Building on current theoretical and practical frameworks for English language assessment and testing, this book presents a comprehensive, up-to-date, relevant picture of English language assessment for students in China (Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan) and for Chinese learners of English around the world. Written by well-recognized international scholars in language testing, it covers:
the history of tests and testing systems, issues and challenges, and current research in China
both test-designers’ and test-users’ points of view on test development and test validation within a range of political, economical, social, and financial contexts in China
theoretical/conceptual perspectives on the use of the English language assessment at different levels, including societal, university, and schools
empirical research related specifically to test development, curricular innovation, and test validation
Given the long history of objective testing and its extensive use in Chinese society, and considering the sheer number of students taking various tests in English in China and elsewhere, an understanding of the impact of English language testing is essential for anyone involved in testing and assessment issues in China and elsewhere in the world. This is a must-read volume for testing and assessment policy makers, curriculum designers, researchers, ESL/EFL materials writers, graduate students, and English language teachers/researchers at all levels.
In the field of language testing, researchers' major interest has traditionally been focused on issues and solving problems inherent in tests in order to increase their reliability and validity. However, the washback effect goes well beyond the test itself to include factors, such as curriculum, teacher and learner behaviors inside and outside the classroom, their perceptions of the test, and how test scores are used. Only recently have researchers started to empirically investigate the phenomenon of washback. This volume of such research serves two essential purposes by:
*providing an overview of the complexity of washback and the various contextual factors entangled within testing, teaching, and learning; and
*presenting empirical studies from around the world that offer insights into the effects of washback in specific educational contexts and models of research on which future studies can be based.
The extensive use of test scores for various educational and social purposes in society nowadays makes the washback effect a high-interest phenomenon in the day-to-day educational activities of teachers, researchers, program coordinators/directors, policymakers, and others in the field of education. Washback in Language Testing: Research Contexts and Methods is a valuable resource for those who are interested in the application of findings to actual teaching and learning situations or conduct washback research in their own contexts, including educational and psychological testing experts, as well as alternative assessment people in all fields, and for policy- and decision-makers in educational and testing organizations.
In a handful of nations, virtually all children are learning to make complex arguments and solve problems they’ve never seen before. They are learning to think, in other words, and to thrive in the modern economy. Inspired to find answers for our own children, author and Time magazine journalist Amanda Ripley follows three Americans embedded in these countries for one year. Kim, fifteen, raises $10,000 so she can move from Oklahoma to Finland; Eric, eighteen, trades his high-achieving Minnesota suburb for a booming city in South Korea; and Tom, seventeen, leaves a historic Pennsylvania village for Poland.
Through these young informants, Ripley meets battle-scarred reformers, sleep-deprived zombie students, and a teacher who earns $4 million a year. Their stories, along with groundbreaking research into learning in other cultures, reveal a pattern of startling transformation: none of these countries had many “smart” kids a few decades ago. Things had changed. Teaching had become more rigorous; parents had focused on things that mattered; and children had bought into the promise of education.
Originally published in 1940, this book is a rare phenomenon, a living classic that introduces and elucidates the various levels of reading and how to achieve them—from elementary reading, through systematic skimming and inspectional reading, to speed reading. Readers will learn when and how to “judge a book by its cover,” and also how to X-ray it, read critically, and extract the author’s message from the text.
Also included is instruction in the different techniques that work best for reading particular genres, such as practical books, imaginative literature, plays, poetry, history, science and mathematics, philosophy and social science works.
Finally, the authors offer a recommended reading list and supply reading tests you can use measure your own progress in reading skills, comprehension, and speed.
New to This Edition
*Reflects over a decade of advances in research-based vocabulary instruction.
*Chapters on vocabulary and writing; assessment; and differentiating instruction for struggling readers and English language learners, including coverage of response to intervention (RTI).
*Expanded discussions of content-area vocabulary and multiple-meaning words.
*Many additional examples showing what robust instruction looks like in action.
*Appendix with a useful menu of instructional activities.
See also the authors' Creating Robust Vocabulary: Frequently Asked Questions and Extended Examples, which includes specific instructional sequences for different grade ranges, as well as Making Sense of Phonics, Second Edition: The Hows and Whys, by Isabel L. Beck and Mark E. Beck, an invaluable resource for K-3.
New subtests are described along with tips for accurate administration and scoring. Full Scale IQ is identified as important for predicting relevant behaviors, and primary index scores for characterizing the child’s strengths and weaknesses. Classroom indicators of low scores on each of these abilities are identified, with suggested interventions, accommodations, and instructional strategies for low scorers. Coverage includes ethnic differences for the Full Scale IQ and each primary index score, along with evidence of the profound influence of parental attitudes and expectations. Several other societal and contextual factors relevant to understanding racial/ethnic differences are presented. Two chapters review use of the WISC-V for identifying learning disabilities, testing of individuals with dyslexia, and best-practice recommendations to ensure accurate diagnosis and intervention. Concluding chapters describe advances in the Q-interactive system platform allowing administration of the WISC-V on iPads and other tablets and how clinicians can tailor assessment using select WISC-V subtests and features.Authored by the creators of the WISC-VDescribes the new subtests, revised test structure, and test extensionsAdvises clinicians on test selection and custom tailoring of assessment measuresProvides best practice recommendations for accurate administration and scoringAddresses electronic administration via tablets and comparison to print scoresReviews social/contextual factors for understanding racial/ethnic differencesTranslates scores to predict behaviors and identify child strengths and weaknessesSuggests interventions, accommodations, and instructional strategies for low scorers
Using the Association of College and Research Libraries' Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education as a framework, this much-needed sourcebook covers all the major facets of the information literacy process. For students, it is a ready-to-use guide that explains what information literacy is, why it is so important, and how to put it to use in both print and online research. For teachers, it is a helpful classroom resource that can serve as the basis for an information literacy course, a supplemental text, or a handy reference for research in any subject.
The Common Core Connections series provides teachers with a skill assessment and analysis to help determine individualized instruction needs. Focused, comprehensive practice pages and self-assessments guide students to reflection and exploration for deeper learning! Standards correlations are printed on each page to make planning and documentation simple. This series is an ideal resource for differentiation and remediation. Each 96-page book includes a skill assessment, assessment analysis, Common Core State Standards Alignment Matrix, and answer key.
This new series will allow teachers to present the same content to below-level, on-level, and advanced students with these leveled nonfiction stories. It includes multiple-choice, fill-in-the-blank, and true/false questions; short-answer writing practice; and comprehension questions. Students stay interested, build confidence, and discover that reading can be fun! The reading passages will be separated into sections with titles such as Extreme Places, Amazing People, Wild Animals, Strange and Unexplained, Fascinating Machines, and Amazing Kids.
New to This Edition
*Chapter on assessing vocabulary.
*Additional instruments, including the Informal Decoding Inventory and the Motivation to Read Profile--Revised.
*Links to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been added throughout.
*The latest research and more instructional strategies in every area.
See also Reading Assessment in an RTI Framework, which offers systematic guidance for conducting assessments in all three tiers of RTI.
A critical read for teachers and parents who want to improve children’s mathematics learning, What’s Math Got to Do with It? is “an inspiring resource” (Publishers Weekly). Featuring all the important advice and suggestions in the original edition of What’s Math Got to Do with It?, this revised edition is now updated with new research on the brain and mathematics that is revolutionizing scientists’ understanding of learning and potential.
As always Jo Boaler presents research findings through practical ideas that can be used in classrooms and homes. The new What’s Math Got to Do with It? prepares teachers and parents for the Common Core, shares Boaler’s work on ways to teach mathematics for a “growth mindset,” and includes a range of advice to inspire teachers and parents to give their students the best mathematical experience possible.
New to This Edition:
*Connects best practices with the requirements of the CCSS.
*Incorporates the latest research findings and instructional practices.
*Chapters on comprehending informational text, dual language learners, and new literacies.
*Expanded topics include motivation, close reading, and text complexity.
The Common Core Connections series provides teachers with the skill assessments to help determine individualized instruction needs. Focused, comprehensive practice pages and self-assessments guide students to reflection and exploration for deeper learning! Grade specific coherent content progresses in difficulty to achieve optimum fluency. It is also an ideal resource for differentiation and remediation. Each 96-page book includes an assessment test, test analysis, Common Core State Standards Alignment Matrix, and answer key.
New examples to show the kinds of critical, creative, and innovative thinking that are needed for success in the digital-age classroom.
A fifth stance added to the Envisionment-building framework toward higher-level understanding, integration, and the building of new concepts.
Filled with examples from across the grades and the voices of students and teachers, this book continues to be a practical and influential resource for the English Language Arts classroom.
Judith A. Langer is an internationally known scholar in literacy learning and Distinguished Professor at the University at Albany, State University of New York. She is the author of Getting to Excellent: How to Create Better Schools.
“[Judith Langer] pioneered the changes in the way we define the English/Language Arts curriculum.”
—English Journal (reviewing the first edition)
“Rich with narratives, Envisioning Literature provides both strong theory about teaching literature and real examples that provide a context for change….Important reading for teachers, staff development trainers, policy analysts, and reading program administrators.”
—Reading Today (reviewing the first edition)
With more than 130,000 copies in print, this valuable resource for pre- and inservice educators features:Fresh information about how children think and learn, how their language develops, and how their families, their culture, and their environment influence and help to shape them. Observations that reflect the increasingly diverse population in contemporary early childhood classrooms. The imperative for teachers to widen their lens in order to meet the needs of young children with a range of developmental capacities, abilities, and behaviors.
“Responds to new knowledge about how children think, learn and develop language, and about the influences of families, culture, and other environmental influences.”
—Zero to Three (previous edition)
Using clear explanations and poignant cases, this timely resource shows how formative assessment can be used to understand student beliefs, inform classroom instruction, and encourage student reflection. Fully revised, this second edition features:Discussion of the complex nature of learning Ways to use formative assessment in a variety of contexts Real-life examples and case studies of assessment in action Sample rubrics and lesson plans for easy implementation Ideas for Follow-up at the end of each chapter Insights into common classroom dilemmas along with viable solutions
Darrell is a reflective, brilliant young man, who never thought of himself as a good student. He always struggled with his reading and writing skills. Darrell's father, a single parent, couldn't afford private tutors. By the end of middle school, Darrell's grades and his confidence were at an all time low. Then everything changed.
When education journalist Kristina Rizga first met Darrell at Mission High School, he was taking AP calculus class, writing a ten-page research paper, and had received several college acceptance letters. And Darrell was not an exception. More than 80 percent of Mission High seniors go to college every year, even though the school teaches large numbers of English learners and students from poor families.
So, why has the federal government been threatening to close Mission High—and schools like it across the country?
The United States has been on a century long road toward increased standardization in our public schools, which resulted in a system that reduces the quality of education to primarily one metric: standardized test scores. According to this number, Mission High is a “low-performing” school even though its college enrollment, graduation, attendance rates and student surveys are some of the best in the country.
The qualities that matter the most in learning—skills like critical thinking, intellectual engagement, resilience, empathy, self-management, and cultural flexibility—can't be measured by multiple-choice questions designed by distant testing companies, Rizga argues, but they can be detected by skilled teachers in effective, personalized and humane classrooms that work for all students, not just the most motivated ones.
Based on four years of reporting with unprecedented access, the unforgettable, intimate stories in these pages throw open the doors to America's most talked about—and arguably least understood—public school classrooms where the largely invisible voices of our smart, resilient students and their committed educators can offer a clear and hopeful blueprint for what it takes to help all students succeed.
Field Application engineers need to master a wide area of topics to excel. The Test and Measurement Know It All covers every angle including Machine Vision and Inspection, Communications Testing, Compliance Testing, along with Automotive, Aerospace, and Defense testing.A 360-degree view from our best-selling authorsTopics include the Technology of Test and Measurement, Measurement System Types, and Instrumentation for Test and MeasurementThe ultimate hard-working desk reference; all the essential information, techniques and tricks of the trade in one volume
In her study, Royster acknowledges the persistence of disempowering forces in the lives of African American women and their equal perseverance against these forces. Amid these conditions, Royster views the acquisition of literacy as a dynamic moment for African American women, not only in terms of their use of written language to satisfy their general needs for agency and authority, but also to fulfill socio-political purposes as well.
Traces of a Stream is a showcase for nineteenth-century African American women, and particularly elite women, as a group of writers who are currently underrepresented in rhetorical scholarship. Royster has formulated both an analytical theory and an ideological perspective that are useful in gaining a more generative understanding of literate practices as a whole and the practices of African American women in particular. Royster tells a tale of rhetorical prowess, calling for alternative ways of seeing, reading, and rendering scholarship as she seeks to establish a more suitable place for the contributions and achievements of African American women writers.
The revised Third Edition of this indispensable classic on Piaget and teaching features a new introduction, a new chapter on critical exploration in the classroom, and a renewed belief in the need to educate children about peace and social justice.
Praise for Previous Editions!
“A striking example of how Piaget’s work could well be applied to education—to advantage and with delight.”
—School Psychology International
“As she explains in her inspiring account of the exhilarating process of teaching and learning, now we all have the opportunity to create wonderful ideas.”
“Admirably confirms Eleanor Duckworth’s ability to express complex ideas and profound insights with clarity, good sense, and relevance for classroom practice.”
—The Journal of Educational Thought
Eleanor Duckworth is Professor of Education at Harvard University. She worked with Jean Piaget for more than two decades, as a student and colleague.
The first section of the book provides an overview of the WAIS-IV, WMS-IV, and new Advanced Clinical Solutions for Use with the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV (ACS). In this section, examiners will learn:Normal versus atypical score variabilityLow-score prevalence in healthy adults versus clinical populationsAssessing whether poor performance reflects a decline in function or is the result of suboptimal effort
New social cognition measures found in the ACS are also presented. The second part focuses on applying the topics in the first section to specific clinical conditions, including recommended protocols for specific clientele (e.g. using demographically adjusted norms when evaluating individuals with brain injury). Common clinical conditions are discussed, including Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, traumatic brain injury, and more. Each chapter provides case examples applying all three test batteries and using report examples as they are obtained from the scoring assistant. Finally, the use of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV and the ACS in forensic settings is presented.Coverage of administration and scoring of WAIS-IV, WMS-IV and ACSInformation contained on the use of WAIS-IV with special populationsCase studies in each chapterWritten by the creators of WAIS-IV, WMS-IV and ACS
See also Teaching with the Common Core Standards for English Language Arts, PreK-2.
This new edition provides a comprehensive overview of assessment that is used to support learning, practice-based theory on assessment for learning, and formative assessment to support individual development and motivate learners.
With a strong list of existing and new contributors, this second edition has been updated to include the latest work on assessment. Readers will find research-informed insights from a wide variety of international contexts. It features:
- New chapters on e-assessment, the learner's perspective on assessment and learning and the influence of assessment on how we value learning
- Teacher-friendly assessment topics
- Practical examples and chapter summaries throughout
This book is useful to teacher educators and researchers on postgraduate courses in education, teaching, learning and assessment.
John Gardner is a professor of education at Queens University Belfast, and President of the British Educational Research Association.
For a large proportion of students, Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa’s answer to that question is a definitive no. Their extensive research draws on survey responses, transcript data, and, for the first time, the state-of-the-art Collegiate Learning Assessment, a standardized test administered to students in their first semester and then again at the end of their second year. According to their analysis of more than 2,300 undergraduates at twenty-four institutions, 45 percent of these students demonstrate no significant improvement in a range of skills—including critical thinking, complex reasoning, and writing—during their first two years of college. As troubling as their findings are, Arum and Roksa argue that for many faculty and administrators they will come as no surprise—instead, they are the expected result of a student body distracted by socializing or working and an institutional culture that puts undergraduate learning close to the bottom of the priority list.
Academically Adrift holds sobering lessons for students, faculty, administrators, policy makers, and parents—all of whom are implicated in promoting or at least ignoring contemporary campus culture. Higher education faces crises on a number of fronts, but Arum and Roksa’s report that colleges are failing at their most basic mission will demand the attention of us all.
The new Framework and the NGSS are designed to guide educators in significantly altering the way K-12 science is taught. The Framework is aimed at making science education more closely resemble the way scientists actually work and think, and making instruction reflect research on learning that demonstrates the importance of building coherent understandings over time. It structures science education around three dimensions - the practices through which scientists and engineers do their work, the key crosscutting concepts that cut across disciplines, and the core ideas of the disciplines - and argues that they should be interwoven in every aspect of science education, building in sophistication as students progress through grades K-12.
Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards recommends strategies for developing assessments that yield valid measures of student proficiency in science as described in the new Framework. This report reviews recent and current work in science assessment to determine which aspects of the Framework's vision can be assessed with available techniques and what additional research and development will be needed to support an assessment system that fully meets that vision. The report offers a systems approach to science assessment, in which a range of assessment strategies are designed to answer different kinds of questions with appropriate degrees of specificity and provide results that complement one another.
Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards makes the case that a science assessment system that meets the Framework's vision should consist of assessments designed to support classroom instruction, assessments designed to monitor science learning on a broader scale, and indicators designed to track opportunity to learn. New standards for science education make clear that new modes of assessment designed to measure the integrated learning they promote are essential. The recommendations of this report will be key to making sure that the dramatic changes in curriculum and instruction signaled by Framework and the NGSS reduce inequities in science education and raise the level of science education for all students.
A powerful blend of practical, theoretical, and inspirational, The Activ(ist) Learner:Provides examples that combine inquiry and service learning to help students develop and apply literacy and disciplinary knowledge.Helps teachers move from informational teaching to sociocultural apprenticeship teaching.Describes a way of teaching that develops students’ intrapersonal and interpersonal skills.Includes templates for conducting inquiry units and charts with CCSS connections.
“Our students are indeed the future trustees of our societies, so why not engage them early on in positive activism? This book, a collaborative conversation that speaks to the challenge and the opportunity that our classrooms provide us, offers an engaging look at how a shift in thinking can positively impact our future.”
—Clifton L. Taulbert, lecturer and author of Eight Habits of the Heart
“In an era where everyone has an opinion about education, Wilhelm, Douglas, and Fry take us back to the root of the word educate: to nurture and to lead forth. The Activ(ist) Learner reminds us that service learning allows teachers and students to collaborate through inquiry to ask deep, substantive questions, and then take actionable steps to make a difference in their schools, communities, and the world. If you are truly interested in education—nurturing and leading—then The Activ(ist) Learner will help you begin a transformative journey.”
—Troy Hicks, Central Michigan University
This practical book provides middle and high school teachers with explicit guidance on developing specific objectives and appropriate formative and summative assessments. After presenting an easy-to-follow model for designing objectives based on state and national content standards, the authors cover the major forms of assessment and provide detailed examples for all levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy. Teachers will learn how to:Unwrap state and national standards Write measurable objectives for unit and daily lesson plans Develop assessments in the content areas
Ability varies. Children differ in their ability to learn academic material. Doing our best for every child requires, above all else, that we embrace that simplest of truths. America’s educational system does its best to ignore it.
Half of the children are below average. Many children cannot learn more than rudimentary reading and math. Real Education reviews what we know about the limits of what schools can do and the results of four decades of policies that require schools to divert huge resources to unattainable goals.
Too many people are going to college. Almost everyone should get training beyond high school, but the number of students who want, need, or can profit from four years of residential education at the college level is a fraction of the number of young people who are struggling to get a degree. We have set up a standard known as the BA, stripped it of its traditional content, and made it an artificial job qualification. Then we stigmatize everyone who doesn’t get one. For most of America’s young people, today’s college system is a punishing anachronism.
America’s future depends on how we educate the academically gifted. An elite already runs the country, whether we like it or not. Since everything we watch, hear, and read is produced by that elite, and since every business and government department is run by that elite, it is time to start thinking about the kind of education needed by the young people who will run the country. The task is not to give them more advanced technical training, but to give them an education that will make them into wiser adults; not to pamper them, but to hold their feet to the fire.
The good news is that change is not only possible but already happening. Real Education describes the technological and economic trends that are creating options for parents who want the right education for their children, teachers who want to be free to teach again, and young people who want to find something they love doing and learn how to do it well. These are the people for whom Real Education was written. It is they, not the politicians or the educational establishment, who will bring American schools back to reality.
Twenty-four years ago, Charles Murray’s Losing Ground changed the way the nation thought about welfare. Real Education is about to do the same thing for America’s schools.
From the Hardcover edition.
Jane E. Pollock, coauthor of Classroom Instruction That Works, expands on the bestseller’s feedback strategy in this groundbreaking work. While feedback is not a new concept, what is new is using it the way people use computer apps—to set goals, track their progress, and regulate their own learning. With only a slight shift in teaching strategy, this no-cost technique:
Informs teachers while students are learning, not after Engages and motivates learners Teaches 21st-century skills Helps students understand and meet standards
New to This Edition
*Incorporates the latest research and instructional practices.
*Chapters on the CCSS, critical theory, culturally responsive instruction, and response to intervention.
*Chapters on teaching fiction and informational texts in the secondary grades.
*Expanded coverage of multimodal literacy learning.
*Timely topics such as text complexity, close reading, digital literacies, and neuroscience are discussed in multiple chapters.
Pop-up books possess universal appeal. Everyone-from preschoolers to adults-loves to see and tactilely experience the beautiful, three-dimensional work of Robert Sabuda, David A. Carter, and other pop-up book creators. Sabuda himself was inspired to become a pop-up book artist after experiencing the 1972 classic pop-up The Adventures of Super Pickle. The effect of these movable books on young minds is uniquely powerful. Besides riveting children's attention, pop-up books can also help build motor skills, teach cause and effect, and develop spatial understanding of objects
Based on their direct experience and many presentations to teachers and librarians, the authors have provided template lesson plans with curriculum and standards links for using the best pop-up books currently available in the instructional program of the school. The book also includes profiles of the most notable authors, a history of the format, definitions of terms such as "flap book: and "paper engineer," and information on how to create movable books. Librarians will find the section regarding collection development with the format-how and where to acquire them, proper storage methods-and the annotated listing of the authors' 50 favorite pop-ups extremely helpful
Designed for use by a wide-ranging audience, this Handbook not only includes perspective on the methodological and data analysis problems in longitudinal research but it also includes contributors' data sets that enable readers who lack sophisticated statistics skills to move from theories about longitudinal data into practice.
As the comprehensive reference, this Handbook has no direct competition as most books in this subject area are more narrowly specialized and are pitched at a high mathematical level.Contributors and subject areas are interdisciplinary to reach the broadest possible audience (i.e., psychology, epidemiology, and economics research fields)Summary material will be included for less sohisticated readersExtensive coverage is provided of traditional advanced topics
Winner--Literacy Research Association's Edward B. Fry Book Award
Every parent wants to give his or her child a competitive advantage. In Born Reading, publishing insider (and new dad) Jason Boog explains how that can be as simple as opening a book. Studies have shown that interactive reading—a method that creates dialogue as you read together—can raise a child’s IQ by more than six points. In fact, interactive reading can have just as much of a determining factor on a child’s IQ as vitamins and a healthy diet. But there’s no book that takes the cutting-edge research on interactive reading and shows parents, teachers, and librarians how to apply it to their day-to-day lives with kids, until now.
Born Reading provides step-by-step instructions on interactive reading and advice for developing your child’s interest in books from the time they are born. Boog has done the research, talked with the leading experts in child development, and worked with them to compile the “Born Reading Essential Books” lists, offering specific titles tailored to the interests and passions of kids from birth to age five. But reading can take many forms—print books as well as ebooks and apps—and Born Reading also includes tips on how to use technology the right way to help (not hinder) your child’s intellectual development. Parents will find advice on which educational apps best supplement their child’s development, when to start introducing digital reading to their child, and how to use tech to help create the readers of tomorrow.
Born Reading will show anyone who loves kids how to make sure the children they care about are building a powerful foundation in literacy from the beginning of life.
Part 1 examines the most commonly used polytomous IRT models, major issues that cut across these models, and a common notation for calculating functions for each model. An introduction to IRT software is also provided. Part 2 features distinct approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of polytomous IRT models in various measurement contexts. These chapters appraise evaluation procedures and fit tests and demonstrate how to implement these procedures using IRT software. The final section features groundbreaking applications. Here the goal is to provide solutions to technical problems to allow for the most effective use of these models in measuring educational, psychological, and social science abilities and traits. This section also addresses the major issues encountered when using polytomous IRT models in computerized adaptive testing. Equating test scores across different testing contexts is the focus of the last chapter. The various contexts include personality research, motor performance, health and quality of life indicators, attitudes, and educational achievement.
Featuring contributions from the leading authorities, this handbook will appeal to measurement researchers, practitioners, and students who want to apply polytomous IRT models to their own research. It will be of particular interest to education and psychology assessment specialists who develop and use tests and measures in their work, especially researchers in clinical, educational, personality, social, and health psychology. This book also serves as a supplementary text in graduate courses on educational measurement, psychometrics, or item response theory.
Each chapter begins with an overview of key material reviewed in previous chapters, concludes with a list of suggested readings, and features boxes with examples that connect theory to practice. These examples reflect actual situations that occurred in psychology, education, and other disciplines in the US and around the globe, bringing theory to life. Critical thinking questions related to the boxed material engage and challenge readers. A few examples include:
What is the difference between intelligence and IQ?
Can people disagree on issues of value but agree on issues of test validity?
Is it possible to ask the same question in two different languages?
The first part of the book contrasts theories of measurement as applied to the validity of behavioral science measures.The next part considers causal theories of measurement in relation to alternatives such as behavior domain sampling, and then unpacks the causal approach in terms of alternative theories of causation.The final section explores the meaning and interpretation of test scores as it applies to test validity. Each set of chapters opens with a review of the key theories and literature and concludes with a review of related open questions in test validity theory.
Researchers, practitioners and policy makers interested in test validity or developing tests appreciate the book's cutting edge review of test validity. The book also serves as a supplement in graduate or advanced undergraduate courses on test validity, psychometrics, testing or measurement taught in psychology, education, sociology, social work, political science, business, criminal justice and other fields. The book does not assume a background in measurement.
In this groundbreaking book, Gunther Kress considers the effects of a revolution that has radically altered the relationship between writing and the book. Taking into account social, economic, communication and technological factors, Kress explores how these changes will affect the future of literacy.
Kress considers the likely larger-level social and cultural effects of that future, arguing that the effects of the move to the screen as the dominant medium of communication will produce far-reaching shifts in terms of power - and not just in the sphere of communication. The democratic potentials and effects of the new information and communication technologies will, Kress contends, have the widest imaginable consequences.
Literacy in the New Media Age is suitable for anyone fascinated by literacy and its wider political and cultural implications. It will be of particular interest to those studying education, communication studies, media studies or linguistics.
Based on their direct experience and many presentations to teachers and librarians, the authors have provided template lesson plans with curriculum and standards links for using the best pop-up books currently available in the instructional program of the school. The book also includes profiles of the most notable authors, a history of the format, definitions of terms such as "flap book" and "paper engineer," and information on how to create movable books. Librarians will find the section regarding collection development with the format—how and where to acquire them, proper storage methods—and the annotated listing of the authors' 50 favorite pop-ups extremely helpful.