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This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems

This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications. The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced in the second edition, including:

Analysis of the Vander Pol oscillator model of laser light Coverage on coherence tomography and coherence multiplexing of fiber sensors An expansion of the chapter on imaging with partially coherent light, including several new examples An expanded section on speckle and its properties New sections on the cross-spectrum and bispectrum techniques for obtaining images free from atmospheric distortions A new section on imaging through atmospheric turbulence using coherent light The addition of the effects of “read noise” to the discussions of limitations encountered in detecting very weak optical signals A number of new problems and many new references have been added Statistical Optics, Second Edition is written for researchers and engineering students interested in optics, physicists and chemists, as well as graduate level courses in a University Engineering or Physics Department.

his thoroughly revised and updated text, now in its second edition, is primarily intended as a textbook for undergraduate students of Physics. The book provides a sound understanding of the fundamental concepts of optics adopting an integrated approach to the principles of optics. It covers the requirements of syllabi of undergraduate students in Physics and Engineering in Indian Universities.

The book includes a wide range of interesting topics such as Fermat’s principle, geometrical optics, dispersion, interference, diffraction and polarization of light waves, optical instruments and lens aberrations. It also discusses electromagnetic waves, fundamentals of vibrations and wave motion. The text explains the concepts through extensive use of line drawings and gives full derivations of essential relations. The topics are dealt with in a well-organized sequence with proper explanations along with simple mathematical formulations.

New to the SECOND Edition

• Incorporates two new chapters, i.e., ‘Fundamentals of Vibrations’, and ‘Wave Motion’
• Includes several worked-out examples to help students reinforce their comprehension of theory
• Provides Formulae at a Glance and Conceptual Questions with their answers for quick revision

• Provides several Solved Numerical Problems to help students comprehend the concepts with ease
• Includes Multiple Choice Questions and Theoretical Questions to help students check their understanding of the subject matter
• Contains unsolved Numerical Problems with answers to build problem-solving skills

Underwater vehicles and underwater moorings are increasing in tactical importance. As such, it is critical to have a robust and secure communication system connecting underwater vehicles on a long seaborne mission and a ground station. As a matter of fact, the deployment of efficient communication links with underwater vehicles is one of the greatest technological challenges presently confronted by the world's naval forces. To circumvent most of the limitations involved in the use of RF or acoustic channels for perfectly secure communications with underwater vehicles, it is worth considering the feasibility of an optical channel to facilitate a two-way satellite communication link secured via perfectly secure ciphers enabled by a quantum key distribution protocol. This book offers a concise review of underwater communications systems. Our approach is pedagogical, making a strong emphasis on the physics behind the attenuating properties of the oceanic environment and the propagation of electromagnetic signals in the ELF, VLF, and optical bands. We assume the reader is familiar with the basic principles of classical electrodynamics and optics. The system design, components, and noise analysis of an underwater optical communications device are discussed in detail. Furthermore, we offer simulations of the performance of the communication system for different types of ocean waters. Our final conclusion is that it appears to be feasible to design and build underwater communications using optical classical and quantum channels secured with quantum key distribution protocols.
A thorough account on the basics of fiber optics system design is contained in this volume. Introducing the topics from the vantage point of the student and professional electrical engineer, the aim of the text is to teach rather than merely present facts. The overall view of the text is toward practical engineering considerations including costs, and a discussion of radiation effects is associated with each appropriate chapter.

The volume begins with a history of optical communications, leading to the now widely practiced field of fiber optics. Comparisons are made to conventional media and techniques: wire-line, coaxial cable, and radio. The nature and properties of optical fiber are examined, including manufacturing techniques, and fiber types and capabilities. The theory of light guidance is introduced in steps, beginning with a slab waveguide. Solutions of Maxwell's equations are derived and explained in view of the peculiar nature of the medium. Electro-optic devices are examined, including launching and detecting devices. The properties and varieties of these devices are explored. In particular, light-emitting diodes, injection laser diodes, p-i-n diodes, and avalanche photo diodes are covered. The electronic circuits necessary to adequately serve the electro-optic devices are examined and contrasted with more conventional types.

Modulation techniques appropriate to optical fiber transmission systems are enumerated and compared. Overall system considerations are addressed, and examples are given of various systems that have been deployed, or are planned for deployment. Expectations for future developments and trends in the field are enumerated, with indications of their significance. Topics such as ultra-low-loss fiber and coherent detections techniques are discussed.

Appendices comprising an accounting of useful laboratory equipment, mathematical relations employed in the body of the text, and complete exercise solutions are included.

This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineers. The book concentrates mainly on two instruments: the Confocal Scanning Optical Microscope (CSOM), and the Optical Interference Microscope (OIM). A comprehensive discussion of the theory and design of the Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope (NSOM) is also given.

The text discusses the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the applications of these microscopes to phase imaging, biological imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A comprehensive theoretical discussion of the depth and transverse resolution is given with emphasis placed on the practical results of the theoretical calculations and how these can be used to help understand the operation of these microscopes.

Provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineersExplains many practical applications of scanning optical and interference microscopy in such diverse fields as biology and semiconductor metrologyDiscusses in theoretical terms the origin of the improved depth and transverse resolution of scanning optical and interference microscopes with emphasis on the practical results of the theoretical calculationsConsiders the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning or interference microscope and explores some of the design tradeoffs made for microscopes used in various applicationsDiscusses the theory and design of near-field optical microscopesExplains phase imaging in the scanning optical and interference microscopes
Handbook of Fiber Optic Data Communication, Third Edition provides a comprehensive, easy to use guide to the field of optical fiber data communications. Written by experts in the industry from major companies such as IBM, Cisco and Nortel, the Handbook is a key reference for optical fiber technology, networking, protocols, applications, manufacturing, and future directions. It includes chapters on all the major industry standards, written by the same experts who developed them.

This edition contains new material on transceiver form factors (QSFP, SFP +, XFP, X2), manufacturing standards, including JEDEC and RoHS, as well as the latest revisions to industry standards including 8G and 10G Fiber Channel, FICON, SONET GFP/LCAS, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The book also contains new chapters on emerging technologies and leading edge applications such as silicon photonics, nanophotonics, parallel optical interconnects, specialty fiber cable types, and optical backplanes.

Features include:

New Case Studies on Voice/Data Convergence, Redesigning Mainframe I/O, National LambdaRail, and optical peer-to-peer networksIncludes an expanded listing of references on the World Wide Web, plus hard-to-find references for international, homologation, and type approval requirementsQuick reference tables of all the key optical network parameters and a glossary that defines hundreds of technical terms and acronymsWritten for engineers by engineers, this Handbook will be an indispensable, hands-on reference for optical networks and equipment developers, designers, and installers, as well as for students studying optical fiber communications wanting an understanding of, and insight into, professional practice.New Case Studies on Voice/Data Convergence, Redesigning Mainframe I/O, National LambdaRail, and optical peer-to-peer networksIncludes an expanded listing of references on the World Wide Web, plus hard-to-find references for international, homologation, and type approval requirementsQuick reference tables of all the key optical network parameters and a glossary that defines hundreds of technical terms and acronyms
Much is known about the Leica and its history and numerous publications have appeared over the years. It thus seems incredible that a camera handmade by its inventor Oskar Barnack in the early 1920s – the “first Leica” – could re-emerge after having fallen into oblivion. This test camera finally evolved into the Leica over the course of various enhancements, leading to a very impressive success story.

Encounters with landmark events in the history of technology – the first microscope, the first calculating machine, the first explosion-proof miner’s lamp, the first steam engine, the first train, the first telegraph, the first car, the first light bulb, the first radio, to name just a few randomly selected inventions – are always ambivalent. The fascination of the “first step” competes with misgivings regarding the “teething troubles” of the prototypes, which are only cured by subsequent improvements.

When Dr. Günter Kisselbach found a relatively unknown Leica prototype, “Barnack’s handmade prototype” in his father’s Leica collection, the history of development of the 35mm camera from Wetzlar had long been written. Fortunately, the wealth of established knowledge did not deter the photography enthusiast from finding out himself that substantial “blind spots” still existed in the source area of the Leica history. His fascinating report of his experience with the camera proves conclusively what this early personal model belonging to its inventor Oskar Barnack was capable of achieving. However, this only became apparent when the handmade prototype was subjected to practical testing and had to demonstrate the requirements it was equipped to meet and the points where it reached its limits, which it was only able to overcome in the course of further development.

This book provides answers to intriguing questions:

- what happened to Oskar Barnack’s “forgotten test camera”?

- what technical secrets does this camera hold?

- can it still be used to take photos?

- what is its position in the Leica lineage?

The communications industry is at the onset of new expansion of WDM technology necessary to meet the new demand for bandwidth. This is the second of a four reference books that will cover this technology comprehensively with all of the major topics covered by a separate volumes - i.e. active components, passive components, systems and networks.

This book is the first which covers all key passive optical components required for current and next generation optical communication systems. World-renowned authors, who are pioneers in their research area, have written the chapters in their area of expertise. The book highlights not only the principle of operation and characteristics of the passive optical components, but also provides an in-depth account of the state-of-the-art system applications.

- Helps the reader to choose the right device for a given system application.

- Provides the reader with insight and understanding for key passive optical components frequently being / to be used in the optical communication systems, essential building blocks of today's/next generation fiber optic networks.

- Allows engineers working in different optical communication areas(i.e. from system to component), to understand the principle and mechanics of each key component they deal with for optical system design.

- Covers Planar lightwave circuit (PLC) based router, different optical switches technologies (based on MEMS, thermo-optic, and electro-optic) and different optical amplifier technologies (based on semiconductor optical amplifier, EDFA ,and raman amplifier).

- Highlights the operating principle of each component, system applications, and also future opportunities.
This textbook offers a complete and rigorous presentation of the fundamentals and applications of wave optics. The material of the book covers topics on wave nature of light—reflection, refraction, polarisation, diffraction, dispersion and scattering of electromagnetic waves. Interference phenomenon is discussed both by division of wavefront and by division of amplitude. Diffraction is classified as Fresnel diffraction and Fraunhofer diffraction. The discussion on Fraunhofer diffraction has been used to explain the theory and resolving power of optical instruments. The role of phenomena of dispersion and scattering of light has been lucidly explained in the field of communication of information, its quality and content. The last three chapters are devoted to the study of the recently developed modern topics—lasers, holography, and fibre optics—all of which have opened up immense opportunities for new applications in almost all branches of science and engineering. Though the book is intended for the undergraduate students of physics—both honours and general courses—it will also be useful to candidates aspiring to sit the competitive examinations. KEY FEATURES : Presents interactive text interspersed with in-text questions to enable students to shift focus on active learning. Uses access devices such as expected learning outcomes and practice exercises for directed teaching–learning. Includes numerous worked-out examples to illustrate the concepts and provides review questions to test the students’ understanding of the subject. Gives chapter-end summary for quick revision of the important results.
"Thin-film microoptics" stands for novel types of microoptical components and systems which combine the well-known features of miniaturized optical elements with the specific advantages of thin optical layers. This approach enables for innovative solutions in shaping light fields in spatial, temporal and spectral domain. Low-dispersion and small-angle systems for tailoring and diagnosing laser pulses under extreme conditions as well as VUV-capable microoptics can be realized. Continuous-relief microstructures of refractive, reflective and hybrid characteristics are obtained by vapor deposition technologies with shadow masks in rotating systems. The book gives a comprehensive overview on fundamental laws of microoptics, types of thin-film microoptical components, methods and constraints of their design, fabrication and characterization, structure transfer into substrates, optical functions and applications. Recent theoretical and experimental results of basic and applied research are addressed. Particular emphasis will be laid on the generation of localized, nondiffracting few-cycle wavepackets of extended depth of focus and high tolerance against distortions. It is shown that the spectral interference of ultrabroadband conical beams results in spatio-temporal structures of characteristic X-shape, so-called X-waves, which are interesting for robust optical communication. New prospects are opened by exploiting small conical angles from nanolayer microoptics and self-apodized truncation of Bessel beams leading to the formation of single-maximum nondiffracting beams or "needle beams". Thin-film microoptical beam shapers have an enormous potential for future applications like the two-dimensional ultrafast optical processing, multichannel laser-matter interaction, nonlinear spectroscopy or advanced measuring techniques.

- Introduces a new and promising branch of microoptics
- Gives a compact overview on the types, properties and applications of the most important microoptical components containing valuable data and facts
- Helps to understand the basic optical laws
- Reports on the historical development line of thin-film microoptics
- Provides brand new results of research and development in the field of ultrashort-pulse laser beam shaping and diagnostics
- Discusses the future trends and first approaches of next generation microoptics
- Contains a carefully assorted glossary of the most important technical terms
Silicon photonics uses chip-making techniques to fabricate photonic circuits. The emerging technology is coming to market at a time of momentous change. The need of the Internet content providers to keep scaling their data centers is becoming increasing challenging, the chip industry is facing a future without Moore’s law, while telcos must contend with a looming capacity crunch due to continual traffic growth.

Each of these developments is significant in its own right. Collectively, they require new thinking in the design of chips, optical components, and systems. Such change also signals new business opportunities and disruption.

Notwithstanding challenges, silicon photonics’ emergence is timely because it is the future of several industries. For the optical industry, the technology will allow designs to be tackled in new ways. For the chip industry, silicon photonics will become the way of scaling post-Moore’s law. New system architectures enabled by silicon photonics will improve large-scale computing and optical communications.

Silicon Photonics: Fueling the Next Information Revolution

outlines the history and status of silicon photonics. The book discusses the trends driving the datacom and telecom industries, the main but not the only markets for silicon photonics. In particular, developments in optical transport and the data center are discussed as are the challenges. The book details the many roles silicon photonics will play, from wide area networks down to the chip level. Silicon photonics is set to change the optical components and chip industries; this book explains how.Captures the latest research assessing silicon photonics development and prospectsDemonstrates how silicon photonics addresses the challenges of managing bandwidth over distance and within systemsExplores potential applications of SiP, including servers, datacenters, and Internet of Things
Provides an overview of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs), from fundamentals to applicationsEvaluates the advantages and disadvantages of particular applications, methods and techniquesContains new chapters on sensing, femtosecond laser writing of FBGs and poling of glass and optical fibersIncludes a special version of the photonic simulator PicWave(tm), allowing the reader to make live simulations of many of the example devices presented in the book.

This fully revised, updated and expanded second edition covers the substantial advances in the manufacture and use of FBGs in the years since the publication of the pioneering first edition. It presents a comprehensive treatise on FBGs and addresses issues such as the merits of one solution over another; why particular fabrication methods are preferred; and what advantages a user may gain from certain techniques.

Beginning with the principles of FBGs, the book progresses to discuss photosensitization of optical fibers, Bragg grating fabrication and theory, properties of gratings, specific applications, sensing technology, glass poling, advances in femtosecond laser writing of Bragg gratings and FBG measurement techniques. In addition to material on telecommunications usage of FBGs, application areas such as fiber lasers and sensors are addressed in greater detail.

This special version of Picwave is limited to modelling only the passive fibre devices covered in this book. However the full PicWave package is capable of modelling other non-linear and active devices such as laser diodes and SOAs as discussed in Chapter 8. More information about PicWave can be found at

In addition to researchers, scientists, and graduate students, this book will be of interest to industrial practitioners in the field of fabrication of fiber optic materials and devices.

Raman Kashyap, Canada Research Chair holder on Future Photonics Systems, and Professor at École Polytechnique, University of Montréal since 2003, has researched optical fibers and devices for over 30 years. He pioneered the fabrication of FBGs and applications in telecommunications and photonics.

Provides an overview of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs), from fundamentals to applicationsEvaluates the advantages and disadvantages of particular applications, methods and techniquesContains new chapters on sensing, femtosecond laser writing of FBGs and poling of glass and optical fibersIncludes a special version of the photonic simulator PicWave(tm), allowing the reader to make live simulations of many of the example devices presented in the book
Covers the fundamental principles behind optomechanical design

This book emphasizes a practical, systems-level overview of optomechanical engineering, showing throughout how the requirements on the optical system flow down to those on the optomechanical design. The author begins with an overview of optical engineering, including optical fundamentals as well as the fabrication and alignment of optical components such as lenses and mirrors. The concepts of optomechanical engineering are then applied to the design of optical systems, including the structural design of mechanical and optical components, structural dynamics, thermal design, and kinematic design.

Optomechanical Systems Engineering:

Reviews the fundamental concepts of optical engineering as they apply to optomechanical design Illustrates the fabrication and alignment requirements typically found in an optical system Examines the elements of structural design from a mechanical, optical, and vibrational viewpoint Develops the thermal management principles of temperature and distortion control Describes the optomechanical requirements for kinematic and semi-kinematic mounts Uses examples and case studies to illustrate the concepts and equations presented in the book Provides supplemental materials on a companion website

Focusing on fundamental concepts and first-order estimates of optomechanical system performance, Optomechanical Systems Engineering is accessible to engineers, scientists, and managers who want to quickly master the principles of optomechanical engineering.

This book covers the device physics of semiconductor lasers in five chapters written by recognized experts in this field. The volume begins by introducing the basic mechanisms of optical gain in semiconductors and the role of quantum confinement in modern quantum well diode lasers. Subsequent chapters treat the effects of built-in strain, one of the important recent advances in the technology of these lasers, and the physical mechanisms underlying the dynamics and high speed modulation of these devices. The book concludes with chapters addressing the control of photon states in squeezed-light and microcavity structures, and electron states in low dimensional quantum wire and quantum dot lasers.

The book offers useful information for both readers unfamiliar with semiconductor lasers, through the introductory parts of each chapter, as well as a state-of-the-art discussion of some of the most advanced semiconductor laser structures, intended for readers engaged in research in this field. This book may also serve as an introduction for the companion volume, Semiconductor Lasers II: Materials and Structures, which presents further details on the different material systems and laser structures used for achieving specific diode laser performance features.

Introduces the reader to the basics of semiconductor lasersCovers the fundamentals of lasing in semiconductors, including quantum confined and microcavity structuresBeneficial to readers interested in the more general aspects of semiconductor physics and optoelectronic devices, such as quantum confined heterostructures and integrated opticsEach chapter contains a thorough introduction to the topic geared toward the non-expert, followed by an in-depth discussion of current technology and future trendsUseful for professionals engaged in research and developmentContains numerous schematic and data-containing illustrations
* A special volume devoted principally to the
role of the late Sir Charles Oatley in the development of the scanning electron microscopeings

* It contains historical articles and reminiscences by most of the scientists who have worked on the scanning electron microscope in Oatley's laboratory

* Emphasizes broad and in depth article collaborations between world-renowned scientists in the field of image and electron physics

Although the scanning electron microscope had a prehistory in Germany and the USA, its real champion was Charles Oatley, who launched his project
in the Cambridge University Engineering Department shortly after the end of World War II. A first microscope was built successfully by D. McMullan, one
of the Guest Editors of this volume and a succession of progressively improved instruments followed. One in particular, built by K.C.A. Smith was commissioned specially for the Canadian Pulp and Paper Research Institute for use in their Montreal laboratories. All these efforts culminated in the commercial model built by the Cambridge Instrument Company and marketed in 1965 under the trade name, Stereoscan.
Although this story has been told on several occasions, in particular in these Advances, it seemed appropriate, in the centenary year of the birth of Sir Charles Oatley, that more details should be published to celebrate these achievements. This volume is the result.

It contains not only historical articles and reminiscences by most of the scientists who have worked on the scanning electron microscope in Oatley's laboratory but also full or partial reproductions of many of the key publications, beginning with McMullan's early paper of 1953 and including Oatley's own "Early history of the scanning electron microscope" (1982). A website has been created, in which supplementary material is collected.

This volume is a tribute to a bold pioneering scientist and a vivid record of the creation of the first commercial scanning electron microscopes and of subsequent developments.

* A special volume devoted principally to the
role of the late Sir Charles Oatley in the development of the scanning electron microscopeings
* It contains historical articles and reminiscences by most of the scientists who have worked on the scanning electron microscope in Oatley's laboratory
* Emphasizes broad and in depth article collaborations between world-renowned scientists in the field of image and electron physics
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