, security and surveillance contexts.

for the design, implementation, and performance analysis of DMAs. The theory includes some signal processing techniques for the design of commonly used first-order, second-order, third-order, and also the general Nth-order DMAs. For each order, particular examples are given on how to form standard directional patterns such as the dipole, cardioid, supercardioid, hypercardioid, subcardioid, and quadrupole. The study demonstrates the performance of the different order DMAs in terms of beampattern, directivity factor, white noise gain, and gain for point sources. The inherent relationship between differential processing and adaptive beamforming is discussed, which provides a better understanding of DMAs and why they can achieve high directional gain. Finally, we show how to design DMAs that can be robust against white noise amplification.

The proposed book deals with the fundamental challenges of speech processing in modern communication, including speech enhancement, interference suppression, acoustic echo cancellation, relative transfer function identification, source localization, dereverberation, and beamforming in reverberant environments.

Enhancement of speech signals is necessary whenever the source signal is corrupted by noise. In highly non-stationary noise environments, noise transients, and interferences may be extremely annoying. Acoustic echo cancellation is used to eliminate the acoustic coupling between the loudspeaker and the microphone of a communication device. Identification of the relative transfer function between sensors in response to a desired speech signal enables to derive a reference noise signal for suppressing directional or coherent noise sources. Source localization, dereverberation, and beamforming in reverberant environments further enable to increase the intelligibility of the near-end speech signal.

Acoustic Array Systems: Theory, Implementation, and Application provides an overview of microphone array technology with applications in noise source identification and sound field visualization. In the comprehensive treatment of microphone arrays, the topics covered include an introduction to the theory, far-field and near-field array signal processing algorithms, practical implementations, and common applications: vehicles, computing and communications equipment, compressors, fans, and household appliances, and hands-free speech. The author concludes with other emerging techniques and innovative algorithms.

Encompasses theoretical background, implementation considerations and application know-how Shows how to tackle broader problems in signal processing, control, and transudcers Covers both farfield and nearfield techniques in a balanced way Introduces innovative algorithms including equivalent source imaging (NESI) and high-resolution nearfield arrays Selected code examples available for download for readers to practice on their own Presentation slides available for instructor useA valuable resource for Postgraduates and researchers in acoustics, noise control engineering, audio engineering, and signal processing.

After providing the fundamentals for ISAR imaging, the book gives the detailed imaging procedures for ISAR imaging with associated MATLAB functions and codes. To enhance the image quality in ISAR imaging, several imaging tricks and fine-tuning procedures such as zero-padding and windowing are also presented. Finally, various real applications of ISAR imagery, like imaging the antenna-platform scattering, are given in a separate chapter. For all these algorithms, MATLAB codes and figures are included. The final chapter considers advanced concepts and trends in ISAR imaging.

As fields like communications, speech and image processing, and related areas are rapidly developing, the FFT as one of the essential parts in digital signal processing has been widely used. Thus there is a pressing need from instructors and students for a book dealing with the latest FFT topics.

Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications provides a thorough and detailed explanation of important or up-to-date FFTs. It also has adopted modern approaches like MATLAB examples and projects for better understanding of diverse FFTs.

Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications is designed for senior undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, engineers, and scientists in the field, and self-learners to understand FFTs and directly apply them to their fields, efficiently. It is designed to be both a text and a reference. Thus examples, projects and problems all tied with MATLAB, are provided for grasping the concepts concretely. It also includes references to books and review papers and lists of applications, hardware/software, and useful websites. By including many figures, tables, bock diagrams and graphs, this book helps the reader understand the concepts of fast algorithms readily and intuitively. It provides new MATLAB functions and MATLAB source codes. The material in Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications is presented without assuming any prior knowledge of FFT. This book is for any professional who wants to have a basic understanding of the latest developments in and applications of FFT. It provides a good reference for any engineer planning to work in this field, either in basic implementation or in research and development.

The main thrust of the material is analog circuitry, focusing on fundamental principles of transistors, integrated circuit and vacuum tube-based amplifier operation and theory, and operation of typical guitar signal processing effects circuits. Updated to the new edition include:

• New coverage of tone control circuits, MOSFETS and their applications as small-signal amplifiers, rail splitters and charge pumps, amplifiers using germanium transistors, and tube power amp design

• Expanded coverage of numerous subjects such as vacuum tube power supplies, the digital oscilloscope, Darlington and Sziklai transistors, and signal spectra and transfer function symmetry

• Additional examples of various circuits such as overdrive, distortion, chorus, delay, tremolo and auto-wah circuits as well as amplifier design

Electronics for Guitarists is ideal for the musician or engineer interested in analog signal processing. The material is also useful to general electronics hobbyists, technologists and engineers with an interest in guitar and music-related electronics applications.

The new edition includes: modifications to about 30-40% of the end of chapter problems; a new introduction to electromagnetics based on behavior of charges; a new section on units; MATLAB tools for solution of problems and demonstration of subjects; most chapters include a summary. The book is an undergraduate textbook at the Junior level, intended for required classes in electromagnetics. It is written in simple terms with all details of derivations included and all steps in solutions listed. It requires little beyond basic calculus and can be used for self-study. The wealth of examples and alternative explanations makes it very approachable by students.

· More than 400 examples and exercises, exercising every topic in the book

· · Includes 600 end-of-chapter problems, many of them applications or simplified applications

· · Discusses the finite element, finite difference and method of moments in a dedicated chapter

Additional highlights include:

- Fundamental information on communications, signal and system theories

- Coverage of superheterodyne, direct-conversion, low-IF, and band-pass sampling radio architectures

- Frequency planning, system link budgeting, and performance evaluation of transmitters and receivers

- Nonlinearity effect analyses involving intermodulation, interferer blocking, spectrum regrowth and modulation

- Approaches for specifying RF ASICs on which mobile systems are built

- AGC systems, ADC dynamic range consideration and power management are addressed

- In-depth treatment of both theoretical and practical aspects of mobile station RF system design

This comprehensive reference work covers a wide range of topics from general principles of communication theory, as it applies to digital radio designs to specific examples on implementing multimode mobile systems. Wireless engineering professionals will definitely find this an invaluable reference book.

Optical engineering is the branch of physics that covers study of the science of light and deals with the applications of optics. Optical engineers focuses on the optical instruments such as various types of lenses, spherical mirrors, convex mirror, concave mirror, microscopes, telescopes, and other components which uses the properties of light. Some technical instruments are optical design systems, lasers lights, optical fiber and etc.

Topics covers in this book are Principles of Optical Engineering, Mirrors and Prisms, Formation of Image, Concept of Eye, Aberrations, Apertures and Stops, Photometry and Radiometry, Basic Optical Devices, Optical Materials, and Design of Optical Systems.

For more books visit: knowledgeflow.in

Video decoding is an example of an application domain with increasing computational requirements every new generation. This is due, on the one hand, to the trend towards high quality video systems (high definition and frame rate, 3D displays, etc) that results in a continuous increase in the amount of data that has to be processed in real-time. On the other hand, there is the requirement to maintain high compression efficiency which is only possible with video codes like H.264/AVC that use advanced coding techniques.

In this book, the parallelization of H.264/AVC decoding is presented as a case study of parallel programming. H.264/AVC decoding is an example of a complex application with many levels of dependencies, different kernels, and irregular data structures. The book presents a detailed methodology for parallelization of this type of applications. It begins with a description of the algorithm, an analysis of the data dependencies and an evaluation of the different parallelization strategies. Then the design and implementation of a novel parallelization approach is presented that is scalable to many core architectures. Experimental results on different parallel architectures are discussed in detail. Finally, an outlook is given on parallelization opportunities in the upcoming HEVC standard.

Due to its inherent time-scale locality characteristics, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has received considerable attention in digital signal processing (speech and image processing), communication, computer science and mathematics. Wavelet transforms are known to have excellent energy compaction characteristics and are able to provide perfect reconstruction. Therefore, they are ideal for signal/image processing. The shifting (or translation) and scaling (or dilation) are unique to wavelets. Orthogonality of wavelets with respect to dilations leads to multigrid representation.

The nature of wavelet computation forces us to carefully examine the implementation methodologies. As the computation of DWT involves filtering, an efficient filtering process is essential in DWT hardware implementation. In the multistage DWT, coefficients are calculated recursively, and in addition to the wavelet decomposition stage, extra space is required to store the intermediate coefficients. Hence, the overall performance depends significantly on the precision of the intermediate DWT coefficients.

This work presents new implementation techniques of DWT, that are efficient in terms of computation requirement, storage requirement, and with better signal-to-noise ratio in the reconstructed signal.

The book proposes novel 3D feature representations called Point Feature Histograms (PFH), as well as a frameworks for the acquisition and processing of Semantic 3D Object Maps with contributions to robust registration, fast segmentation into regions, and reliable object detection, categorization, and reconstruction. These contributions have been fully implemented and empirically evaluated on different robotic systems, and have been the original kernel to the widely successful open-source project the Point Cloud Library (PCL) -- see http://pointclouds.org.

Vein Pattern Recognition: A Privacy-Enhancing Biometric provides a comprehensive and practical look at biometrics in general and at vein pattern recognition specifically. It discusses the emergence of this reliable but underutilized technology and evaluates its capabilities and benefits. The author, Chuck Wilson, an industry veteran with more than 25 years of experience in the biometric and electronic security fields, examines current and emerging VPR technology along with the myriad applications of this dynamic technology. Wilson explains the use of VPR and provides an objective comparison of the different biometric methods in use today—including fingerprint, eye, face, voice recognition, and dynamic signature verification.

Highlighting current VPR implementations, including its widespread acceptance and use for identity verification in the Japanese banking industry, the text provides a complete examination of how VPR can be used to protect sensitive information and secure critical facilities. Complete with best-practice techniques, the book supplies invaluable guidance on selecting the right combination of biometric technologies for specific applications and on properly implementing VPR as part of an overall security system.

The author has maintained two open-source MATLAB Toolboxes for more than 10 years: one for robotics and one for vision. The key strength of the Toolboxes provide a set of tools that allow the user to work with real problems, not trivial examples. For the student the book makes the algorithms accessible, the Toolbox code can be read to gain understanding, and the examples illustrate how it can be used —instant gratification in just a couple of lines of MATLAB code. The code can also be the starting point for new work, for researchers or students, by writing programs based on Toolbox functions, or modifying the Toolbox code itself.

The purpose of this book is to expand on the tutorial material provided with the toolboxes, add many more examples, and to weave this into a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. The author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code, and hopefully to inspire up and coming researchers. The topics covered are guided by the real problems observed over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes a lot of Matlab examples and figures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of robot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and epipolar geometry, and bring it all together in a visual servo system.

Additional material is provided at http://www.petercorke.com/RVC

*heavy reliance on computer simulation for illustration and student exercises

*the incorporation of MATLAB programs and code segments

*discussion of discrete random variables followed by continuous random variables to minimize confusion

*summary sections at the beginning of each chapter

*in-line equation explanations

*warnings on common errors and pitfalls

*over 750 problems designed to help the reader assimilate and extend the concepts

Intuitive Probability and Random Processes using MATLAB® is intended for undergraduate and first-year graduate students in engineering. The practicing engineer as well as others having the appropriate mathematical background will also benefit from this book.

About the Author

Steven M. Kay is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Rhode Island and a leading expert in signal processing. He has received the Education Award "for outstanding contributions in education and in writing scholarly books and texts..." from the IEEE Signal Processing society and has been listed as among the 250 most cited researchers in the world in engineering.

The book is designed as a teaching text for the senior undergraduate and postgraduate student, and as a fundamental treatment for those engaged in research using digital image processing in remote sensing. The presentation level is for the mathematical non-specialist. Since the very great number of operational users of remote sensing come from the earth sciences communities, the text is pitched at a level commensurate with their background.

Each chapter covers the pros and cons of digital remotely sensed data, without detailed mathematical treatment of computer based algorithms, but in a manner conductive to an understanding of their capabilities and limitations. Problems conclude each chapter.

This comprehensive, reader-friendly volume offers readers a high-level orientation, discussing the foundations of the field and presenting both the classical work and the most recent results. It covers an extremely rich array of topics including not only syntax and semantics but also phonology and morphology, probabilistic approaches, complexity, learnability, and the analysis of speech and handwriting.

As the first text of its kind, this innovative book will be a valuable tool and reference for those in information science (information retrieval and extraction, search engines) and in natural language technologies (speech recognition, optical character recognition, HCI). Exercises suitable for advanced readers are included as well as suggestions for further reading and an extensive bibliography.

"I'm pleased and impressed. The book is very readable, often entertaining---it tells what the issues are, what they are called, in what health they are, where more meat can be found. Given the enormous amount of material and concepts touched on, and the technical difficulties lying under the surface almost everywhere, the book betrays scholarship in a matter-of-fact way, making due impression on, but without clobbering, the reader. This is a book that invites READING THROUGH...".

Professor Tommaso Toffoli, Boston University, USA

"It is a remarkable achievement, essential reading for every linguist who aspires to be well informed about applications of mathematics in the language sciences."

Professor Geoffrey Pullum, University of Edinburgh, UK

"I really liked this book. First, it is written very well and secondly, the author has taken a rather non-standard but very attractive approach to mathematical linguistics. It is very refreshing."

Professor Aravind K. Joshi, University of Pennsylvania, USA

—Tom Vanderbilt, New York Times bestselling author of Traffic

In Tubes, Andrew Blum, a correspondent at Wired magazine, takes us on an engaging, utterly fascinating tour behind the scenes of our everyday lives and reveals the dark beating heart of the Internet itself. A remarkable journey through the brave new technological world we live in, Tubes is to the early twenty-first century what Soul of a New Machine—Tracy Kidder’s classic story of the creation of a new computer—was to the late twentieth.

--Hans Camenzind, inventor of the 555 timer (the world's most successful integrated circuit), and author of Much Ado About Almost Nothing: Man's Encounter with the Electron (Booklocker.com)

"A fabulous book: well written, well paced, fun, and informative. I also love the sense of humor. It's very good at disarming the fear. And it's gorgeous. I'll be recommending this book highly."

--Tom Igoe, author of Physical Computing and Making Things Talk

Want to learn the fundamentals of electronics in a fun, hands-on way? With Make: Electronics, you'll start working on real projects as soon as you crack open the book. Explore all of the key components and essential principles through a series of fascinating experiments. You'll build the circuits first, then learn the theory behind them!

Build working devices, from simple to complex You'll start with the basics and then move on to more complicated projects. Go from switching circuits to integrated circuits, and from simple alarms to programmable microcontrollers. Step-by-step instructions and more than 500 full-color photographs and illustrations will help you use -- and understand -- electronics concepts and techniques.

Discover by breaking things: experiment with components and learn from failure Set up a tricked-out project space: make a work area at home, equipped with the tools and parts you'll need Learn about key electronic components and their functions within a circuit Create an intrusion alarm, holiday lights, wearable electronic jewelry, audio processors, a reflex tester, and a combination lock Build an autonomous robot cart that can sense its environment and avoid obstacles Get clear, easy-to-understand explanations of what you're doing and whyThe first chapter outlines the evolution of DSCs, their basic structure, and their major application classes. The next few chapters discuss high-quality optics that meet the requirements of better image sensors, the basic functions and performance parameters of image sensors, and detailed discussions of both CCD and CMOS image sensors. The book then discusses how color theory affects the uses of DSCs, presents basic image processing and camera control algorithms and examples of advanced image processing algorithms, explores the architecture and required performance of signal processing engines, and explains how to evaluate image quality for each component described. The book closes with a look at future technologies and the challenges that must be overcome to realize them.

With contributions from many active DSC experts, Image Sensors and Image Processing for Digital Still Cameras offers unparalleled real-world coverage and opens wide the door for future innovation.