Particularly in times of stress, like starvation and disease, higher organisms have an internal mechanism in their cells for chewing up and recycling parts of themselves. The process of internal “house cleaning in the cell is called autophagy – literally self-eating. Breakthroughs in understanding the molecular basis of autophagy came after the cloning of ATG1 (autophagy-related gene 1) in yeast. (To date, 30 additional yeast genes have been identified.) These ATG genes in yeast were the stepping stones to the explosion of research into the molecular analysis of autophagy in higher eukaryotes. In the future, this research will help to design clinical approaches that can turn on autophagy and halt tumor growth.
Particularly in times of stress, like starvation and disease, higher organisms have an internal mechanism in their cells for chewing up and recycling parts of themselves. The process of internal “house-cleaning in the cell is called autophagy – literally self-eating. Breakthroughs in understanding the molecular basis of autophagy came after the cloning of ATG1 in yeast. These ATG genes in yeast were the stepping stones to the explosion of research into the molecular analysis of autophagy in higher eukaryotes. In the future, this research will help to design clinical approaches that can turn on autophagy and halt tumor growth.
*Establishes the functional roles of specific cellular proteins in selective and nonselective autophagy in mammalian cells, which aides researchers in determining why autophagy is shut down in neoplastia (growth of abnormal tissue mass) and turned on during bacterial invasion
*Includes methods to evaluate the role of autophagy in the drug-induced cell death of cancer cells in culture, which helps researchers design clinical approaches that can turn on autophagy and halt tumor growth
*Covers higher eukaryotes including lifespan in C.elegans to marine organisms and bridging into the clinical aspects, including autophagy in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML is one of four types of leukemia), lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cardiac cells.
For more than three decades, millions of consumers have trusted The Pill Book to provide official, FDA-approved information on more than 1,800 of the most commonly prescribed drugs in the United States with guidelines from leading pharmacists. Each drug is profiled in a concise, readable, easy-to-understand entry, making The Pill Book the perfect reference when you have questions about the medications your doctor prescribes. Inside you’ll discover
• generic and brand-name listings that can help you save money
• What each drug is for, and how it works
• usual dosages, and what to do if a dose is skipped
• side effects and possible adverse reactions, highlighted for quick reference
• interactions with other drugs and food
• overdose and addiction potential
• alcohol-free and sugar-free medications
• the most popular self-injected medications and their safe handling
• information for seniors, pregnant and breast-feeding women, children, and others with special needs
• cautions and warnings, and when to call your doctor
• 32 pages of actual-size color photographs of prescription pills*
No home should be without this book!
*Not all ereading devices will show the images in color and at the exact size.
This edition includes greatly expanded focus on stem cells, including adult and embryonic stem cells and progenitor populations that may soon lead to new tissue engineering therapies for heart disease, diabetes, and a wide variety of other diseases that afflict humanity. This up-to-date coverage of stem cell biology and other emerging technologies is complemented by a series of new chapters on recent clinical experience in applying tissue engineering. The result is a comprehensive textbook that we believe will be useful to students and experts alike.
New to this edition:
*Includes new chapters on biomaterial-protein interactions, nanocomposite and three-dimensional scaffolds, skin substitutes, spinal cord, vision enhancement, and heart valves
*Expanded coverage of adult and embryonic stem cells of the cardiovascular, hematopoietic, musculoskeletal, nervous, and other organ systems
The new fourth edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect the many advances in science and technology, including the five accepted sequential stages of micropropagation. Ten new plants have been added. This in turn has greatly expanded the already extensive bibliography. Among the new topics that have been introduced or expanded on are embryo culture for breeding, somaclonal variation, anther culture, somatic embryogenesis, cryopreservation, and genetic engineering. More ornamental plant examples are given and many new illustrations provided, including a chronology of discoveries in micropropagation.
A leading epigenetics researcher, Nessa Carey also connects the field’s arguments to such diverse phenomena as how ants and queen bees control their colonies, why tortoiseshell cats are always female, why some plants need cold weather before they can flower, and how we age and develop disease. She concludes with future directions for research and the ability for epigenetics to improve human health and well-being. Published in the United Kingdom in 2011 and widely praised on both sides of the Atlantic, this new book is sure to become a classic in modern biology.
Beginning with simple theoretical models and experimental techniques, the book develops the complete repertoire of theoretical principles and experimental techniques necessary for understanding and implementing the most sophisticated NMR experiments.
Important new techniques and applications of NMR spectroscopy have emerged since the first edition of this extremely successful book was published in 1996. This updated version includes new sections describing measurement and use of residual dipolar coupling constants for structure determination, TROSY and deuterium labeling for application to large macromolecules, and experimental techniques for characterizing conformational dynamics. In addition, the treatments of instrumentation and signal acquisition, field gradients, multidimensional spectroscopy, and structure calculation are updated and enhanced.
The book is written as a graduate-level textbook and will be of interest to biochemists, chemists, biophysicists, and structural biologists who utilize NMR spectroscopy or wish to understand the latest developments in this field.Provides an understanding of the theoretical principles important for biological NMR spectroscopyDemonstrates how to implement, optimize and troubleshoot modern multi-dimensional NMR experimentsAllows for the capability of designing effective experimental protocols for investigations of protein structures and dynamicsIncludes a comprehensive set of example NMR spectra of ubiquitin provides a reference for validation of experimental methods
Two patients—each known in medical history as the Berlin Patient—were cured of the HIV virus. The two patients’ disparate cures came twelve years apart, but Nathalia Holt, an award-winning scientist at the forefront of HIV research, connects the molecular dots of these cases for the first time.
Scientists are known to maintain a professional distance from those they study, but sometimes scientists are not just investigators, they are caregivers, too. Cured illustrates that even in the era of high-tech and big pharma, the way doctors and patients communicate remains a critical ingredient in the advance of this science. Holt offers a kind of hope that the thirty-four million people currently infected with HIV need and a story of ingenuity, dedication, and humanity that will inspire the rest of us.
The vast majority of medically important pathogens infect their host across a body surface such as the skin, or across a mucosal tissue such as the respiratory tract or intestines, as these sites are the ones exposed to the external environment. By focusing on immunity at mucosal and body surfaces this book presents a fresh, new approach to the teaching of immunology.
After an introduction to the basic structure of the immune system, the book looks at two important families of signalling molecules: cytokines and chemokines, before covering the workings of the mucosal immune system. It continues by examining immunity against the four major groups of pathogens - viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, and concludes by looking at disorders of the immune system, mucosal tumour immunology and the process of vaccination.A fresh, new approach to the subject focusing on mucosal and body surfaces. Describes the mucosal immune systems of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and urogenital tracts, as well as the skin. Details the important roles of cytokines and chemokines in an immune response. Separate chapters devoted to immunity against viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Includes chapter summaries, boxes with topics of special interest and an extensive glossary. Clearly written and well- illustrated in full colour throughout.
Students across a range of disciplines, including biology, biochemistry, biomedicine, medicine and veterinary sciences, will find this book invaluable, both as an introduction to basic immunology and as a guide to mucosal immune defence mechanisms.
Unfortunately, this has not eradicated reflux disease. It has just changed its nature. While heartburn, ulceration and strictures have become rare, reflux-induced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus is becoming increasingly common. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia is now the most rapidly increasing cancer type in the Western world.
The increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has created an enormous interest and stimulus for research in this area. GERD brings together a vast amount of disparate literature and presents the entire pathogenesis of reflux disease in one place. In addition to providing a new concept of how gastroesophageal reflux causes cellular changes in the esophagus, GERD also offers a complete solution to a problem that has confused physicians for over a century. Both clinical and pathological information about reflux disease and its treatment are presented. GERD is meant to be used as a comprehensive reference for gastroenterologists, esophageal surgeons, and pathologists alike.Outlines how gastroesophageal reflux causes cellular changes in the esophagusBrings together the pathogenesis of the disease in one source and applies it toward clinical treatmentTom DeMeester is THE leading international expert on reflux disease; Parakrama Chandrasoma is one of the leading pathologists in the areaBook contains approximately 350 illustrationsAncillary web site features color illustrations: www.chandrasoma.com
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In addition to a number of informative changes to the text throughout the book, the final four chapters have been significantly updated and extended to reflect the striking advances made in recent years in the applications of gene cloning and DNA analysis in biotechnology.
Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis remains an essential introductory text to a wide range of biological sciences students; including genetics and genomics, molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology and applied biology. It is also a perfect introductory text for any professional needing to learn the basics of the subject. All libraries in universities where medical, life and biological sciences are studied and taught should have copies available on their shelves.
"… the book content is elegantly illustrated and well organized in clear-cut chapters and subsections… there is a Further Reading section after each chapter that contains several key references… What is extremely useful, almost every reference is furnished with the short but distinct author's remark."
–Journal of Heredity, 2007 (on the previous edition)
This edition includes greatly expanded focus on stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, stem cell niches, and blood components from stem cells. This research has already produced applications in disease modeling, toxicity testing, drug development, and clinical therapies. This up-to-date coverage of stem cell biology and other emerging technologies –such as brain-machine interfaces for controlling bionics and neuroprostheses– is complemented by a series of new and updated chapters on recent clinical experience in applying tissue engineering, as well as a new section on the application of tissue-engineering techniques for food production. The result is a comprehensive textbook that will be useful to students and experts alike.Includes new chapters on biomaterial-protein interactions, nanocomposite and three-dimensional scaffolds, skin substitutes, spinal cord, vision enhancement, and heart valvesOffers expanded coverage of adult and embryonic stem cells of the cardiovascular, hematopoietic, musculoskeletal, nervous, and other organ systemsFull-color presentation throughout
"A very well-written book suitable for use as a reference or textbook for an undergraduate subject in cell signalling. For researchers interested in the molecular basis of cell signalling and how aberrant regulation of cell signalling proteins causes diseases, this is an excellent resource of biochemical and structural information." –Australian Biochemist, August 2009
"From basics to details, this is an elegantly written and carefully edited book. The chapters on cell cycle control and oncogenesis are particularly fascinating and valuable to biomedical research. This is the book to have if you are interested in molecular mechanisms of signal transduction. It is a great introduction to the literature that will be welcomed by students and experts alike." –Doody's, January 2009
This text is a concise and accessible introduction to the dynamic but complex field of signal transduction. Rather than simply cataloguing all signalling molecules and delineating every known pathway, this book aims to break signalling down into common elements and activities – the ‘nuts and bolts’ of cellular information exchange.
With an emphasis on clarity of presentation throughout, the book teaches the basic principles focusing on a mature core of knowledge, providing students with a foundation of learning in this complex and potentially confusing subject. It also addresses the issue of variation in the numbering of key amino acids as well as featuring interaction with RasMol software, and exercises to aid understanding.An accessible introduction to the complex field of cell signalling Interacts with RasMol software – freely downloadable for viewing structures in 3D Includes exercises and clear instructions in the use of RasMol Well illustrated in full colour throughout
Structure and Function in Cell Signalling is an invaluable resource to students across a range of life science degree programmes including biochemistry, cell and molecular biology, physiology, biomedicine and oncology. This book provides a clear, accessible introduction to this rapidly expanding field.
Up-to-date therapeutic implications of nitric oxide researchAuthored by world experts on nitric oxide Detailed research of the biochemistry and synthesis of nitric oxide
The most up-to-date information about the more than 1,800 most commonly prescribed drugs in the United States:
• Generic and brand-name listings that can help you save money
• What the drug is for, and how it works
• Usual dosages, and what to do if a dose is skipped
• Side effects and possible adverse reactions, highlighted for quick reference
• Interactions with other drugs and food
• Overdose and addiction potential
• Alcohol-free and sugar-free medications
• The most popular self-injected medications and their safe handling
• Information for seniors, pregnant and breast-feeding women, children, and others with special needs
• Cautions and warnings, and when to call your doctor
• 32 pages of actual-size color photographs of prescription pills
From the Trade Paperback edition.
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Oncologists, cancer researchers, and nutritionists are separated by divergent skills and professional disciplines that need to be bridged in order to advance preventative as well as treatment strategies. While oncologists and cancer researchers may study the underlying pathogenesis of cancer, they are less likely to be conversant in the science of nutrition and dietetics. On the other hand, nutritionists and dietitians are less conversant with the detailed clinical background and science of oncology. This book addresses this gap and brings each of these disciplines to bear on the processes inherent in the oxidative stress of cancer.Nutritionists can apply information related to mitochondrial oxidative stress in one disease to diet-related strategies in another unrelated disease Dietitians can prescribe new foods or diets containing anti-oxidants for conditions resistant to conventional pharmacological treatments Dietitians, after learning about the basic biology of oxidative stress, will be able to suggest new treatments to their multidisciplinary teamsNutritionists and dietitians will gain an understanding of cell signaling, and be able to suggest new preventative or therapeutic strategies with anti-oxidant rich foods
It is not yet possible to give a complete account of the relations between the organelles of two compartments and of the mechanisms by which some degree of order is maintained in the cell as a whole. However, a new breed of scientists, known as molecular cell biologists, have already contributed in some measure to our understanding of several biological phenomena notably interorganelle communication. Take, for example, intracellular membrane transport: it can now be expressed in terms of the sorting, targeting, and transport of protein from the endoplasmic reticulum to another compartment.
This volume contains the first ten chapters on the subject of organelles. The remaining four are in Volume 3, to which sections on organelle disorders and the extracellular matrix have been added.
Developed at MIT in collaboration with award-winning high school teachers, BioBuilder teaches the foundational ideas of the emerging synthetic biology field, as well as key aspects of biological engineering that researchers are exploring in labs throughout the world. These lessons will empower teachers and students to explore and be part of solving persistent real-world challenges.Learn the fundamentals of biodesign and DNA engineeringExplore important ethical issues raised by examples of synthetic biologyInvestigate the BioBuilder labs that probe the design-build-test cycleTest synthetic living systems designed and built by engineersMeasure several variants of an enzyme-generating genetic circuitModel "bacterial photography" that changes a strain’s light sensitivityBuild living systems to produce purple or green pigmentOptimize baker’s yeast to produce ?-carotene
* Thoroughly revised and expanded by over 30% with 3400 new entries
* Expanded coverage of areas greatly impacted by genomics
* Includes new terms that relate to the recent elucidation of underlying mechanisms of cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, relationship between mitochondria and disease, metabolic control, and stem cell biology
* Consistently provides the most complete short definitions of technical terminology for anyone working in life sciences today
* Extensively cross-referenced
* Provides multiple definitions, notes on word origins, and other useful features
The latest developments in the field are included and key concepts introduced in a user-friendly way to ensure that students are able to grasp the essentials before moving on to more advanced study and analysis of proteins.
An invaluable resource for students of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Medicine and Chemistry providing a modern approach to the subject of Proteins.
The book is professionally illustrated in four color throughout with beautiful artwork which by itself distinguish the title from any comparable title.
Author Sebastian Enfield had it all. A loving family, an up-and-coming career at a Fortune 500 company, good friends and an active social life. He was living the proverbial American dream. Until, that is, his life was sidetracked when he became addicted to painkillers. It all started with far-too-easy online purchases of narcotic pills, and eventually Sebastian “graduated” to heroin. As with most addicts, as his opiate habit developed his life began to unravel. Family, friends and career became less and less important. Maintaining his expensive addiction became the most important priority each day. But when a winter blizzard came one December and “his guy” stopped returning his phone calls, Sebastian knew another kind of storm was heading his way. Withdrawal. He suffered in bed for a few days before his dealer finally returned his calls and delivered the goods. But this was the final turning point. After all he had gone through, Sebastian knew things couldn’t continue like this. So he made arrangements to visit a Suboxone-prescribing doctor, and very shortly thereafter, he was finally on the long road to recovery.
But while being treated with Suboxone, Sebastian had some anxieties and a lot of questions. “How long should I really be on this stuff? Should I try to taper off or not? And if so, how do you do it so as to minimize any discomfort? What other things should I be doing to aid in my recovery?” He looked to the Internet for answers, but what he found was a lot of contradictory information, posts from people claiming that “this stuff is even worse than what I was on before!”, and even disagreement among doctors and other health professionals with regard to Suboxone treatment protocols. Sebastian suspected that if he found all this confusing, there were probably many others in the same boat.
And so, he set out to investigate all of this, and to write a book that explained his findings in clear and simple terms. Sebastian spoke with various doctors, Suboxone patients and therapists, and synthesized their views and opinions, along with his own experiences, into a book of tips and suggestions that would help doctors and patients best approach buprenorphine treatment.
Sebastian begins with his own compelling story, where he details the life journey that ultimately led to drug addiction. He then presents several suggestions and tips that cover a wide range of questions he knew Suboxone patients had. The book covers a variety of topics, such as how to best select a doctor, how to approach counseling (and whether you really need counseling), how to taper off the medication with minimal discomfort (and whether you even should taper off the medication), resources that may help with paying for treatment, and a variety of “lifestyle hacks” Sebastian found to be useful while being treated. Sebastian lays all of this out clearly, and provides a positive and motivating read that will help patients understand that treatment with buprenorphine need not be a scary and uncertain thing. On the contrary, it can be a constructive part of recovery from opiate addiction. As he put it, “This is the book I wish I had when I began buprenorphine treatment.”
Stem Cell Research For Dummies offers a balanced, plain-English look at this politically charged topic, cutting away the hype and presenting the facts clearly for you, free from debate. It explains what stem cells are and what they do, the legalities of harvesting them and using them in research, the latest research findings from the U.S. and abroad, and the prospects for medical stem cell therapies in the short and long term.Explains the differences between adult stem cells and embryonic/umbilical cord stem cells Provides both sides of the political debate and the pros and cons of each side's opinions Includes medical success stories using stem cell therapy and its promise for the future
Comprehensive and unbiased, Stem Cell Research For Dummies is the only guide you need to understand this volatile issue.
Includes New and Updated Material
Now in its second edition, this work is the culmination of research and discussions with technical experts, as well as USP and FDA representatives on various topics of interest to the pharmaceutical microbiologist and those responsible for the microbial quality of products, materials, equipment, and manufacturing facilities. New in this edition is an entire chapter dedicated to the topic of biofilms and their impact on pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical operations. The subject of rapid methods in microbiology has been expanded and includes a discussion on the validation of alternative microbiological methods and a case study on microbial identification in support of a product contamination investigation.
Substantially updated and revised, this book assists readers in understanding the fundamental issues associated with pharmaceutical microbiology and provides them with tools to create effective microbial contamination control and microbial testing programs for the areas under their responsibility.
All of the core bioscience laboratory techniques are covered including: basic calculations and the preparation of solutions; aseptic techniques; microscopy techniques; cell fractionation ; spectrophotometry; chromatography of small and large molecules: electrophoresis of proteins and nucleic acids and data analysis. In addition the book includes clear, relevant diagrams and worked examples of calculations.
In short, this is a 'must-have' for all first year bioscience students struggling to get to grips with this vitally important element of their course.
This book provides a comprehensive guide to the methodology involved in the development of cell lines and the cell engineering approach that can be employed to enhance productivity, improve cell function, glycosylation and secretion and control apoptosis. It presents an overall picture of the current topics central to expression engineering including such topics as epigenetics and the use of technologies to overcome positional dependent inactivation, the use of promoter and enhancer sequences for expression of various transgenes, site directed engineering of defined chromosomal sites, and examination of the role of eukaryotic nucleus as the controller of expression of genes that are introduced for production of a desired product. It includes a review of selection methods for high producers and an application developed by a major biopharmaceutical industry to expedite the cell line development process. The potential of cell engineering approch to enhance cell lines through the manipulation of single genes that play important roles in key metabolic and regulatory pathways is also explored throughout.
Contributions come from leading voices in the field, including: - Shinya Yamanaka, Recipient of the 2012 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, Recipient of the 2012 Millennium Technology Prize, Professor and Director of the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application at Kyoto University, Senior Investigator at the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, L.K. Whittier Foundation Investigator in Stem Cell Biology and Professor at the University of California, San Francisco - George Q. Daley, Samuel E. Lux IV Professor of Hematology/Oncology at Harvard Medical School and Director for the Stem Cell Transplantation Program at Boston Children’s Hospital - Irving Weissman, Member of National Academy of Sciences, Virgina & D.K Ludwig Professor for Clinical Investigation in Cancer Research, and Director for Institute of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine at Stanford University of Medicine
Cell Press Reviews: Stem Cells to Model and Treat Disease is part of the Cell Press Reviews series, which features reviews published in Cell Press primary research and Trends reviews journals.Provides timely overviews on a wide range of stem cell applicationsOffers insight from experts on the key opportunities and challenges facing the fieldFeatures reviews on genetic, cellular, and molecular aspects of stem-cell-based applicationsIncludes articles originally published in Cell, Cell Stem Cell, Neuron, Trends in Molecular Medicine, and Trends in Biotechnology
DMSO is a natural chemical compound derived from trees as a by-product from paper manufacturing. DMSO has been called a new medical principle and a true wonder drug. It has proven effective, either by itself or in combination with other products in the treatment of nearly every ailment known.
There has been much controversy about DMSO over the last 50 years. It is one of the most studied medical products ever. Thousands of scientific articles have been written about DMSO. When used properly it is one of the safest products know. It is also very cheap to produce.
This book provides the documentation needed to show that DMSO is probably the most important product ever for the relief of human suffering.
******Archie is quite clearly a leading authorithy on DMSO. He has extensive knowledge and experience regarding the clinical benefits of DMSO treatment. For decades, Archie has studied and worked with DMSO. He understands the safety, utility and efficaciousness of DMSO. I highly recommend this book for anyone interested in health, especially for those who want to learn more about non toxic medical therapies. For individuals with certain health ailments, DMSO could prove quite benefical. -Daniel Junck, MD
This could be a description of a human army. It happens, however, to be a description of an army of cancer cells. Most of us shrink from describing bacteria and other microorganisms as intelligent. Neurosurgeon Frank Vertosick does not. And perhaps, when you finish reading MIND: A UNIFIED THEORY OF LIFE AND INTELLIGENCE, you will not either.
What is intelligence? We define it in human terms, but are humans the only measure? We ascribe it to higher mammals and to social insects like bees and ants, but when we cross the threshold into cellular life, definitions blur. This revolutionary–but accessible and highly entertaining–exploration of intelligence is guaranteed to alter your appreciation of life on its most fundamental level.
Frank T. Vertosick, J.R., M.D. is the author of WHEN AIR HITS YOUR BRAIN and WHY WE HURT: THE NATURAL HISTORY OF PAIN
(Originally published as THE GENIUS WITHIN)
Life is the most extraordinary phenomenon in the known universe; but how did it come to be? Even in an age of cloning and artificial biology, the remarkable truth remains: nobody has ever made anything living entirely out of dead material. Life remains the only way to make life. Are we still missing a vital ingredient in its creation?
Like Richard Dawkins' The Selfish Gene, which provided a new perspective on how evolution works, Life on the Edge alters our understanding of our world's fundamental dynamics. Bringing together first-hand experience at the cutting edge of science with unparalleled gifts of explanation, Jim Al-Khalili and Johnjoe Macfadden reveal that missing ingredient to be quantum mechanics; the phenomena that lie at the heart of this most mysterious of sciences.
Drawing on recent ground-breaking experiments around the world, each chapter in Life on the Edge engages by illustrating one of life's puzzles: How do migrating birds know where to go? How do we really smell the scent of a rose? How do our genes copy themselves with such precision? Life on the Edge accessibly reveals how quantum mechanics can answer these probing questions of the universe.
Guiding the reader through the rapidly unfolding discoveries of the last few years, Al-Khalili and McFadden communicate the excitement of the explosive new field of quantum biology and its potentially revolutionary applications, while offering insights into the biggest puzzle of all: what is life? As they brilliantly demonstrate in these groundbreaking pages, life exists on the quantum edge.
– Winner, Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication
Kratom and Other Mitragynines: The Chemistry and Pharmacology of Opioids from a Non-Opium Sourcepresents an introduction to the chemical and biological properties of alkaloids isolated from M. speciosa as well as their synthetic analogs. The book covers various topics including phytochemistry, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacology. Current research, analgesic effects, and addiction potential are also discussed. As the first extensive text on the basic science and clinical use of Kratom, the book provides readers with a concise yet comprehensive introduction to nature’s "other opioid."