Infections that were once treatable have become more difficult to treat because of AR. AR is accelerated by inappropriate antibiotic use in people. Questions have been raised about whether agencies such as the Dept. of Health and Human Services (HHS) have adequately assessed the effects of antibiotic use and disposal on resistance in humans. This report: (1) describes fed. efforts to quantify the amount of antibiotics produced; (2) evaluates HHS's monitoring of antibiotic use and efforts to promote appropriate use; (3) examines HHS's monitoring of AR infections; and (4) describes fed. efforts to monitor antibiotic disposal and antibiotics in the environ. Charts and tables. This is a print on demand report.
Estimates the effect on Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act (CARE Act) funding to urban areas (UA) if a certain stop-loss provision is enacted. Under the CARE Act, funding for UA is provided through three categories of grants: (1) formula grants that are awarded based on the case counts of people with HIV/AIDS in an UA; (2) supplemental grants that are awarded on a competitive basis based on an UA's demonstration of need; and (3) Minority AIDS Initiative grants, which are awarded to UA to address disparities in access, treatment, care, and health outcomes. This report developed an estimate of CARE Act funding with the stop-loss provision in, and also developed an estimate of such funding without that provision. Ill.
In the U.S., most nonprescription drugs are available over-the-counter in pharmacies and other stores. Experts have suggested that drug availability could be increased by establishing an additional class of nonprescription drugs that would be held behind the counter (BTC) but would require the intervention of a pharmacist before being dispensed; a similar class of drugs exists in many other countries. This is a report on: (1) arguments supporting and opposing a U.S. BTC drug class; (2) changes in drug availability in 5 countries and the impact of restricted nonprescription classes on availability; and (3) issues important to the establishment of a BTC drug class. The author studied 5 countries: Australia, Italy, the Netherlands, the U.K., and the U.S.
Of the estimated 119 million visits to U.S. emergency depts. (ED) in 2006, over 40% were paid for by federally-supported programs -- Medicare, Medicaid, and the State Children's Health Insur. Program. There have been reports of crowded conditions in ED often associated with adverse effects on patient quality of care. In 2003, it was reported that most ED in metropolitan areas experienced some degree of crowding. For ex., two out of every three metropolitan hospitals reported going on ambulance diversion -- asking ambulances to bypass their ED and instead transport patients to other facilities. This report examined three indicators of ED crowding - -ambulance diversion, wait times, and patient boarding -- and factors that contribute to crowding. Illus.
In Sept. 2000, the FDA approved the drug Mifeprex for use in terminating early term pregnancy. FDA approved the drug under a provision of its Subpart H regulations, allowing it to restrict the drug¿s distribution to assure its safe use. Critics argued that Mifeprex does not fit within the scope of Subpart H, which applies to drugs that treat serious or life-threatening illnesses. This report: (1) describes FDA¿s approval of Mifeprex, including the evidence considered and the restrictions placed on its distribution; (3) compares the Mifeprex approval process to the approval processes for other Subpart H restricted drugs; and (3) compares FDA¿s post-market oversight of Mifeprex to its oversight of other Subpart H restricted drugs. Illustrations.
In early 2008, the FDA responded to a crisis involving the contamination of heparin, a medication used to prevent and treat blood clots, when the agency received multiple reports of adverse events involving severe allergic reactions. The crisis took place from January 2008 through May 2008, during which time FDA took several actions in its response to the crisis. This report reviewed FDA's management of the heparin crisis. This report examines: (1) how FDA prevented additional contaminated heparin from reaching U.S. consumers; (2) how FDA coordinated its response to the contaminated heparin crisis; and (3) FDA's monitoring and analysis of adverse events associated with heparin. Charts and tables. This is a print on demand report.