Audience: Researchers and students of number theory, analysis, combinatorics and modular forms will find this volume to be stimulating.
Quadratic and Higher Degree Forms contains research and semi-expository papers that stem from the presentations at conferences at the University of Florida as well as survey lectures on quadratic forms based on the instructional workshop for graduate students held at the Arizona Winter School. The survey papers in the volume provide an excellent introduction to various aspects of the theory of quadratic forms starting from the basic concepts and provide a glimpse of some of the exciting questions currently being investigated. The research and expository papers present the latest advances on quadratic and higher degree forms and their connections with various branches of mathematics.
In Love and Math, renowned mathematician Edward Frenkel reveals a side of math we’ve never seen, suffused with all the beauty and elegance of a work of art. In this heartfelt and passionate book, Frenkel shows that mathematics, far from occupying a specialist niche, goes to the heart of all matter, uniting us across cultures, time, and space.
Love and Math tells two intertwined stories: of the wonders of mathematics and of one young man’s journey learning and living it. Having braved a discriminatory educational system to become one of the twenty-first century’s leading mathematicians, Frenkel now works on one of the biggest ideas to come out of math in the last 50 years: the Langlands Program. Considered by many to be a Grand Unified Theory of mathematics, the Langlands Program enables researchers to translate findings from one field to another so that they can solve problems, such as Fermat’s last theorem, that had seemed intractable before.
At its core, Love and Math is a story about accessing a new way of thinking, which can enrich our lives and empower us to better understand the world and our place in it. It is an invitation to discover the magic hidden universe of mathematics.
In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simplicity of the proofs for many theorems.
Among the topics covered in this accessible, carefully designed introduction are multiplicativity-divisibility, including the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, combinatorial and computational number theory, congruences, arithmetic functions, primitive roots and prime numbers. Later chapters offer lucid treatments of quadratic congruences, additivity (including partition theory) and geometric number theory.
Of particular importance in this text is the author's emphasis on the value of numerical examples in number theory and the role of computers in obtaining such examples. Exercises provide opportunities for constructing numerical tables with or without a computer. Students can then derive conjectures from such numerical tables, after which relevant theorems will seem natural and well-motivated..
Hidden symmetries were first discovered nearly two hundred years ago by French mathematician évariste Galois. They have been used extensively in the oldest and largest branch of mathematics--number theory--for such diverse applications as acoustics, radar, and codes and ciphers. They have also been employed in the study of Fibonacci numbers and to attack well-known problems such as Fermat's Last Theorem, Pythagorean Triples, and the ever-elusive Riemann Hypothesis. Mathematicians are still devising techniques for teasing out these mysterious patterns, and their uses are limited only by the imagination.
The first popular book to address representation theory and reciprocity laws, Fearless Symmetry focuses on how mathematicians solve equations and prove theorems. It discusses rules of math and why they are just as important as those in any games one might play. The book starts with basic properties of integers and permutations and reaches current research in number theory. Along the way, it takes delightful historical and philosophical digressions. Required reading for all math buffs, the book will appeal to anyone curious about popular mathematics and its myriad contributions to everyday life.
The first part implements this idea in terms of notions of convergence and summability of Fourier series, while highlighting applications such as the isoperimetric inequality and equidistribution. The second part deals with the Fourier transform and its applications to classical partial differential equations and the Radon transform; a clear introduction to the subject serves to avoid technical difficulties. The book closes with Fourier theory for finite abelian groups, which is applied to prime numbers in arithmetic progression.
In organizing their exposition, the authors have carefully balanced an emphasis on key conceptual insights against the need to provide the technical underpinnings of rigorous analysis. Students of mathematics, physics, engineering and other sciences will find the theory and applications covered in this volume to be of real interest.
The Princeton Lectures in Analysis represents a sustained effort to introduce the core areas of mathematical analysis while also illustrating the organic unity between them. Numerous examples and applications throughout its four planned volumes, of which Fourier Analysis is the first, highlight the far-reaching consequences of certain ideas in analysis to other fields of mathematics and a variety of sciences. Stein and Shakarchi move from an introduction addressing Fourier series and integrals to in-depth considerations of complex analysis; measure and integration theory, and Hilbert spaces; and, finally, further topics such as functional analysis, distributions and elements of probability theory.
Unlike many authors, however, Mr. Friedberg encourages students to think about the imaginative, playful qualities of numbers as they consider such subjects as primes and divisibility, quadratic forms and residue arithmetic and quadratic reciprocity and related theorems. Moreover, the author has included a number of unusual features to challenge and stimulate students: some of the original problems in Diophantus' Arithmetica, proofs of Fermat's Last Theorem for the exponents 3and 4, and two proofs of Wilson's Theorem.
Readers with a mathematical bent will enjoy and benefit from these entertaining and thought-provoking adventures in the fascinating realm of number theory. Mr. Friedberg is currently Professor of Physics at Barnard College, where he is Chairman of the Department of Physics and Astronomy.
Those familiar with mathematics texts will note the fine illustrations throughout and large number of problems offered at the chapter ends. An answer section is provided. Students weary of plodding mathematical prose will find Professor Flanigan's style as refreshing and stimulating as his approach.
The book begins with a systematic study of real numbers, understood to be a set of objects satisfying certain definite axioms. The concepts of a mathematical structure and an isomorphism are introduced in Chapter 2, after a brief digression on set theory, and a proof of the uniqueness of the structure of real numbers is given as an illustration. Two other structures are then introduced, namely n-dimensional space and the field of complex numbers.
After a detailed treatment of metric spaces in Chapter 3, a general theory of limits is developed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 treats some theorems on continuous numerical functions on the real line, and then considers the use of functional equations to introduce the logarithm and the trigonometric functions. Chapter 6 is on infinite series, dealing not only with numerical series but also with series whose terms are vectors and functions (including power series). Chapters 7 and 8 treat differential calculus proper, with Taylor's series leading to a natural extension of real analysis into the complex domain. Chapter 9 presents the general theory of Riemann integration, together with a number of its applications. Analytic functions are covered in Chapter 10, while Chapter 11 is devoted to improper integrals, and makes full use of the technique of analytic functions.
Each chapter includes a set of problems, with selected hints and answers at the end of the book. A wealth of examples and applications can be found throughout the text. Over 340 theorems are fully proved.
Though the Japanese abacus may appear mysterious or even primitive, this intriguing tool is capable of amazing speed and accuracy. it is still widely used throughout the shop and markets of Asia and its popularity shows no sign of decline.
This volume is designed for the student desiring a greater understanding of the abacus and its calculative functions. The text provides thorough explanations of the advanced operations involving negative numbers, decimals, different units of measurement, and square roots. Diagrams illustrate bead manipulation, and numerous exercises provide ample practice.
Concise and easy-to-follow, this book will improve your abacus skills and help you perform calculations with greater efficiency and precision.
The book begins with fundamentals, with a definition of complex numbers, their geometric representation, their algebra, powers and roots of complex numbers, set theory as applied to complex analysis, and complex functions and sequences. The notions of proper and improper complex numbers and of infinity are fully and clearly explained, as is stereographic projection. Individual chapters then cover limits and continuity, differentiation of analytic functions, polynomials and rational functions, Mobius transformations with their circle-preserving property, exponentials and logarithms, complex integrals and the Cauchy theorem , complex series and uniform convergence, power series, Laurent series and singular points, the residue theorem and its implications, harmonic functions (a subject too often slighted in first courses in complex analysis), partial fraction expansions, conformal mapping, and analytic continuation.
Elementary functions are given a more detailed treatment than is usual for a book at this level. Also, there is an extended discussion of the Schwarz-Christolfel transformation, which is particularly important for applications.
There is a great abundance of worked-out examples, and over three hundred problems (some with hints and answers), making this an excellent textbook for classroom use as well as for independent study. A noteworthy feature is the fact that the parentage of this volume makes it possible for the student to pursue various advanced topics in more detail in the three-volume original, without the problem of having to adjust to a new terminology and notation .
In this way, IntroductoryComplex Analysis serves as an introduction not only to the whole field of complex analysis, but also to the magnum opus of an important contemporary Russian mathematician.
Key features of Number Theory: Structures, Examples, and Problems:
* A rigorous exposition starts with the natural numbers and the basics.
* Important concepts are presented with an example, which may also emphasize an application. The exposition moves systematically and intuitively to uncover deeper properties.
* Topics include divisibility, unique factorization, modular arithmetic and the Chinese Remainder Theorem, Diophantine equations, quadratic residues, binomial coefficients, Fermat and Mersenne primes and other special numbers, and special sequences. Sections on mathematical induction and the pigeonhole principle, as well as a discussion of other number systems are covered.
* Unique exercises reinforce and motivate the reader, with selected solutions to some of the problems.
* Glossary, bibliography, and comprehensive index round out the text.
Written by distinguished research mathematicians and renowned teachers, this text is a clear, accessible introduction to the subject and a source of fascinating problems and puzzles, from advanced high school students to undergraduates, their instructors, and general readers at all levels.
Since many abstractions and generalizations originate with the real line, the author has made it the unifying theme of the text, constructing the real number system from the point of view of a Cauchy sequence (a step which Dr. Sprecher feels is essential to learn what the real number system is).
The material covered in Elements of Real Analysis should be accessible to those who have completed a course in calculus. To help give students a sound footing, Part One of the text reviews the fundamental concepts of sets and functions and the rational numbers. Part Two explores the real line in terms of the real number system, sequences and series of number and the structure of point sets. Part Three examines the functions of a real variable in terms of continuity, differentiability, spaces of continuous functions, measure and integration, and the Fourier series.
An especially valuable feature of the book is the exercises which follow each section. There are over five hundred, ranging from the simple to the highly difficult, each focusing on a concept previously introduced.
The numerous exercises at the end of each chapter make the book suitable for both graduate courses and independent study. Most of the text is accessible to graduate students in mathematics who have had a first course in real analysis, covering the basics of L2 spaces and Hilbert spaces. The final chapters introduce readers who are familiar with the theory of manifolds to more advanced topics, including geometric quantization.
Bellos has traveled all around the globe and has plunged into history to uncover fascinating stories of mathematical achievement, from the breakthroughs of Euclid, the greatest mathematician of all time, to the creations of the Zen master of origami, one of the hottest areas of mathematical work today. Taking us into the wilds of the Amazon, he tells the story of a tribe there who can count only to five and reports on the latest findings about the math instinct—including the revelation that ants can actually count how many steps they’ve taken. Journeying to the Bay of Bengal, he interviews a Hindu sage about the brilliant mathematical insights of the Buddha, while in Japan he visits the godfather of Sudoku and introduces the brainteasing delights of mathematical games.
Exploring the mysteries of randomness, he explains why it is impossible for our iPods to truly randomly select songs. In probing the many intrigues of that most beloved of numbers, pi, he visits with two brothers so obsessed with the elusive number that they built a supercomputer in their Manhattan apartment to study it. Throughout, the journey is enhanced with a wealth of intriguing illustrations, such as of the clever puzzles known as tangrams and the crochet creation of an American math professor who suddenly realized one day that she could knit a representation of higher dimensional space that no one had been able to visualize.
Whether writing about how algebra solved Swedish traffic problems, visiting the Mental Calculation World Cup to disclose the secrets of lightning calculation, or exploring the links between pineapples and beautiful teeth, Bellos is a wonderfully engaging guide who never fails to delight even as he edifies. Here’s Looking at Euclid is a rare gem that brings the beauty of math to life.
The Essentials For Dummies Series
Dummies is proud to present our new series, The Essentials For Dummies. Now students who are prepping for exams, preparing to study new material, or who just need a refresher can have a concise, easy-to-understand review guide that covers an entire course by concentrating solely on the most important concepts. From algebra and chemistry to grammar and Spanish, our expert authors focus on the skills students most need to succeed in a subject.
Volume III concentrates on the classical aspects of gauge theory, describing the four fundamental forces by the curvature of appropriate fiber bundles. This must be supplemented by the crucial, but elusive quantization procedure.
The book is arranged in four sections, devoted to realizing the universal principle force equals curvature:
Part I: The Euclidean Manifold as a Paradigm
Part II: Ariadne's Thread in Gauge Theory
Part III: Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity
Part IV: Ariadne's Thread in Cohomology
For students of mathematics the book is designed to demonstrate that detailed knowledge of the physical background helps to reveal interesting interrelationships among diverse mathematical topics. Physics students will be exposed to a fairly advanced mathematics, beyond the level covered in the typical physics curriculum.
Quantum Field Theory builds a bridge between mathematicians and physicists, based on challenging questions about the fundamental forces in the universe (macrocosmos), and in the world of elementary particles (microcosmos).
"This book covers many interesting topics not usually covered in a present day undergraduate course, as well as certain basic topics such as the development of the calculus and the solution of polynomial equations. The fact that the topics are introduced in their historical contexts will enable students to better appreciate and understand the mathematical ideas involved...If one constructs a list of topics central to a history course, then they would closely resemble those chosen here."
(David Parrott, Australian Mathematical Society)
"The book...is presented in a lively style without unnecessary detail. It is very stimulating and will be appreciated not only by students. Much attention is paid to problems and to the development of mathematics before the end of the nineteenth century... This book brings to the non-specialist interested in mathematics many interesting results. It can be recommended for seminars and will be enjoyed by the broad mathematical community."
(European Mathematical Society)
"Since Stillwell treats many topics, most mathematicians will learn a lot from this book as well as they will find pleasant and rather clear expositions of custom materials. The book is accessible to students that have already experienced calculus, algebra and geometry and will give them a good account of how the different branches of mathematics interact."
(Denis Bonheure, Bulletin of the Belgian Society)
This third edition includes new chapters on simple groups and combinatorics, and new sections on several topics, including the Poincare conjecture. The book has also been enriched by added exercises.
As fields like communications, speech and image processing, and related areas are rapidly developing, the FFT as one of the essential parts in digital signal processing has been widely used. Thus there is a pressing need from instructors and students for a book dealing with the latest FFT topics.
Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications provides a thorough and detailed explanation of important or up-to-date FFTs. It also has adopted modern approaches like MATLAB examples and projects for better understanding of diverse FFTs.
Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications is designed for senior undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, engineers, and scientists in the field, and self-learners to understand FFTs and directly apply them to their fields, efficiently. It is designed to be both a text and a reference. Thus examples, projects and problems all tied with MATLAB, are provided for grasping the concepts concretely. It also includes references to books and review papers and lists of applications, hardware/software, and useful websites. By including many figures, tables, bock diagrams and graphs, this book helps the reader understand the concepts of fast algorithms readily and intuitively. It provides new MATLAB functions and MATLAB source codes. The material in Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications is presented without assuming any prior knowledge of FFT. This book is for any professional who wants to have a basic understanding of the latest developments in and applications of FFT. It provides a good reference for any engineer planning to work in this field, either in basic implementation or in research and development.
László Lovász is a Senior Researcher in the Theory Group at Microsoft Corporation. He is a recipient of the 1999 Wolf Prize and the Gödel Prize for the top paper in Computer Science. József Pelikán is Professor of Mathematics in the Department of Algebra and Number Theory at Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary. In 2002, he was elected Chairman of the Advisory Board of the International Mathematical Olympiad. Katalin Vesztergombi is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Mathematics at the University of Washington.
Every number in this book is identified by its "field marks," "similar species," "personality," and "associations." For example, one field mark of the number 6 is that it is the first perfect number-- the sum of its divisors (1, 2, and 3) is equal to the number itself. Thus 28, the next perfect number, is a similar species. And the fact that 6 can easily be broken into 2 and 3 is part of its personality, a trait that is helpful when large numbers are being either multiplied or divided by 6. Associations with 6 include its relationship to the radius of a circle. In addition to such classifications, special attention is paid to dozens of other fascinating numbers, including zero, pi, 10 to the 76th power (the number of particles in the universe), transfinite and other exceptionally larger numbers, and the concept of infinity.
Ideal for beginners but organized to appeal to the mathematically literate, The Kingdom of Infinite Number will not only add to readers' enjoyment of mathematics, but to their problem-solving abilities as well.
In order to work with varying levels of engineering and physics research, it is important to have a firm understanding of key mathematical concepts such as advanced calculus, differential equations, complex analysis, and introductory mathematical physics. Essentials of Mathematical Methods in Science and Engineering provides a comprehensive introduction to these methods under one cover, outlining basic mathematical skills while also encouraging students and practitioners to develop new, interdisciplinary approaches to their research.
The book begins with core topics from various branches of mathematics such as limits, integrals, and inverse functions. Subsequent chapters delve into the analytical tools that are commonly used in scientific and engineering studies, including vector analysis, generalized coordinates, determinants and matrices, linear algebra, complex numbers, complex analysis, and Fourier series. The author provides an extensive chapter on probability theory with applications to statistical mechanics and thermodynamics that complements the following chapter on information theory, which contains coverage of Shannon's theory, decision theory, game theory, and quantum information theory. A comprehensive list of references facilitates further exploration of these topics.
Throughout the book, numerous examples and exercises reinforce the presented concepts and techniques. In addition, the book is in a modular format, so each chapter covers its subject thoroughly and can be read independently. This structure affords flexibility for individualizing courses and teaching.
Providing a solid foundation and overview of the various mathematical methods and applications in multidisciplinary research, Essentials of Mathematical Methods in Science and Engineering is an excellent text for courses in physics, science, mathematics, and engineering at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It also serves as a useful reference for scientists and engineers who would like a practical review of mathematical methods.
In addition, it studies semigroup, group action, Hopf's group, topological groups and Lie groups with their actions, applications of ring theory to algebraic geometry, and defines Zariski topology, as well as applications of module theory to structure theory of rings and homological algebra. Algebraic aspects of classical number theory and algebraic number theory are also discussed with an eye to developing modern cryptography. Topics on applications to algebraic topology, category theory, algebraic geometry, algebraic number theory, cryptography and theoretical computer science interlink the subject with different areas. Each chapter discusses individual topics, starting from the basics, with the help of illustrative examples. This comprehensive text with a broad variety of concepts, applications, examples, exercises and historical notes represents a valuable and unique resource.
Appropriate for anyone familiar with algebra at the high-school level, The Theory of Remainders offers a captivating introduction to both number theory and abstract algebra. Both elementary and challenging, it provides a view of mathematics as a conceptual net and illustrates the differences between conceptual and paraconceptual claims—an excellent start to expanding students' perspectives on mathematics.
Exercises throughout the book form an integral part of the text, extending students' experience with the concepts under discussion and presenting opportunities to observe patterns. In addition to the exercises, a series of optional problems allows more advanced readers to further develop the concepts.
* Assumes prior knowledge of Naive set theory, linear algebra, point set topology, basic complex variable, and real variables.
* Includes an appendix on the Riesz representation theorem.
This book is suitable for researchers and graduate students working in complex approximation and its applications, mathematical analysis and numerical analysis.
The contributors are Jean Bourgain, Luis Caffarelli, Michael Christ, Guy David, Charles Fefferman, Alexandru D. Ionescu, David Jerison, Carlos Kenig, Sergiu Klainerman, Loredana Lanzani, Sanghyuk Lee, Lionel Levine, Akos Magyar, Detlef Müller, Camil Muscalu, Alexander Nagel, D. H. Phong, Malabika Pramanik, Andrew S. Raich, Fulvio Ricci, Keith M. Rogers, Andreas Seeger, Scott Sheffield, Luis Silvestre, Christopher D. Sogge, Jacob Sturm, Terence Tao, Christoph Thiele, Stephen Wainger, and Steven Zelditch.
Topics include Bessel functions of zero order, modified Bessel functions, definite integrals, asymptotic expansions, and Bessel functions of any real order. More than 200 problems throughout the book enable students to test and extend their understanding of the theory and applications of Bessel functions.
The exposition concentrates on key concepts and then elementary results concerning these numbers. The reader learns how complex numbers can be used to solve algebraic equations and to understand the geometric interpretation of complex numbers and the operations involving them.
The theoretical parts of the book are augmented with rich exercises and problems at various levels of difficulty. A special feature of the book is the last chapter, a selection of outstanding Olympiad and other important mathematical contest problems solved by employing the methods already presented.
The book reflects the unique experience of the authors. It distills a vast mathematical literature, most of which is unknown to the western public, and captures the essence of an abundant problem culture. The target audience includes undergraduates, high school students and their teachers, mathematical contestants (such as those training for Olympiads or the W. L. Putnam Mathematical Competition) and their coaches, as well as anyone interested in essential mathematics.
After introducing the basic concepts of complex numbers and their geometrical representation, the text describes analytic functions, power series and elementary functions, the conformal representation of an analytic function, special transformations, and complex integration. It next discusses zeros of an analytic function, classification of singularities, and singularity at the point of infinity; residue theory, principle of argument, Rouché’s theorem, and the location of zeros of complex polynomial equations; and calculus of residues, emphasizing the techniques of definite integrals by contour integration.
The authors then explain uniform convergence of sequences and series involving Parseval, Schwarz, and Poisson formulas. They also present harmonic functions and mappings, inverse mappings, and univalent functions as well as analytic continuation.
Peter Higgins distills centuries of work into one delightful narrative that celebrates the mystery of numbers and explains how different kinds of numbers arose and why they are useful. Full of historical snippets and interesting examples, the book ranges from simple number puzzles and magic tricks, to showing how ideas about numbers relate to real-world problems, such as: How are our bank account details kept secure when shopping over the internet? What are the chances of winning at Russian roulette; or of being dealt a flush in a poker hand?
This fascinating book will inspire and entertain readers across a range of abilities. Easy material is blended with more challenging ideas about infinity and complex numbers, and a final chapter "For Connoisseurs" works through some of the particular claims and examples in the book in mathematical language for those who appreciate a complete explanation.
As our understanding of numbers continues to evolve, this book invites us to rediscover the mystery and beauty of numbers and reminds us that the story of numbers is a tale with a long way to run...
Though the book contains advanced material, such as cryptography on elliptic curves, Goppa codes using algebraic curves over finite fields, and the recent AKS polynomial primality test, the authors' objective has been to keep the exposition as self-contained and elementary as possible. Therefore the book will be useful to students and researchers, both in theoretical (e.g. mathematicians) and in applied sciences (e.g. physicists, engineers, computer scientists, etc.) seeking a friendly introduction to the important subjects treated here. The book will also be useful for teachers who intend to give courses on these topics.